Communication Skills


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Communication Skills

  1. 1. Communication Skills
  2. 2. Concepts <ul><li>Words Mean Different Things to Different People. </li></ul><ul><li>The Initiation of a Message Provides No Assurance It Has Been Received. </li></ul><ul><li>Communications Often Become Distorted as They Are Transmitted. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why is Communication Important? <ul><li>Everything a manager does involves communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication skills can lead to problems for the manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication of content </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive communication </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communication of Content <ul><li>Channel choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third party </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Supportive Communication <ul><li>A focus on processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching: giving advice, direction or information to improve performance… focus on abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Counselling: helping the person understand and resolve a problem themselves by displaying understanding… focus on attitudes </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Is the Interpersonal Communication Process? <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exhibit 3-1: The Communication Process Model
  8. 8. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills <ul><li>Avoid Barriers to Communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Send Understandable Messages: Effective communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively Listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize Non-verbal Signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Give and Solicit Meaningful Feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt to Diversity of Communication Styles… try multiple channels </li></ul>
  9. 9. What Are the Barriers To Communication? <ul><li>Frames of Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Value Judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Distrust </li></ul>
  10. 10. Attributes of effective communication <ul><li>Problem oriented not person oriented </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t like the way you dress for work.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You are not very professional.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Attributes of effective communication <ul><li>Congruence versus incongruence </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatch between what one feels/thinks and what one says </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m disappointed that we didn’t reach our target and that we aren’t getting our bonuses.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Attributes of effective communication <ul><li>Descriptive versus evaluative </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid judgment </li></ul><ul><li>How: </li></ul><ul><li>describe objectively; </li></ul><ul><li>focus on the behaviour and your reaction not the other’s attributes; </li></ul><ul><li>focus on solutions </li></ul><ul><li>“ You screwed up” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Attributes of effective communication <ul><li>Invalidation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indifference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impervious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respectful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two way communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify areas of agreement </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Attributes of effective communication <ul><li>specific not global </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ you never ask for my advice” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You are lazy” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Attributes of effective communication <ul><li>Conjunctive not disjunctive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of equal opportunity to speak? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended pauses? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who controls the flow? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A continuum… </li></ul>
  16. 16. Attributes of effective communication <ul><li>Owned not disowned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of “I statements” not “you or other statements” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I’ve heard that you…” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Attributes of effective communication <ul><li>Two way not one way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening by responding </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Exhibit 3-2: Guides for Giving and Receiving Feedback <ul><li>Criteria for Giving Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your comments are intended to help recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak directly and with feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what the person is doing and the effect the person is having. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be threatening or judgmental. </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific, not general (use clear and recent examples). </li></ul><ul><li>Give feedback when the recipient is open to accepting it. </li></ul><ul><li>Check to ensure the validity of your statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Include only things the receiver can do something about. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overwhelm the person with more than can be handled. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Exhibit 3-2: Guides for Giving and Receiving Feedback (continued) <ul><li>Criteria for Receiving Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be defensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek specific examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure you understand (summarize). </li></ul><ul><li>Share your feelings about the comments. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Check out underlying assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sensitive to sender’s nonverbal messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions to clarify. </li></ul>
  20. 20. How Do You Receive and Understand Messages Accurately? <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. How Can You Utilize Nonverbal Cues? <ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal </li></ul><ul><li>Time and Space </li></ul>
  22. 22. Exhibit 3.3: Means of Nonverbal Communication Components Examples Meanings Communicated Image Clothing, hygiene Values, competence Facial Expressions Frown, smile, sneer Unexpressed feelings Eye Movements Looking away, staring Intentions, state of mind Posture Leaning in, slumped Attitude Gestures Handshake, wave Intentions, feelings VISUAL Touch Pat on the back Approval Gentle touch on an arm Support and concern TACTILE
  23. 23. Exhibit 3.3: Means of Nonverbal Communication (continued) Components Examples Meanings Communicated How things are said Loudness, pitch, rate Different meanings, e.g. Vocal intonations Rhythm, pitch, clarity Sarcasm, disapproval VOCAL SPACIAL Body closeness 0 – 2 feet Feelings of intimacy Furniture arrangement Large pieces far apart Formal and serious
  24. 24. <ul><li>Differences in Communication Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Socializer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Thinker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Relater </li></ul></ul>How Can You Adapt to Diversity of Communication Styles?
  25. 25. Cultural Differences
  26. 26. Gender Differences
  27. 27. How Can You Facilitate Communication with Diversity? <ul><li>Assume Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize Description </li></ul><ul><li>Empathize </li></ul><ul><li>Treat Interpretations as Guesses </li></ul>