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Animal Welfare and
Quality of life
Some thoughts and ideas to promote
the improvement of animal welfare
in our organisatio...
How do we perceive animals?
• From Aristotle to Darwin to your individual
beliefs………..
• Aristotle's views influenced view...
Who put the cat amongst the pigeons?
Darwin challenged many previous
thoughts on animals
• Where they came from
• How they survive
• What their needs were
• Wh...
So why do we still treat animals
poorly?
• When an idea or belief has been around for a
long time it is hard to extinguish...
Beliefs come from different but
essentially popular sources
Does it make a difference how they
are trained? Surely it is only
important that they are trained!

or
Blackwell et al 2008
• Behaviours that owners find problematic are
widespread in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)
population (Voith et al.,1...
• So education to the dog owning
public is still a very important tool to
improve animal welfare.
• If better training met...
Jeremy Bentham(1748-1832)

• The question is not, can they
reason: nor, can they talk, but
• can they suffer?
How do we know when they are
suffering if they can’t communicate?
• We must understand the animals ethology
• We must be a...
Questions we need to try and answer
• Are all dogs needs the same?
• Is there one environment that suits all dogs?
• What ...
Where to start
• There are a number of methods that
have been used to assess welfare in
the past; Bramble’s 5 freedoms are...
• 1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst - by ready access
to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and
vigour.
• 2. F...
Freedom from Hunger and Thirst
• “The dogs have plenty of food”
• How, when, where, how often, how much,
what there fed al...
Freedom from Discomfort
• Ask yourself what makes you feel
uncomfortable.
• Beds, temperature regulation, noise, clean
res...
Is this ok??
So why is this??
Freedom from Pain
• This in theory should be the easiest thing to
do.
• Good veterinary care is essential for good
welfare...
Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour
Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour
• Ethology
• Do the research
• Have a good understanding of what your dogs
needs are.
Freedom from Fear and Distress
• Possibly the hardest to achieve.
• Arguably the most important of the five.
• Understand ...
How to improve welfare
• First thing to do is never say it is good enough!
• Second thing to do is identify achievable goa...
How to improve welfare
• We need to be able to identify both above and
below basic welfare
• We need trained people to ide...
Individual welfare scores
• To be completed by 2-3 carers
• Aims to identify areas to work on
• Can be used as a tool to c...
Welfare Assessment
Always think to yourself when filling in this
assessment how this dog would fit into your
own family li...
Section One - Home-ability
Description

Best

0

1

2

3

4

5

x

Worst

Home-ability

Excellent

No

Known person direct...
Section Two - Dog to Dog Interactions
Description

0

1

2

3

4

5

x

Sociability with other dogs?

All dogs

Can the do...
Section Three - Human Interactions
Description

0

Best

Physical Handling

Excellent

Does the dog initiate contact

Alwa...
Section Four - Manageability in Kennels
0

Description

1

2

3

4

5

Reactive entering or leaving kennel?

Low

x

High
...
Section Five - Stress Levels
0

Description

1

2

3

4

5

Is the dog calm in the kennel?

Yes

x

No

Visible signs of s...
Totals
Section Score
Section

0

1

2

3

4

5

48

Home-ability

41

Dog – Dog Interactions

10

Human Interactions

46

...
Observational welfare assessment
• A simple walk around the shelter on a weekly
basis can help identify areas of poor welf...
Can assessing the welfare of
individuals tell us about the shelter?
• 100 dogs
• 15 cases of stereotypy
• 10 cases of shut...
Welfare Audit
• Fill in the welfare audit by marking one circle on
each question.

•
•
•
•

Within this welfare audit ther...
• The top mark for this audit would be 45 the
worst would be 135 and an average 90.
Although this audit may give an overal...
Kennel floor space (ref 1)
1. Larger than the dimensions indicated in category 2.

2.Small dogs (less than 12kg (26lbs) – ...
Access to water

1. As for 2 with the addition of water presented in a
variety of options as per the individuals needs.
2....
Kennel temperature regulation
1. Individually controlled, to change temperatue for individual housed in the kennel

2.Adju...
Each dog is trying to tell us how they feel
Are we listening?
• Some people say that dogs understand us
better than we understand them?
• This is a difficult subject to cover but vital...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cg1Y_2AvS3c
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
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ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward

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ICAWC 2013, Barcelona, Spain - Steve Goward's presentation on Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life

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ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward

  1. 1. Animal Welfare and Quality of life Some thoughts and ideas to promote the improvement of animal welfare in our organisations.
  2. 2. How do we perceive animals? • From Aristotle to Darwin to your individual beliefs……….. • Aristotle's views influenced views for hundreds of years. • Other great thinkers of the time did not share Aristotle's views that we could treat animals as we like.
  3. 3. Who put the cat amongst the pigeons?
  4. 4. Darwin challenged many previous thoughts on animals • Where they came from • How they survive • What their needs were • What drives them to pass on their genes
  5. 5. So why do we still treat animals poorly? • When an idea or belief has been around for a long time it is hard to extinguish. • I equate this poor welfare of animals to the same problems I see with training methods employed by some trainers.
  6. 6. Beliefs come from different but essentially popular sources
  7. 7. Does it make a difference how they are trained? Surely it is only important that they are trained! or
  8. 8. Blackwell et al 2008
  9. 9. • Behaviours that owners find problematic are widespread in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) population (Voith et al.,1992; Wells and Hepper, 2000; Bradshaw et al., 2002; Kobelt et al., 2003; Hiby et al., 2004) • and are a common cause of dogs being abandoned, sent to re-homing centres, or euthanized (Bailey, 1992; Miller et al., 1996; Patronek et al., 1996; Serpell, 1996; Salman et al., 1998, 2000; Scarlett et al., 1999; New et al., 2000; Marston and Bennett, 2003; Shore et al., 2003; Mondelli et al., 2004; Shore, 2005).
  10. 10. • So education to the dog owning public is still a very important tool to improve animal welfare. • If better training methods are employed along with a greater understanding of the species there are likely to be less dogs handed over to shelters for behavioural reasons.
  11. 11. Jeremy Bentham(1748-1832) • The question is not, can they reason: nor, can they talk, but • can they suffer?
  12. 12. How do we know when they are suffering if they can’t communicate? • We must understand the animals ethology • We must be able to interpret their vocalisations and body language properly • We must appreciate the impact of denying them freedom to express certain behaviours • We must improve our knowledge and understanding of the species we are trying to help
  13. 13. Questions we need to try and answer • Are all dogs needs the same? • Is there one environment that suits all dogs? • What is an acceptable level of welfare?
  14. 14. Where to start • There are a number of methods that have been used to assess welfare in the past; Bramble’s 5 freedoms are always a good base to begin but there is much more information we are now aware of that helps us identify poor welfare.
  15. 15. • 1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst - by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour. • 2. Freedom from Discomfort - by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area. • 3. Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease - by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment. • 4. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour - by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal's own kind (if appropriate}. • 5. Freedom from Fear and Distress - by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering.
  16. 16. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst • “The dogs have plenty of food” • How, when, where, how often, how much, what there fed all can have an impact on quality of life. • Water bowls, troughs, containers.
  17. 17. Freedom from Discomfort • Ask yourself what makes you feel uncomfortable. • Beds, temperature regulation, noise, clean resting area. A place to feel safe • Choices make the difference here.
  18. 18. Is this ok??
  19. 19. So why is this??
  20. 20. Freedom from Pain • This in theory should be the easiest thing to do. • Good veterinary care is essential for good welfare.
  21. 21. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour
  22. 22. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour • Ethology • Do the research • Have a good understanding of what your dogs needs are.
  23. 23. Freedom from Fear and Distress • Possibly the hardest to achieve. • Arguably the most important of the five. • Understand what creates fear and distress in dogs.
  24. 24. How to improve welfare • First thing to do is never say it is good enough! • Second thing to do is identify achievable goals • Take ideas and knowledge from where ever you can get them and prioritise welfare and quality of life
  25. 25. How to improve welfare • We need to be able to identify both above and below basic welfare • We need trained people to identify areas that need to be improved and how to do it! • We need to understand the importance of quality over quantity
  26. 26. Individual welfare scores • To be completed by 2-3 carers • Aims to identify areas to work on • Can be used as a tool to corroborate euthanasia requests • Subjective
  27. 27. Welfare Assessment Always think to yourself when filling in this assessment how this dog would fit into your own family life? Would you consider living with this dog? Will this dog be able to live a full life in our shelter?
  28. 28. Section One - Home-ability Description Best 0 1 2 3 4 5 x Worst Home-ability Excellent No Known person directed aggression/reactivity Low Stranger directed aggression/reactivity Low x High Other animal directed aggression/reactivity Low x High Car Travel Excellent On leash aggression towards people Low x High On leash aggression towards dogs Low x High Muzzle Trained Yes x No Is the dog comfortable being alone Yes x High chase drive (cars, cyclists, joggers) Low Recall when off the lead Immediate x High x Poor x x High x Totals 0 2 6 No 20 20 Never 48
  29. 29. Section Two - Dog to Dog Interactions Description 0 1 2 3 4 5 x Sociability with other dogs? All dogs Can the dog share kennel space? Always x Never Will the dog eat safely around other dogs? Always x Never On lead meetings - calm Calm x Excitable On lead meetings - vocalisation Quiet x Excessive On lead meetings - aggression Never x Always On lead meetings - confident Confident Possessive/guarding towards other dogs Low Play Style Calm No dogs x x High x Totals 0 Worried 16 25 Rough 41
  30. 30. Section Three - Human Interactions Description 0 Best Physical Handling Excellent Does the dog initiate contact Always Impulse control Excellent Retrieving of toys Always Relinquishing of Toys Happy/Eager Interaction with the handler Excellent Possessiveness (Guarding) Low Play interaction with the handler Interactive Focus on handler with distraction Excellent Play Style Forgiving 1 2 x 5 Worst Never x None Never x x x Unwilling None x High Avoidant x x None Rough x 0 4 Impossible x Totals 3 4 6 10
  31. 31. Section Four - Manageability in Kennels 0 Description 1 2 3 4 5 Reactive entering or leaving kennel? Low x High Ease to remove the dog from its kennel? Easy x Impossible Is the dog calm when shut in? Calm Can the dog be taken off site safely Yes Placing a harness on the dog Easy Reactive when dogs pass the kennel Low Probability of redirection behaviours Low x High Placing a muzzle on the dog Easy x Impossible Risk to unfamiliar staff Low risk x High risk Reactivity on the lead Low Ease of placing a muzzle on Easy x Difficult Risk to volunteers Low risk x High risk Does the dog cope with routine change Copes well x Unable Resistance returning to kennel Low Stressed x x Impossible x x High x 0 3 High High x Totals No 2 3 28 10 46
  32. 32. Section Five - Stress Levels 0 Description 1 2 3 4 5 Is the dog calm in the kennel? Yes x No Visible signs of stress Minimal x Excessive Self Mutilation None x Excessive Stereotypies/OCD’s None x Excessive Tail chasing/spinning None x Excessive Vocalisation None Does the dog hide away Never Does the dog show obsessive behaviours Never Sleeping Normal Wall bouncing None Ability to settle Easy Appeasement behaviours Normal x Excessive Avoidance behaviours Normal x Excessive Toileting Normal x Abnormal New environments Copes well Time to recover from stressful situation Immediate Excessive x Always x x Always No Sleep x x Excessive Impossible x Unable x Hours/Days x Totals 0 3 6 9 8 0 26
  33. 33. Totals Section Score Section 0 1 2 3 4 5 48 Home-ability 41 Dog – Dog Interactions 10 Human Interactions 46 Manageability in Kennels 26 Stress Levels Totals Complete Total of all Section’s Columns 0 171
  34. 34. Observational welfare assessment • A simple walk around the shelter on a weekly basis can help identify areas of poor welfare • For people that work regularly at the shelter the noise and fights or lack of behaviour becomes normal • So education to all staff & volunteers on normal and abnormal behaviours is essential
  35. 35. Can assessing the welfare of individuals tell us about the shelter? • 100 dogs • 15 cases of stereotypy • 10 cases of shut down behaviour • 15 cases of veterinary shortfall • No enrichment
  36. 36. Welfare Audit • Fill in the welfare audit by marking one circle on each question. • • • • Within this welfare audit there are 45 questions. 1 = Above welfare standard 2 = Acceptable welfare standard 3= Below welfare standard
  37. 37. • The top mark for this audit would be 45 the worst would be 135 and an average 90. Although this audit may give an overall score rating for the welfare of dogs in the kennels, care is needed when interpreting these results as it is possible to get a “pass” of 90 yet many aspects of the audit may have scored poorly and some above average. The main use for this audit tool is to identify areas that could be improved.
  38. 38. Kennel floor space (ref 1) 1. Larger than the dimensions indicated in category 2. 2.Small dogs (less than 12kg (26lbs) – sleeping area not less than 1.1 sq m (12 sq feet), width and length not less than 0.9 m (3 feet). Adjoining exercise area not less than 3.7 sq m (40 sq feet), width not less than 0.9m (3 feet). 2.Medium dogs (12kg (26lbs) to 30kg (66lbs) – sleeping area not less than 1.4 sq m (16 sq feet), width and length not less than 1.2m (4 feet). Adjoining exercise area not less than 5.5 sq m (60 sq feet), width not less than 1.2 m (4 feet). 2.Large dogs (more than 30kg (66lbs)) – sleeping area not less than 1.4 sq m (16 sq feet), width and length not less than 1.2 m (4 feet). Adjoining exercise area not less than 7.4 sq m (80 sq feet), width not less than 1.2 m (4 feet). 3. Smaller than the dimensions indicated in category 2. Kennel temperature regulation 1. Individually controlled, to change temperatue for individual housed in the kennel 2.Adjustable to control temperature in the block of kennels 3.No ability to regulate temperature in the facility Material used for kennel 1. un-damaged, Fit for purpose, non porous, easy to clean & maintain 2.Un-damaged, fit for purpose 3.Damaged, dangerous & unable to clean Kennel drainage 1. Drainage for individual kennels to reduce cross contamination 2.Drainage for the whole block 3.No drainage Numbers of kennels Per block 1. Below 10 2.Between 10 & 20 3. Above20 Dogs per kennel(size of kennels & dogs dependant) 1. Varied due to size and temperament 2.From 1 to 4 dogs 3. social isolation or above 4 dogs Toileting options 1. Multiple opportunities to toilet away from the kennel, preference tested substrate within the kennel 2. Area away from the sleep and feeding area 3. No options to toilet away from sleep area and feeding area Kennel lighting (Ref 4) 1. Both natural and artificail light, with options to reduce and increase as required 2.When using artifical light it should closely mirror that of natural light in both intensity and duration 3.No lighting Kennel floor 1. Un-damaged, non porous, non slip & comfortable 2.Un-damaged, non porous 3.Damaged, porous & unable to clean Kennel weather resistance 1. adaptable shelter to meet the needes of individuals 2.Provides shade and shelter from the elements 3.No shelter from the elements Kennel noise level (Ref 2) 1. Effective sound proofing within the kennel environment and around the site. Noise levels maintained below 80dB 2. Some sound proofing between the kennels. Noise levels between 80 & 100dB 3. No sound proofing. Noise levels above 100dB Sleeping options 1. As for 2 but with options for types of bedding and area away from sources of stress 2. Dry, clean bedding away from the elements. 3. No bedding or wet dirty & exposed to the elements Kennel orientation 1. Variation of choices for the dog to enable self reguation of temperature 2. Not exposed to the elements 3. Exposure to the elements without the option to seek shelter
  39. 39. Access to water 1. As for 2 with the addition of water presented in a variety of options as per the individuals needs. 2. Access to clean fresh water. 3. Limited or no access to clean fresh water Feeding regime 1. As for 2 with the addition to be able to provide chewing material and variety in the dogs diet as neccessary. More than once per day. 2. Dogs fed sufficient to ensure good body condition. 3.Insufficient dietry needs met, unsafe feeding regime. Time away from kennel 1. As for 2 with multiple opportunities to express natural behaviours and interact with people and other dogs as appropriate. 2. The opportunity to exercise and express natural behaviours away from the kennel on a daily basis. 3. No opportunity to express natural behaviours away from the kennel. Kennel cleaning regime 1. As for 2 with attention paid to all items in the kennel and ability to remove dogs from the area being cleaned. 2. Estaablished cleaning regime using appropriate materials that are fit for purpose resulting in a clean and disinfected kennel. 3. No cleaning regime or incorrect use of materials and equipment. Behaviour in kennels 1. Calm, relaxed and living mostly without negative emotions. 2. Dogs coping with the environment and able to adapt. 3. Stereotypies, obsessive behaviours and frequent aggressive responses. Shut down behaviour with no ability to choose a behaviour Social interactions (human) 1. Repeated opportunities to interact and play whilst acting out natural behaviours creating a positive emotional state. 2. Opportunity to interact witht the emphasis on positive emotions on a daily basis. 3. No opportunities to interact with people or that the interactions induce a negative emotional state.
  40. 40. Kennel temperature regulation 1. Individually controlled, to change temperatue for individual housed in the kennel 2.Adjustable to control temperature in the block of kennels 3.No ability to regulate temperature in the facility Kenne
  41. 41. Each dog is trying to tell us how they feel
  42. 42. Are we listening?
  43. 43. • Some people say that dogs understand us better than we understand them? • This is a difficult subject to cover but vital that we work together to improve our animals quality of life wherever they are in the world
  44. 44. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cg1Y_2AvS3c

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