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Dog Population Control: Animal Welfare Issues from a Developing Country’s Perspective S. Abdul Rahman Retd. Dean, Veterina...
Preamble <ul><li>WHO estimates dog population worldwide is 10% that of human population </li></ul><ul><li>Of these 75% can...
 
 
Size of the Problem <ul><li>With the spread of urbanisation, stray dogs are likely to increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes c...
The Stray Dog Population could consist of the following <ul><li>Owned dogs that have been accidentally lost </li></ul><ul>...
Sources of Stray Urban Dogs <ul><li>a. Irresponsible Animal Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>b. Uncontrolled Breeding within </...
Sources of Stray Urban Dogs  (contd..) <ul><li>a. Irresponsible Animal Ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing owned anim...
Sources of Stray Urban Dogs  (contd..) <ul><li>b. Uncontrolled Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Within Owned population and subs...
Sources of Stray Urban Dogs  (contd..) <ul><li>c. Carrying Capacity of the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identificatio...
Problems caused by Stray Dogs <ul><li>Zoonoses (e.g. rabies, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmenta...
Zoonosis – Rabies <ul><li>The increase in dog population has resulted in an increased incidence of dog bite cases. </li></...
 
Global Outputs – Deaths <ul><li>URBAN </li></ul><ul><li>India = 1,058 </li></ul><ul><li>China  = 1,324 </li></ul><ul><li>O...
Gist of WHO-APCRI Indian Rabies Survey, 2003-04: Need for Public Awareness and Professional Education + Initiation  ++ Int...
 
 
 
 
 
Rabies Vaccination in Owned and Stray Dogs <ul><li>Stray dog control programmes cannot be considered in isolation of rabie...
Animal Welfare Issues of Stray Dogs <ul><li>Lack of protection from adverse environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Insuff...
Dog Population Control Strategy <ul><li>a. Addressing the Sources of Stray Urban  Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>b. Current Stray ...
Dog Population Control Strategy  (contd..) <ul><li>a. Addressing the Sources of Stray Urban Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Selecti...
Dog Population Control Strategy  (contd..) <ul><li>b. Current Stray Population </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating the existing n...
Dog Population Control Strategy  (contd..) <ul><li>c. Control of Zoonosis </li></ul><ul><li>The most important aspect of d...
Identification of Animal Welfare issues created by  Dog Population Control Strategy <ul><li>The following were identified ...
Identification of Animal Welfare issues created by  Dog Population Control Strategy  (Contd.) <ul><li>Poor holding facilit...
Setting of OIE Standards <ul><li>World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) </li></ul><ul><li>Constituted a Working Group ...
Considerations for a Practical Stray Dog Population Control Programme <ul><li>Accurately assess the nature of the problem ...
Education: Promotion of Responsible Pet Ownership  <ul><li>The major challenge for a successful programme </li></ul><ul><l...
Responsible Pet Ownership <ul><li>Ensure the needs of the pet are provided for – Five Freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce th...
Garbage Collection <ul><li>Availability of food determines the population size </li></ul><ul><li>Poor hygiene of slaughter...
A Role for Feeding Stations?
Registration and Identification <ul><li>Basis for legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Allows instant differentiation of owned an...
Neutering of Owned Animals <ul><li>Aspect of responsible pet ownership </li></ul><ul><li>May be owner reluctance – especia...
Neutering of Stray Dogs <ul><li>Neutering prior to re-homing  </li></ul><ul><li>Neuter and release programmes for communit...
Commonwealth Veterinary  Association <ul><li>54 Member countries in 6 regions of the World </li></ul><ul><li>Principle Col...
Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India <ul><li>Neuter and Release Programme popularly known as Animal Birth Control (A...
Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India  (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>For many ye...
Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India  (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, He...
 
Coaxing a dog closer with a titbit prior to capture
Preparing to catch a street dog with the sack
The captured street dog is carefully lifted into the ambulance
 
 
Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India  (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Reported in...
 
 
Acknowledgements <ul><li>WSPA, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Cross of India, Chennai, India </li></ul><ul><li>Help In Sufferin...
Thank You
Questions ?
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Dog Population Control: Animal Welfare Issues from a Developing Country's Perspective - S. Abdul Rahman

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S. Abdul Rahman, Rtd. Dean, Veterinary College Bangalore, India, explains how animal welfare must be posed as a human problem (e.g. tackling rabies) to be addressed in a developing country.

For more information about this presentation and the International Companion Animal Welfare Conference, visit www.icawc.org (there is a summary of this session in the blog).

Published in: Lifestyle, Health & Medicine
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Dog Population Control: Animal Welfare Issues from a Developing Country's Perspective - S. Abdul Rahman

  1. 1. Dog Population Control: Animal Welfare Issues from a Developing Country’s Perspective S. Abdul Rahman Retd. Dean, Veterinary College, Bangalore, India Secretary Commonwealth Veterinary Association
  2. 2. Preamble <ul><li>WHO estimates dog population worldwide is 10% that of human population </li></ul><ul><li>Of these 75% can be regarded as ‘strays’ </li></ul><ul><li>India has a livestock population of 500 million out of which the dog population is approximately 22 million. </li></ul><ul><li>The stray dog population is around 80%. </li></ul>
  3. 5. Size of the Problem <ul><li>With the spread of urbanisation, stray dogs are likely to increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes concern about rabies and dog bite incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>In particular those involving children </li></ul>
  4. 6. The Stray Dog Population could consist of the following <ul><li>Owned dogs that have been accidentally lost </li></ul><ul><li>Owned dogs that are allowed to roam freely </li></ul><ul><li>Owned dogs that have been abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Community’ dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Feral dogs </li></ul>
  5. 7. Sources of Stray Urban Dogs <ul><li>a. Irresponsible Animal Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>b. Uncontrolled Breeding within </li></ul><ul><li>c. Carrying Capacity of the Environment </li></ul>
  6. 8. Sources of Stray Urban Dogs (contd..) <ul><li>a. Irresponsible Animal Ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing owned animals to roam unsupervised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abandonment of unwanted animals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Sources of Stray Urban Dogs (contd..) <ul><li>b. Uncontrolled Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Within Owned population and subsequent abandonment of offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>Within Stray population </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial breeders producing an excess of animals under poor conditions </li></ul>
  8. 10. Sources of Stray Urban Dogs (contd..) <ul><li>c. Carrying Capacity of the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of essential resources and which resource is the most limiting factor (often food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of the carrying capacity (ex. via improved solid waste management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of carrying capacity should be linked to reduction in animal population by other methods. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Problems caused by Stray Dogs <ul><li>Zoonoses (e.g. rabies, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental pollution (e.g. noise, faeces) </li></ul><ul><li>Nuisance behaviour (noise, chasing vehicles) </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Injury to people and animals; </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of environmental preserve areas </li></ul>
  10. 12. Zoonosis – Rabies <ul><li>The increase in dog population has resulted in an increased incidence of dog bite cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs continue to be the main source of rabies infection to man. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been estimated that nearly 96% of people seeking anti-rabies treatment are exposed to dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>A rabies survey in India has shown that 50% of rabies cases were due to pet dogs bites. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Global Outputs – Deaths <ul><li>URBAN </li></ul><ul><li>India = 1,058 </li></ul><ul><li>China = 1,324 </li></ul><ul><li>Other Asia = 0, 853 </li></ul><ul><li>Africa = 5,886 </li></ul><ul><li>RURAL </li></ul><ul><li>India = 18,201 </li></ul><ul><li>China = 0 1,257 </li></ul><ul><li>Other Asia = 0 8,135 </li></ul><ul><li>Africa = 17,937 </li></ul>Urban: 9000: 16% Rural: 46000: 84%
  12. 15. Gist of WHO-APCRI Indian Rabies Survey, 2003-04: Need for Public Awareness and Professional Education + Initiation ++ Intensification +++ Massive action + + <ul><li>NIL laboratory confirmation of deaths </li></ul>++ + <ul><li>35% deaths in hospital </li></ul>+ ++ <ul><li>60% resorted to indigenous treatment </li></ul>+++ + <ul><li>2% only receive RIGs </li></ul>+++ + <ul><li>79% had no ARV </li></ul>++ + <ul><li>71% were adults </li></ul>+ + <ul><li>88% in poor & low Income people </li></ul>++ + <ul><li>76% in rural population </li></ul>+ ++ <ul><li>96% due to Dogs </li></ul>++ + <ul><li>20,000 Human rabies deaths annually (45% global rabies load of 55,000) </li></ul>Professional Education Public Awareness IRS, 2003-04
  13. 21.
  14. 22. Rabies Vaccination in Owned and Stray Dogs <ul><li>Stray dog control programmes cannot be considered in isolation of rabies control </li></ul><ul><li>100% vaccination not essential </li></ul><ul><li>Owned dogs linked to registration </li></ul><ul><li>Injectable vaccine most cost- effective </li></ul><ul><li>Oral baits possible in some cases </li></ul><ul><li>Could be combined with worming </li></ul>
  15. 23. Animal Welfare Issues of Stray Dogs <ul><li>Lack of protection from adverse environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient feed resources </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to adverse conditions and lack of veterinary care </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive encounters with other animals and humans </li></ul><ul><li>Lack or deficient or inadequate zoonoses control programs </li></ul>
  16. 24. Dog Population Control Strategy <ul><li>a. Addressing the Sources of Stray Urban Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>b. Current Stray Population </li></ul><ul><li>c. Control of Zoonosis </li></ul>
  17. 25. Dog Population Control Strategy (contd..) <ul><li>a. Addressing the Sources of Stray Urban Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of competent personnel </li></ul><ul><li>periodic training of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>periodic evaluation of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Protection and resourcing of personnel (vaccination, protective gear and counselling) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and equipment </li></ul>
  18. 26. Dog Population Control Strategy (contd..) <ul><li>b. Current Stray Population </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating the existing numbers and distribution of strays </li></ul><ul><li>Reuniting local animals with owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Registration and identification and minimum holding time </li></ul><ul><li>Re-homing. Fostering services or re-homing centres. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum standards for re homing centres, </li></ul><ul><li>Catch neuter release. </li></ul>
  19. 27. Dog Population Control Strategy (contd..) <ul><li>c. Control of Zoonosis </li></ul><ul><li>The most important aspect of dog control programme is that of Zoonosis control. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the number of diseases transmitted by dogs, especially stray, Rabies ranks number one. </li></ul>
  20. 28. Identification of Animal Welfare issues created by Dog Population Control Strategy <ul><li>The following were identified as major issues arising out of stray dog control programmes . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhumane methods of killing in the field (e.g. shooting and poisoning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper dog handling and care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhumane methods of catching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsuitable transport such as poorly designed vehicles and improper use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper loading and unloading </li></ul></ul>
  21. 29. Identification of Animal Welfare issues created by Dog Population Control Strategy (Contd.) <ul><li>Poor holding facilities (shelter/re-homing centre/ pound) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of euthanasia in the case of incurable animal suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Inhumane killing of captured dogs (e.g. electrocution /gassing /drowning etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor surgical techniques, pre-operative and post-operative </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate Adoption/re-homing/reuniting to irresponsible owner or inappropriate home, </li></ul><ul><li>Release into inappropriate environment </li></ul>
  22. 30. Setting of OIE Standards <ul><li>World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) </li></ul><ul><li>Constituted a Working Group on Animal Welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Has prepared Guidelines for Dog Population Control </li></ul>
  23. 31. Considerations for a Practical Stray Dog Population Control Programme <ul><li>Accurately assess the nature of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Balance the need for retaining the benefits of pet ownership while addressing the stray animal problem </li></ul><ul><li>Take account of all “stakeholders” </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordinate the activities of all appropriate groups </li></ul><ul><li>Employ humane methods only (ABC programme) </li></ul><ul><li>Source of food (garbage) to be eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Change attitudes by education </li></ul>
  24. 32. Education: Promotion of Responsible Pet Ownership <ul><li>The major challenge for a successful programme </li></ul><ul><li>All agencies have a role to play </li></ul><ul><li>All agencies should give the same message </li></ul>
  25. 33. Responsible Pet Ownership <ul><li>Ensure the needs of the pet are provided for – Five Freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of injury or disease to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of injury or disease to other animals </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of pollution/nuisance to society </li></ul>
  26. 34. Garbage Collection <ul><li>Availability of food determines the population size </li></ul><ul><li>Poor hygiene of slaughter houses, butchers, and food outlets is an added public health risk </li></ul><ul><li>Private contractors may be more effective though more expensive </li></ul>
  27. 35. A Role for Feeding Stations?
  28. 36. Registration and Identification <ul><li>Basis for legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Allows instant differentiation of owned and unowned animals </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid return of lost pets </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>Financial incentives for neutering </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Improved population census </li></ul>
  29. 37. Neutering of Owned Animals <ul><li>Aspect of responsible pet ownership </li></ul><ul><li>May be owner reluctance – especially with males </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinarians need to educate owners of benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Neutering campaigns – long term aim to encourage local practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>Financial incentives associated with registration </li></ul>
  30. 38. Neutering of Stray Dogs <ul><li>Neutering prior to re-homing </li></ul><ul><li>Neuter and release programmes for community or feral animals </li></ul>
  31. 39. Commonwealth Veterinary Association <ul><li>54 Member countries in 6 regions of the World </li></ul><ul><li>Principle Collaborator with OIE </li></ul><ul><li>Have initiated Stray Dog Control programmes in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul>
  32. 40. Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India <ul><li>Neuter and Release Programme popularly known as Animal Birth Control (ABC) Programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted in many Indian cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves catch-neuter-release programme directed at roaming dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>All neuter dogs also vaccinated against rabies. </li></ul>
  33. 41. Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>For many years street dogs were regularly poisoned with strychnine by the city municipality. </li></ul><ul><li>Not effective in either reducing the population or elimination of rabies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most inhumane means of killing. </li></ul>
  34. 42. Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, Help In Suffering (HIS) with the support of WSPA launched the ABC Programme following WHO/WSPA Guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>Street dogs are humanely captured, sterilized, identified with an ear notch and number tattoo, vaccinated against rabies and released back exactly where they came from. </li></ul><ul><li>70% female dogs in Jaipur now sterilized and vaccinated. </li></ul>
  35. 44. Coaxing a dog closer with a titbit prior to capture
  36. 45. Preparing to catch a street dog with the sack
  37. 46. The captured street dog is carefully lifted into the ambulance
  38. 49. Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Reported incidence of human rabies cases has reduced to zero for the last several years in the area where the HIS ABC programme functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Full records are kept, and each dog is returned to the same place it was captured in its own familiar territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Help In Suffering ABC Programme provides evidence that street dog populations do stabilise </li></ul><ul><li>Jaipur street dog population is healthier and friendlier than in other cities. </li></ul>
  39. 52. Acknowledgements <ul><li>WSPA, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Cross of India, Chennai, India </li></ul><ul><li>Help In Suffering, India </li></ul><ul><li>Rabies In Asia Foundation, India </li></ul>
  40. 53. Thank You
  41. 54. Questions ?

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