Dog Population Control: Animal Welfare Issues from a Developing Country’s Perspective S. Abdul Rahman Retd. Dean, Veterina...
Preamble <ul><li>WHO estimates dog population worldwide is 10% that of human population </li></ul><ul><li>Of these 75% can...
 
 
Size of the Problem <ul><li>With the spread of urbanisation, stray dogs are likely to increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes c...
The Stray Dog Population could consist of the following <ul><li>Owned dogs that have been accidentally lost </li></ul><ul>...
Sources of Stray Urban Dogs <ul><li>a. Irresponsible Animal Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>b. Uncontrolled Breeding within </...
Sources of Stray Urban Dogs  (contd..) <ul><li>a. Irresponsible Animal Ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing owned anim...
Sources of Stray Urban Dogs  (contd..) <ul><li>b. Uncontrolled Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Within Owned population and subs...
Sources of Stray Urban Dogs  (contd..) <ul><li>c. Carrying Capacity of the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identificatio...
Problems caused by Stray Dogs <ul><li>Zoonoses (e.g. rabies, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmenta...
Zoonosis – Rabies <ul><li>The increase in dog population has resulted in an increased incidence of dog bite cases. </li></...
 
Global Outputs – Deaths <ul><li>URBAN </li></ul><ul><li>India = 1,058 </li></ul><ul><li>China  = 1,324 </li></ul><ul><li>O...
Gist of WHO-APCRI Indian Rabies Survey, 2003-04: Need for Public Awareness and Professional Education + Initiation  ++ Int...
 
 
 
 
 
Rabies Vaccination in Owned and Stray Dogs <ul><li>Stray dog control programmes cannot be considered in isolation of rabie...
Animal Welfare Issues of Stray Dogs <ul><li>Lack of protection from adverse environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Insuff...
Dog Population Control Strategy <ul><li>a. Addressing the Sources of Stray Urban  Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>b. Current Stray ...
Dog Population Control Strategy  (contd..) <ul><li>a. Addressing the Sources of Stray Urban Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Selecti...
Dog Population Control Strategy  (contd..) <ul><li>b. Current Stray Population </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating the existing n...
Dog Population Control Strategy  (contd..) <ul><li>c. Control of Zoonosis </li></ul><ul><li>The most important aspect of d...
Identification of Animal Welfare issues created by  Dog Population Control Strategy <ul><li>The following were identified ...
Identification of Animal Welfare issues created by  Dog Population Control Strategy  (Contd.) <ul><li>Poor holding facilit...
Setting of OIE Standards <ul><li>World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) </li></ul><ul><li>Constituted a Working Group ...
Considerations for a Practical Stray Dog Population Control Programme <ul><li>Accurately assess the nature of the problem ...
Education: Promotion of Responsible Pet Ownership  <ul><li>The major challenge for a successful programme </li></ul><ul><l...
Responsible Pet Ownership <ul><li>Ensure the needs of the pet are provided for – Five Freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce th...
Garbage Collection <ul><li>Availability of food determines the population size </li></ul><ul><li>Poor hygiene of slaughter...
A Role for Feeding Stations?
Registration and Identification <ul><li>Basis for legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Allows instant differentiation of owned an...
Neutering of Owned Animals <ul><li>Aspect of responsible pet ownership </li></ul><ul><li>May be owner reluctance – especia...
Neutering of Stray Dogs <ul><li>Neutering prior to re-homing  </li></ul><ul><li>Neuter and release programmes for communit...
Commonwealth Veterinary  Association <ul><li>54 Member countries in 6 regions of the World </li></ul><ul><li>Principle Col...
Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India <ul><li>Neuter and Release Programme popularly known as Animal Birth Control (A...
Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India  (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>For many ye...
Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India  (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, He...
 
Coaxing a dog closer with a titbit prior to capture
Preparing to catch a street dog with the sack
The captured street dog is carefully lifted into the ambulance
 
 
Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India  (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Reported in...
 
 
Acknowledgements <ul><li>WSPA, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Cross of India, Chennai, India </li></ul><ul><li>Help In Sufferin...
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Dog Population Control: Animal Welfare Issues from a Developing Country's Perspective - S. Abdul Rahman

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S. Abdul Rahman, Rtd. Dean, Veterinary College Bangalore, India, explains how animal welfare must be posed as a human problem (e.g. tackling rabies) to be addressed in a developing country.

For more information about this presentation and the International Companion Animal Welfare Conference, visit www.icawc.org (there is a summary of this session in the blog).

Published in: Lifestyle, Health & Medicine
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  • @Ramakumarv Could you please write the rest? Also, do you have updated statistics? Also could you recommend papers etc? Thanks,
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  • Stray Dogs: uses and threats;
    (Their control: Problems and possibilities)

    uses
    ► Stray dogs clean up bio-waste that attract pests and flies
    ► prevent decay of waste and control spread of stench, pollution & disease
    ► Stray dogs prowl (more) at night limit rats from coming over ground feed breed and spreading rat fever.
    ► (rats are estimated to destroy up to 35% of our food grains)
    ► They limit large rodent (and mongoose) multiplication
    ► They alert control intruding alien dogs, prowlers (men) at night
    ► They Keep reptiles at bay from homestead

    threats

    ► of 80,000 the rabies death/ per annum in the world 20,000 is in India
    ► In India millions undergo post-dog bite vaccination/ annum
    ► In US four million bites (no vaccination needed as rabies is extremely low).
    ► There are other diseases like rat fever, Toxoplasma, tape worm etc spread by dogs to man and domestic animals.
    ► dogs howl, fight, can bite when provoked or when allowed to gang-up

    KERALA PERSPECTIVE

     IN KERALA DEATH RATE due to Rabies IS LOW SINCE AT LEAST 50 CRORES IS SPENT ANNUALLY FOR POST- BITE TREATMENT.

     Daily ALMOST 100-150 PEOPLE APPROCH TVM Genl Hosp. FOR POST-BITE RABIES TREATMENT

     Vaccination schedule in post exposure is 0 day, 3, 7, 14, 28 & 90th day. (six man days)

     IN THE YEAR ‘05 – ‘06 2.7 CRORES SPENT FOR POST- BITE TREATMENT IN City Gen Hosp TVM alone
    INDIRECT LOSSES following dig bite

    It is now known that nearly 70% of the people exposed to dog bite are rural poor and nearly 40% are children below 15 yrs.

     Mental agony more so when children are involed
     Loss of man days, loss of earning; when children are involved the entire family leave earning and attend the kid
     Transportation cost of patient and accompanying person (the number of companions are more in case children are involved)
     Secondary complications (possible)
     Cost borne on public funds IN THE YEAR ‘05 – ‘06 2.7 CRORES SPENT FOR POST- BITE TREATMENT IN City Gen Hosp TVM alone. It is much more now

    Stray dogs: confusing questions?
    ► What is a stray dog? Unleashed domestic dog? pariah, mongrel, watch dog let lose at night, abandoned pet?
    ► Who is responsible for so many stray dogs?
    ► Why was killing stopped? 19th cent.50,000 dogs were killed/yr. 1993, admitted it as a failure as rabies deaths increased; killed dogs were replaced by more unfriendly dogs;

    ► Why do dogs bite?
    ► Why return dogs after ABC? Why not destroy or remove them
    ► Domestic & rural dogs spread more rabies
    Who can catch a stray dog? (legal authority/ responsibility)

    All Street dogs are not without owner, Dogs guards their own territory; but when destroyed alien dogs enter the scene. They can be unfamiliar and more unfriendly. [two dogs multiply to >300 in three yrs.]

    Who is responsible for so many stray dogs?
    Sufficient food wastes on premises, preference of people for male pets, abandoning sick or old pets on the street.

    Reason for stray population increase
    ► the availability of scrap food & edible waste on the street,
    ► Sponsoring of street dogs by people who either can not afford pets or who are care seeking.
    ► Offering food to street dogs by sponsors of fast food joints are congenial for breeding of dogs.

    ► Compassion for animal life, tendency to feed or make food wastes available to street dogs, the high survival skill, strength and dexterity of stray animals make their control difficult.

    Dog population (old data)

    *India's dog population is 21.76 million as per 1992 census. In 1982, when the census for dogs was initiated as part of livestock census, the dog population was 18.54 million. In 1987, it got reduced to 17.95 million but again rose to 21.76 million in 1992. Thus in 10 years the population increased by 17.3% @ 1.7% per annum. (we have seen that U.S. has nearly 130 Million dogs and cats)

    As per 1992 census, out of 21.76 million dogs, 20.06 million (92.2%) are in rural areas and 1.7 million (7.8%) in urban areas. 13.29 million (61% are males) and 8.47 million (38.9%) are females. 13.09 million (60%) are licenced dogs and 8.67 million (40%) other stray dogs. Out of 1.67 million dogs in urban areas, 1.03 million (60%) are licenced and 0.66 million (40%) stray dogs. Similarly, out of 20.06 million dogs in rural areas, 12.05 million (60%) are licenced and 8 million (40%) stray dogs.

    The average number of dogs per urban area (per district headquarter) in India is 3357 and per rural area (per village) is 32.

    [*Extracted from paper presented by Dr. S.C. Mathur, Animal Health Consultant in National Seminar on 'Veterinary Public Health Challenges & Opportunities' held on 21st & 22nd October, 2000 New Delhi.]

    How to avoid dog bite
    Do not provoke a dog: sudden movement, approaching a nursing or feeding dog;
    When a strange dog approach stay firm without sudden movement or fear
    Do not allow ganging of stray dogs in one territory (never more than 6-10). This can be one reason for attack on a child in Bangalore, though children disturbing street dogs that provoke attack by ‘street dog gangs’ in defense is not uncommon. Discourage any child from pelting stone at a passing dog.
    In breeding season disturbing the process would invite dog bite
    A stranger entering a residential area in the dead of the night would invite the anger of street dogs

    DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IN DOG

    Apart from symptoms which can be at time deceptive, using FAT (Fluorescent Antibody Test) rabies can be diagnosed in live animals. Through correct tests un-necessary vaccination of bite victims can be avoided to an extend, though preventing rabies in dogs and reducing their rampant breeding is ideal. .

    DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IS DONE BY:
    1. FAT
    2. NEGRI BODY STANING (in Post-mortem)
    3. MOUSE INNOCULATION (testing on lab. Animals)
    4. Rapid (direct) test of saliva

    LEGAL:
     There is a supreme court judgment upholding that ABC rules 2001 is a valid piece of law to be obeyed by all. A stay had been granted to operation of many judgments of lower courts which favored killing stray dogs

    WHAT IS ABC programme

    Animal Birth Control program or ABC programme as it is commonly called, is considered a humane method of reducing the problem of increasing number of stray animals, without causing any drastic imbalance in the harmony among man animal and environment. Though, sterilization of both male and female animals are considered, there is no option to limit sterilization to one gender. A female dog in season attracts males from far off places in large numbers and therefore has to figure in the ABC programme invariably. ABC involves a major surgery and therefore needs general anesthesia which is not devoid of risks. Furthermore, General anesthesia is a stressful process with the effect of anesthesia lingering for many days including a transient change in the behaviour pattern of the animal involved. This can be gainfully used at least in some cases to control aggression in street dogs. [We must remember that unruly domestic dogs can also be equally dangerous.]

    STEPS INVOLVED IN ABC

    ► locating, identifying and counting of animals and studying their, hierarchical order (pecking order).
    ► catching them with minimal stress, from 1 territory at a time.
    ► pre-anesthetic assessment of the animals;
    ► health assessment and retaining them in the hold (Temporary shelter)
    ► pre-anesthetic fasting, pre-medication
    ► control and anesthesia
    ► surgery & management of emergencies
    ► recovery & post anesthetic management
    ► post-operative therapy, vaccination etc.
    ► removal of stitches (only where needed)
    ► release and rehabilitation of animals
    ► Post-ABC follow-up: Re-vaccinate, Educate people to avoid dog bite

    For actions at serial number 1& 2and for those at 11 & 12, it may be necessary to involve voluntary groups from each resident organizations, animal enthusiasts, animal ethologists (behaviour experts). For the rest veterinary surgeons who has specific training for the purpose need be involved or be trained from time to time for the purpose. The specifics of the actions may have to be modified or fortified from time to time for the welfare of the animals and to the benefit of the community.

    Why local vety hospitals do not do regular ABC?
    All people (staff, workers, volunteers) who handle stray dogs need be immunized.
    Stray dogs may not be allowed to mingle with domestic pets
    Stray dogs can be transmitting zoonotic disease to Man
    Stray dogs can also contract zoonotic disease from Man





    OBLIGATIONS OF THE LOCAL AUTHORITY

     Establishment of dog shelters with safety and containment
     Provide Requisite number of dog vans for capture and transportation.
     2 trained dog catchers (action volunteers) and 1 driver per each van.
     Ambulance-cum-clinical van as mobile ABC centre.
     Provide catching and controlling equipments
     Incinerators for the disposal of the carcass.
     Periodic repair of shelters, ambulance etc.
     Setting up facilities for surgery, Pre-anesthetic clinic, post operative care, immunization, identification etc.

    NECESSARY FACILITIES AT A GLANCE: The following would be needed facilities
    A. a dog catching, controlling and transport group
    B. experts for pre operative attendance and health verification
    C. Dog holds (shelter) for each compatible groups and/ or individuals
    D. People for Feeding and observation
    E. Experts at Pre-anaesthetic clinic
    F. Helpers for Surgery with preparation & recovery units
    G. Experts for Surgery
    H. Training rooms for veterinary personnel and for training public awareness group & organization of volunteers etc. include PA system
    I. Experts and help Post-operative cells
    J. Health care units with facilities for vaccination, treatment etc.
    K. Trained group Release and Rehabilitation & linkage with residents
    L. Follow-up group (independent)

    NOTE: The facilities listed at B to I may be created by retrofitting and remodeling the existing infra-structure at District Veterinary Hospital. Minimum professionals, para-veterinary staff and adm. Staff only would be created in the initial stage, managing the rest through a process of convergence of trainees, volunteers and Sr.consultants. Para staff, observers, campaign group etc. may be generated through the same process of training volunteers from each area of operation. Professional staff needed could be generated through consultancy/ contract appointment, work-cum-training etc. Operational cost & transport facility would be created which in the initial stage be multi-purpose. Equipments & instruments would have to be purchased.

    NOTE: It is expected that after the pilot program is launched, based on its initial success or failure, a more effective and closely knit unit leading to establishment of a regular welfare clinic would emerge. A macro-epidemiological unit (IT/ICT based) that would collect data and prepare information for action including the nature and event of exposures would help generating guidelines not only on reduction of exposure to dog bite, but also for elimination of other zoonotic and infectious diseases.

    WHY SOME STILL FAVOUR KILLING OF STRAY DOGS? (to be discussed)

    Why are some against counting of dogs? (to be discussed)
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Dog Population Control: Animal Welfare Issues from a Developing Country's Perspective - S. Abdul Rahman

  1. 1. Dog Population Control: Animal Welfare Issues from a Developing Country’s Perspective S. Abdul Rahman Retd. Dean, Veterinary College, Bangalore, India Secretary Commonwealth Veterinary Association
  2. 2. Preamble <ul><li>WHO estimates dog population worldwide is 10% that of human population </li></ul><ul><li>Of these 75% can be regarded as ‘strays’ </li></ul><ul><li>India has a livestock population of 500 million out of which the dog population is approximately 22 million. </li></ul><ul><li>The stray dog population is around 80%. </li></ul>
  3. 5. Size of the Problem <ul><li>With the spread of urbanisation, stray dogs are likely to increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes concern about rabies and dog bite incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>In particular those involving children </li></ul>
  4. 6. The Stray Dog Population could consist of the following <ul><li>Owned dogs that have been accidentally lost </li></ul><ul><li>Owned dogs that are allowed to roam freely </li></ul><ul><li>Owned dogs that have been abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Community’ dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Feral dogs </li></ul>
  5. 7. Sources of Stray Urban Dogs <ul><li>a. Irresponsible Animal Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>b. Uncontrolled Breeding within </li></ul><ul><li>c. Carrying Capacity of the Environment </li></ul>
  6. 8. Sources of Stray Urban Dogs (contd..) <ul><li>a. Irresponsible Animal Ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing owned animals to roam unsupervised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abandonment of unwanted animals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Sources of Stray Urban Dogs (contd..) <ul><li>b. Uncontrolled Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Within Owned population and subsequent abandonment of offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>Within Stray population </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial breeders producing an excess of animals under poor conditions </li></ul>
  8. 10. Sources of Stray Urban Dogs (contd..) <ul><li>c. Carrying Capacity of the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of essential resources and which resource is the most limiting factor (often food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of the carrying capacity (ex. via improved solid waste management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of carrying capacity should be linked to reduction in animal population by other methods. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Problems caused by Stray Dogs <ul><li>Zoonoses (e.g. rabies, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental pollution (e.g. noise, faeces) </li></ul><ul><li>Nuisance behaviour (noise, chasing vehicles) </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Injury to people and animals; </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of environmental preserve areas </li></ul>
  10. 12. Zoonosis – Rabies <ul><li>The increase in dog population has resulted in an increased incidence of dog bite cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs continue to be the main source of rabies infection to man. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been estimated that nearly 96% of people seeking anti-rabies treatment are exposed to dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>A rabies survey in India has shown that 50% of rabies cases were due to pet dogs bites. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Global Outputs – Deaths <ul><li>URBAN </li></ul><ul><li>India = 1,058 </li></ul><ul><li>China = 1,324 </li></ul><ul><li>Other Asia = 0, 853 </li></ul><ul><li>Africa = 5,886 </li></ul><ul><li>RURAL </li></ul><ul><li>India = 18,201 </li></ul><ul><li>China = 0 1,257 </li></ul><ul><li>Other Asia = 0 8,135 </li></ul><ul><li>Africa = 17,937 </li></ul>Urban: 9000: 16% Rural: 46000: 84%
  12. 15. Gist of WHO-APCRI Indian Rabies Survey, 2003-04: Need for Public Awareness and Professional Education + Initiation ++ Intensification +++ Massive action + + <ul><li>NIL laboratory confirmation of deaths </li></ul>++ + <ul><li>35% deaths in hospital </li></ul>+ ++ <ul><li>60% resorted to indigenous treatment </li></ul>+++ + <ul><li>2% only receive RIGs </li></ul>+++ + <ul><li>79% had no ARV </li></ul>++ + <ul><li>71% were adults </li></ul>+ + <ul><li>88% in poor & low Income people </li></ul>++ + <ul><li>76% in rural population </li></ul>+ ++ <ul><li>96% due to Dogs </li></ul>++ + <ul><li>20,000 Human rabies deaths annually (45% global rabies load of 55,000) </li></ul>Professional Education Public Awareness IRS, 2003-04
  13. 21.
  14. 22. Rabies Vaccination in Owned and Stray Dogs <ul><li>Stray dog control programmes cannot be considered in isolation of rabies control </li></ul><ul><li>100% vaccination not essential </li></ul><ul><li>Owned dogs linked to registration </li></ul><ul><li>Injectable vaccine most cost- effective </li></ul><ul><li>Oral baits possible in some cases </li></ul><ul><li>Could be combined with worming </li></ul>
  15. 23. Animal Welfare Issues of Stray Dogs <ul><li>Lack of protection from adverse environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient feed resources </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to adverse conditions and lack of veterinary care </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive encounters with other animals and humans </li></ul><ul><li>Lack or deficient or inadequate zoonoses control programs </li></ul>
  16. 24. Dog Population Control Strategy <ul><li>a. Addressing the Sources of Stray Urban Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>b. Current Stray Population </li></ul><ul><li>c. Control of Zoonosis </li></ul>
  17. 25. Dog Population Control Strategy (contd..) <ul><li>a. Addressing the Sources of Stray Urban Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of competent personnel </li></ul><ul><li>periodic training of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>periodic evaluation of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Protection and resourcing of personnel (vaccination, protective gear and counselling) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and equipment </li></ul>
  18. 26. Dog Population Control Strategy (contd..) <ul><li>b. Current Stray Population </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating the existing numbers and distribution of strays </li></ul><ul><li>Reuniting local animals with owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Registration and identification and minimum holding time </li></ul><ul><li>Re-homing. Fostering services or re-homing centres. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum standards for re homing centres, </li></ul><ul><li>Catch neuter release. </li></ul>
  19. 27. Dog Population Control Strategy (contd..) <ul><li>c. Control of Zoonosis </li></ul><ul><li>The most important aspect of dog control programme is that of Zoonosis control. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the number of diseases transmitted by dogs, especially stray, Rabies ranks number one. </li></ul>
  20. 28. Identification of Animal Welfare issues created by Dog Population Control Strategy <ul><li>The following were identified as major issues arising out of stray dog control programmes . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhumane methods of killing in the field (e.g. shooting and poisoning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper dog handling and care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhumane methods of catching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsuitable transport such as poorly designed vehicles and improper use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper loading and unloading </li></ul></ul>
  21. 29. Identification of Animal Welfare issues created by Dog Population Control Strategy (Contd.) <ul><li>Poor holding facilities (shelter/re-homing centre/ pound) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of euthanasia in the case of incurable animal suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Inhumane killing of captured dogs (e.g. electrocution /gassing /drowning etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor surgical techniques, pre-operative and post-operative </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate Adoption/re-homing/reuniting to irresponsible owner or inappropriate home, </li></ul><ul><li>Release into inappropriate environment </li></ul>
  22. 30. Setting of OIE Standards <ul><li>World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) </li></ul><ul><li>Constituted a Working Group on Animal Welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Has prepared Guidelines for Dog Population Control </li></ul>
  23. 31. Considerations for a Practical Stray Dog Population Control Programme <ul><li>Accurately assess the nature of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Balance the need for retaining the benefits of pet ownership while addressing the stray animal problem </li></ul><ul><li>Take account of all “stakeholders” </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordinate the activities of all appropriate groups </li></ul><ul><li>Employ humane methods only (ABC programme) </li></ul><ul><li>Source of food (garbage) to be eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Change attitudes by education </li></ul>
  24. 32. Education: Promotion of Responsible Pet Ownership <ul><li>The major challenge for a successful programme </li></ul><ul><li>All agencies have a role to play </li></ul><ul><li>All agencies should give the same message </li></ul>
  25. 33. Responsible Pet Ownership <ul><li>Ensure the needs of the pet are provided for – Five Freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of injury or disease to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of injury or disease to other animals </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of pollution/nuisance to society </li></ul>
  26. 34. Garbage Collection <ul><li>Availability of food determines the population size </li></ul><ul><li>Poor hygiene of slaughter houses, butchers, and food outlets is an added public health risk </li></ul><ul><li>Private contractors may be more effective though more expensive </li></ul>
  27. 35. A Role for Feeding Stations?
  28. 36. Registration and Identification <ul><li>Basis for legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Allows instant differentiation of owned and unowned animals </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid return of lost pets </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>Financial incentives for neutering </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Improved population census </li></ul>
  29. 37. Neutering of Owned Animals <ul><li>Aspect of responsible pet ownership </li></ul><ul><li>May be owner reluctance – especially with males </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinarians need to educate owners of benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Neutering campaigns – long term aim to encourage local practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>Financial incentives associated with registration </li></ul>
  30. 38. Neutering of Stray Dogs <ul><li>Neutering prior to re-homing </li></ul><ul><li>Neuter and release programmes for community or feral animals </li></ul>
  31. 39. Commonwealth Veterinary Association <ul><li>54 Member countries in 6 regions of the World </li></ul><ul><li>Principle Collaborator with OIE </li></ul><ul><li>Have initiated Stray Dog Control programmes in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul>
  32. 40. Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India <ul><li>Neuter and Release Programme popularly known as Animal Birth Control (ABC) Programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted in many Indian cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves catch-neuter-release programme directed at roaming dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>All neuter dogs also vaccinated against rabies. </li></ul>
  33. 41. Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>For many years street dogs were regularly poisoned with strychnine by the city municipality. </li></ul><ul><li>Not effective in either reducing the population or elimination of rabies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most inhumane means of killing. </li></ul>
  34. 42. Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, Help In Suffering (HIS) with the support of WSPA launched the ABC Programme following WHO/WSPA Guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>Street dogs are humanely captured, sterilized, identified with an ear notch and number tattoo, vaccinated against rabies and released back exactly where they came from. </li></ul><ul><li>70% female dogs in Jaipur now sterilized and vaccinated. </li></ul>
  35. 44. Coaxing a dog closer with a titbit prior to capture
  36. 45. Preparing to catch a street dog with the sack
  37. 46. The captured street dog is carefully lifted into the ambulance
  38. 49. Dog Neuter and Release Programmes in India (Contd.) <ul><li>ABC Programme in Jaipur, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Reported incidence of human rabies cases has reduced to zero for the last several years in the area where the HIS ABC programme functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Full records are kept, and each dog is returned to the same place it was captured in its own familiar territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Help In Suffering ABC Programme provides evidence that street dog populations do stabilise </li></ul><ul><li>Jaipur street dog population is healthier and friendlier than in other cities. </li></ul>
  39. 52. Acknowledgements <ul><li>WSPA, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Cross of India, Chennai, India </li></ul><ul><li>Help In Suffering, India </li></ul><ul><li>Rabies In Asia Foundation, India </li></ul>
  40. 53. Thank You
  41. 54. Questions ?

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