S Teacher’s notes: The Aztecs created more useable land by filling in marshlands and swamps. They created even more by building dikes to hold back the water.
Inca: South American Indians ruled Tawantinsuyu (Incan name of empire) that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern border of modern Ecuador to Maule River in central Chile
Polytheistic religion - Pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god , also included Viracocha-a creator god and culture hero , Apu Illapu-rain god , special attendants “chosen women” People offered food, clothing, drink to guardian spirits; gods linked to forces of nature; each month own festival
Polytheistic Religion corn god)• Olmec (Jaguar rain god, fire and• Aztec (1,000 gods, sun god most important – Calendar told them when to celebrate• Mayan (160 gods, sun, moon, rain and corn) – Ceremonies such as ball game – Sacrifice animals and people to the gods
Spanish Conquest• Spanish Conquistadors (conquerors) conquered most of South America and much of North America. Disease, native allies and superior weapons helped – Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs – Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Inca
Pyramids• The Olmec, Maya and Aztec all used pyramids for religious ceremonies. On top, you were closer to the gods. – Priests not kings were on top. – Aztecs would sacrifice humans on top of their sun pyramid.
Calendar/Astronom y• Mayans used calendar to know when to plant and harvest. They marked dates and made predictions (ie 2012)• The Aztec Calendar did the same but, it also told them when to have their religious ceremonies.
Priests, Noble, Farmers • Priests in all cultures were in charge of the ceremonies that brought rain, sun, harvest and good luck. Often, they were the only ones who could read. • Nobles were the powerful leaders: kings, warrior and rich. • Farmers were often slaves or poor peasants who could be nothing else but a farmer.
The OlmecSculpture Legacy • Considered the Mother Culture that affected all cultures. - glyph writing (pictures) -Pyramids -Large sculptures -Worshipped sun and rain gods. • 3,000 Years old.
Mayan Class Structure Class Structure • Ruling class (kings) • Nobility (scholars, architects, priests, merchants) • Peasants (warriors and farmers) • Slaves (captured enemies)
Mayans (500 bc-1500 ad) AchievementsMoon Pyramid • Codex a book that used glyphs for writing. • Built 40 large cities and the largest pyramid outside of Egypt. • Great mathematicians, astronomers and calendar makers.
Accomplishments • Terraces • The number zeroThe Maya • Brain Surgery • Chasqui • 200,000 Man Army • 40 large cities • 12 Million subjects • Accurate calendar
Accomplishments Numeric SystemTerraced Farming with the # 0