NDWC Chennai 2013 - Prevention & Control of Zoonotic Disease - Dr Shilpi Das
Prevention and control of zoonotic disease in companion animals Dr.Shilpi Das Deputy Asst Director National Centre for Disease Control Delhi Dr.Sashanka Sekhar Dutta Chief functionary-JBF-India Trust (Just be friendly)
ZoonosesAn infectious disease transmissible under natural conditionsbetween vertebrate animals and human beings “A dictionary of Epidemiology” 3rd edition ,1995 editied by John M.Last
Importance of Zoonoses1,415 microbes are infectious for humanOf these 868 (61%) are considered zoonotic.70% of newly recognized pathogens arezoonoses
Diseases that can be transmitted from animals to human Category DiseasesBacterial Salmonellosis, Brucellosis, Cat Scratch Disease,Leptospriosis,Lyme diseaseViral Rabies, Monkey Pox, Influenza,HendraFungal Dermatophytosis, Aspergillosis,sarcoptes ParasiticProtozoal Babesiosis,Leishmaniasis,ToxoplsmosisHelminth Toxocariasis, Hydatidosis,Cysticercosis
Maintaining personnel hygiene: Worms &Germs blogDF2-bacillus is found in about 8% of healthy dog.Pasterulla multocida is a common commensual of upperrespiratory tract of dogs (prevalence 12-55%) and cats(prevalence 52-90%).Hemophylus,streptococcous,Diphylidium caninum infection maybe transmitted by dogs.
Visit to DoctorConsult your physician May be fatal
Role of Veterinarian and Medicos in preventing zoonotic disease Diagnosis Surveillance & reporting Intersectoral coordination
Endemic zoonotic diseases of public health importance in India and its challengesDisease ChallengeRabies Surveillance Intersectoral coordinationBrucellosis Strengthening ofToxoplasmosis diagnostic facilities AwarenessCysticercosisEchinococcosFood borne zoonoses
Role of Govt agencies and NGOs in preventing zoonosesRegistration PetsIEC activitiesSetup of laboratoriesSurveillance and information sharingIntersectoral coordination
Existing Activities for Prevention & Control of Zoonotic Disease•Facilities for Diagnosis ---------- BSL 2, BSL 3, BSL4•Trained manpower development•National Programmes/Projects•Operational guidelines on prevention and control ofvarious diseases•Disease surveillance•Applied Research
Areas need to be strengthened•Assessment of Magnitude•Strengthening of diagnostic facilities•Strengthening intersectoral co-ordination•Strengthening emergency preparedness•Strengthening IEC, health education and riskeducation•Strengthening disease surveillance throughIDSP•Building Public Private Partnership•Collaborative research•Collaboration at national, regional andinternational level
Disease RabiesAcute progressive viral encephalomyelitis which can infect allmammals and is usually fatal.Case fatality rate highest of any infectious disease, 60,000 peopledie annually.The disease is caused by viral infection with a Lyssavirus
Worldwide more than 98 % of the human rabies deaths follow exposure INDIA Endemic except to a rabid dog! in Lakshadweep and Andaman. India accounts forAlthough rabies viruses are endemic on 36% of the Globalfive of seven continents, the geographic and 65% of thedistributions of the other lyssaviruses Asian humanare more localized: rabies deaths.
Epidemiology in IndiaReservoir•Major : Dog•Estimated dog population : 25 million•Majority : stray, un-owned and unprotectedAnimal bites•Estimated 17.4 million/ yr•No age or sex predilections•Higher incidence in children and males•30-50% PEP given to children 5-14 yrs
After replication in the brainBite of rabid animal Transmission Spread to peripheryMucus membrane & (salivary glands – excretion, other organs)exposureAerosols (bat caves, Pathogenesismishandling) Brain Transneuronal movement toward CNS Site of rabies infection
People at risk should take Pre exposure vaccination
Pre exposure prophylaxis of rabies vaccine DAY 0 7 28 Booster after 1yr Individual who have completed the pre exposure scheduleshould have to take 0 and 3 day of vaccine after bite without any serum. High exposure risk people should have there neutralizing antibody titre checked every 6 months
Principles of TreatmentWound treatment(It is a Medical urgency if not Emergency)Vaccination : Post exposure vaccination (I/M or I/Droute)Immunoglobulins/anti sera : Category III biteAdvice to patient
Govt initiative in control of Rabies in IndiaA pilot project was undertaken with the objective ofreducing mortality due to rabies in human . • Enhancing awareness • Training of health professionals • Operationalize ID route in selected centers • Strengthen diagnostic capabilities • Interface with animal husbandry department • Involvement of NGOs and Community Future activities: • Human component • Animal component
Function of Rabies laboratory(a)Provide laboratory facilities for the diagnosis ofrabies in animal and human post mortem specimensand antemortem specimens from hydrophobiacases.(b) Assessment of anti rabies antibodies in humansand animals vaccinated with different vaccines(assessment of vaccine efficacy).
Reservoir Vector Early clinical control Global Control recognition and Surveillance prompt Diagnostic intervention facilities Control of Zoonotic Infections Improved public Prudent HealthImmunizations Educat health antimicrobial ion infrastructure Intersectoral usage co-ordination Approaches to coping with zoonotic infections
The total benefit of having a companion is higherthan the fear of zoonotic disease . THANK YOU