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Ecology of Street Dogs, Rabies                                        and                    Population MonitoringJ.F.Reec...
•   Street dogs•   Neighbourhood dogs•   Community dogs•   Free-roaming dogs•   Street pets•   Feral dogs
• Unconfined, totally;  partially• Dependent; semi-  dependent; not  dependent
Why do we want to control dog             populations?•   Improve Dog Welfare•   Control Rabies and other zoonoses•   Cont...
• To do this effectively we need to:  – Understand something of the dogs’ biology,    behaviour and ecology  – Monitor the...
Street dog ecology•   How many?•   Breeding season?•   Litter size?•   Territory size?•   Longevity•   Sex Ratio?•   Diet?
How Many?• Total size of population is unimportant• Effects of control measures are important• Total population size very ...
Use Index of Abundance Surveys
Index of Abundance Surveys               Pink City Population Survey Nov2012200018001600140012001000                      ...
Breeding behaviour/litter size• Data readily available• All you need to do is monitor your  programme• In Jaipur average l...
From: A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities inRajasthan, India BMC Veterinar...
From: Timing of Oestrus and reproductive behaviour in Indian street dogs. Veterinary Record (2002) 150450-451 Chawla, S.C....
Territory Size/ Longevity• Individually mark dogs
Territory Size/ Longevity• Then if/when recapture will know when  and where released.• From this can calculate Longevity• ...
Rabies• Public Health is main ‘selling’ point for  dog control• Bites from Rabid Dogs cause 95+% of all  human rabies case...
Rabies• Help correct this deficiency  – Monitor diagnosis of rabies cases  – Take samples and send to Veterinary College  ...
1. Is the dog more than 1 month old?                                                                                      ...
Rabies sampling                  •   Samples can be                      stored in 50%                      glycerol-     ...
Conclusions• Monitor everything  – To prove your successes to funders, supporters and    detractors;  – Identify weaknesse...
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NDWC Chennai 2013 - Ecology of Stret Dogs, Rabies and Population Managemen…

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NDWC Chennai 2013 - Ecology of Stret Dogs, Rabies and Population Managemen…

  1. 1. Ecology of Street Dogs, Rabies and Population MonitoringJ.F.Reece, B.Sc., B.V.Sc., M.R.C.V.S.Help in Suffering,Maharani Farm,Durgapura, Jaipur 302018,Rajasthan, INDIAjack@his-india.in
  2. 2. • Street dogs• Neighbourhood dogs• Community dogs• Free-roaming dogs• Street pets• Feral dogs
  3. 3. • Unconfined, totally; partially• Dependent; semi- dependent; not dependent
  4. 4. Why do we want to control dog populations?• Improve Dog Welfare• Control Rabies and other zoonoses• Control other perceived nuisances- dog bites, noise, pollution, road accidents
  5. 5. • To do this effectively we need to: – Understand something of the dogs’ biology, behaviour and ecology – Monitor the effects of the control measures
  6. 6. Street dog ecology• How many?• Breeding season?• Litter size?• Territory size?• Longevity• Sex Ratio?• Diet?
  7. 7. How Many?• Total size of population is unimportant• Effects of control measures are important• Total population size very difficult to estimate• Effects of control measures much easier to measure
  8. 8. Use Index of Abundance Surveys
  9. 9. Index of Abundance Surveys Pink City Population Survey Nov2012200018001600140012001000 Series1 800 600 400 200 0 Dat e o f S urv ey
  10. 10. Breeding behaviour/litter size• Data readily available• All you need to do is monitor your programme• In Jaipur average litter size was 5.62 pups/litter (n=398 litters)
  11. 11. From: A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities inRajasthan, India BMC Veterinary Research (2011) 7:46http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/7/46 Hiby,L.R, Reece, J.F., Wright,R., Jaisinghani,R.,Singh, B,. Hiby,E.F.
  12. 12. From: Timing of Oestrus and reproductive behaviour in Indian street dogs. Veterinary Record (2002) 150450-451 Chawla, S.C., Reece, J.F.
  13. 13. Territory Size/ Longevity• Individually mark dogs
  14. 14. Territory Size/ Longevity• Then if/when recapture will know when and where released.• From this can calculate Longevity• In Jaipur for spayed female lifespan is 3.8 years
  15. 15. Rabies• Public Health is main ‘selling’ point for dog control• Bites from Rabid Dogs cause 95+% of all human rabies cases• Scarcity of data on dog rabies in India
  16. 16. Rabies• Help correct this deficiency – Monitor diagnosis of rabies cases – Take samples and send to Veterinary College Bangalore
  17. 17. 1. Is the dog more than 1 month old? No Adapted from Yes Tepsumethanon,V. et al. J.Med.Assoc.Thai2. Has the dog been sick less than 10 days? (2005) 88 419-422 No (or is normal) Yes (or Not Known)3. Did the illness develop gradually? No (Acute onset) Yes (or Not Known)4. Are the symptoms progressing? No (Stable or improving) Not Rabies Yes (or Not Known) No (Dog circling or blind) 5. Is the dog NOT circling or blind? Yes (or Not Known)6. Does the dog show 2 or more of these signs? No Drooping Jaw; Drooping dry tongue Abnormal sound barking Licking own urine; Abnormal licking of water Yes Regurgitation; Biting/chewing at odd objects Biting with no provocation; Aggression; RABIES Abnormal behaviour; Restlessness, Appears sleepy Running with no purpose; Stiffness on walking/running Imbalance of gait; dog sitting posture
  18. 18. Rabies sampling • Samples can be stored in 50% glycerol- phosphate buffered saline
  19. 19. Conclusions• Monitor everything – To prove your successes to funders, supporters and detractors; – Identify weaknesses to improve performance and effectiveness – Gather dog ecological data and rabies epidemiological data – Monitoring is not difficult and is as essential as sterility, clinical competence etc
  20. 20. THANK YOU

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