Aztec and Mayan civilizations


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Aztec mayan civilizations

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  • S Teacher’s notes: The Aztecs created more useable land by filling in marshlands and swamps. They created even more by building dikes to hold back the water.
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  • Inca: South American Indians ruled Tawantinsuyu (Incan name of empire) that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern border of modern Ecuador to Maule River in central Chile
  • Polytheistic religion - Pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god , also included Viracocha-a creator god and culture hero , Apu Illapu-rain god , special attendants “chosen women” People offered food, clothing, drink to guardian spirits; gods linked to forces of nature; each month own festival
  • Aztec and Mayan civilizations

    1. 1. Ancient civilizations of the Americas
    2. 2. Farming Techniques• Slash-and-burn• Chinampas• Irrigation• Terraces
    3. 3. Polytheistic Religion corn god)• Olmec (Jaguar rain god, fire and• Aztec (1,000 gods, sun god most important – Calendar told them when to celebrate• Mayan (160 gods, sun, moon, rain and corn) – Ceremonies such as ball game – Sacrifice animals and people to the gods
    4. 4. Spanish Conquest• Spanish Conquistadors (conquerors) conquered most of South America and much of North America. Disease, native allies and superior weapons helped – Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs – Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Inca
    5. 5. Pyramids• The Olmec, Maya and Aztec all used pyramids for religious ceremonies. On top, you were closer to the gods. – Priests not kings were on top. – Aztecs would sacrifice humans on top of their sun pyramid.
    6. 6. Calendar/Astronom y• Mayans used calendar to know when to plant and harvest. They marked dates and made predictions (ie 2012)• The Aztec Calendar did the same but, it also told them when to have their religious ceremonies.
    7. 7. Priests, Noble, Farmers • Priests in all cultures were in charge of the ceremonies that brought rain, sun, harvest and good luck. Often, they were the only ones who could read. • Nobles were the powerful leaders: kings, warrior and rich. • Farmers were often slaves or poor peasants who could be nothing else but a farmer.
    8. 8. The OlmecSculpture Legacy • Considered the Mother Culture that affected all cultures. - glyph writing (pictures) -Pyramids -Large sculptures -Worshipped sun and rain gods. • 3,000 Years old.
    9. 9. Mayan Empire
    10. 10. Mayan Class Structure Class Structure • Ruling class (kings) • Nobility (scholars, architects, priests, merchants) • Peasants (warriors and farmers) • Slaves (captured enemies)
    11. 11. Mayans (500 bc-1500 ad) AchievementsMoon Pyramid • Codex a book that used glyphs for writing. • Built 40 large cities and the largest pyramid outside of Egypt. • Great mathematicians, astronomers and calendar makers.
    12. 12. Accomplishments • Terraces • The number zeroThe Maya • Brain Surgery • Chasqui • 200,000 Man Army • 40 large cities • 12 Million subjects • Accurate calendar
    13. 13. Accomplishments Numeric SystemTerraced Farming with the # 0
    14. 14. AccomplishmentsMayan Calendar 40 Large Cities
    15. 15. Which One is Mayan?Wrote Codex Books Wrote w/ Quipus
    16. 16. Which one is Mayan? Chinampas Large Pyramids
    17. 17. Which is Mayan?Ball Game Canals
    18. 18. Which one is Mayan?Massive Sculptures Irrigation
    19. 19. Mayans and Aztecs
    20. 20. TheAwesome Aztecs
    21. 21. Introduction•For the first 200 years, the Aztecswere constantly on the move.•They came from Aztlan(somewhere in the north)•Sun and war god told them tosettle where they saw an eagle ona cactus.
    22. 22. Aztecs
    23. 23. Settlementthe Aztecs settled on an island in LakeTexcoco.Their city was called TenochtitlanThey built canoes so they could fish, huntwaterfowl, and trade.
    24. 24. Empire • 12 million people lived in the Aztec empire • Aztecs became rich off of tribute (a tax on conquered people)
    25. 25. Religion • Calendar told when to farm, and what ceremonies to use. • Gods were agriculture gods. • For a good harvest it was important to have a sacrifice.
    26. 26. Religion
    27. 27. Floating Gardens To survive on an island in a lake, the Aztecs made floating gardens called chinampas.
    28. 28. Free School for EveryoneThe Aztecs were the only people tohave free schools that every child hadto attend.They read and studied codices (acodex but more advanced)
    29. 29. All-Girls School Girls learned about religion and were trained to be good wives and mothers. They also learned how to make beautiful woven textiles.
    30. 30. Spanish ConquestCortez and Montezuma • Cortez defeats Montezuma II with the help of: • disease • Indian allies • Superior weapons • Aztec’s believed he was a god.
    31. 31. Temple to Church
    32. 32. TheIncaempIre
    33. 33. The Inca
    34. 34. GovernInG an empIre• Divided empire up into family groups• Make everyone learn the Quechua language• The conquered were allowed to follow their traditional ways
    35. 35. in theEmpire• Used terraces on mountain sides.• Used irrigation• Llamas for food, wool and packing• Chasquis• Huge road system
    36. 36. Inca Army• 200,000 manarmy•Army wasmainlycommonerswho had tojoin duringtimes of war
    37. 37. WrITInG Quipu • The allowed for excellent government records: taxes, trade… • They could be used to send messages • Some were used to preserve their history and legends.
    38. 38. Roads• 14,000 miles ofRoads.Built bridges, tunnels,Steps, and flat roads
    39. 39. Medical Advances • Brain surgery • Medicine • Blood transfusions • Quinine: for fevers.
    40. 40. Mesoamerica
    41. 41. Yucatan Peninsula
    42. 42. Slash-and-burn Agriculture
    43. 43. The Olmec/Mother Culture
    44. 44. Glyphs
    45. 45. Maya
    46. 46. Codex
    47. 47. Tenochtitlan
    48. 48. Montezuma II
    49. 49. Hernan Cortes
    50. 50. Quipu
    51. 51. TheChasqui
    52. 52. Francisco Pizarro
    53. 53. Chinampas
    54. 54. Conquistadors