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Gender, Sexuality and Social Media
Elija Cassidy / Ben Light - @doggyb
Digital Media Publics
Communication in computer based networks (Johnson
1997)
reproducibility – information can easily be ...
Digital Media Publics
Networked publics as political and
exclusionary and as reinforcing structural
arrangements through i...
Networked Masculinities
Those masculinities (co)produced and reproduced in
conjunction with digitally mediated networked p...
Why Networked
Masculinities?
Many seek to validate their masculinity in the public world rather than the
private world of ...
Why Networked
Masculinities?
It will offer a greater range of sites within
which the construction of masculinity and male
...
Negotiating Publics
Encrypted pseudonyms on the French public Minitel
(Livia 2002)
Resistance and appropriation (Light 200...
Demographics
Male
 Transgender
 Other
0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
30.0%
35.0%
40.0%
45.0%
50.0%
18 - 24
 25 - 34
 35...
Heterosexual
 Gay
 Bisexual
 Queer
 Unsure
Do you have a disability?
Yes
No
n=148
n=147
American 26
Argentinian 1
Australian 103
British 6
Canadian 1
Filipino 1
German 1
Hungarian 1
Korean 1
Mexican 1
New Zeala...
Demographics
n=148
Higher managerial, administrative or professional
Intermediate managerial, administrative or profession...
Demographics
n=148
Living very comfortably on present income
Living comfortably on present income
Getting by on present in...
Dancing Games(e.g. Dance, Dance Revolution)
Singing Games(e.g. Singstar)
Vehicle Simulation(e.g. Flight Simulator X)
MMORP...
64
34
49
36
21
34
26
18
18
16
16
23
3
8
12
38
19
26
20
1
12
27
23
18
19
3
16
10
12
7
6
17
9
1
6
20
7
19
9
0
17
10
5
1
1
9
...
Play
37
22
22
17
8
6
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
49
40
37
33
26
17
14
1
5
1
0
0
0
0
29
41
39
55
48
45
57
17
19
0
4
1
1
0
12
21
25
23
3...
Sexualization of characters and game
marketing influenced my ratings of these
game genres. Call of Duty wasn't marketed
wi...
I know very few female
gamers. The male gamers I
know flock to the games that
I rated masculine, and
strongly shun any oth...
I work in the game industry and so I
thought about the people that we generally
market to or are generally marketed to for...
Gaming
Based on the game
Based on players
Based on stereotypes
Contradictions in masculinity
122
101
99
99
90
89
73
38
36
33
32
21
20
18
3
18
22
21
24
28
42
50
61
52
66
57
38
68
0
2
3
3
4
3
7
21
13
8
20
24
24
21
0
3...
Shopping
n=32
Female friends
Male friends
Female family members
Female co-workers
Male co-workers
Male family members
Othe...
n=123 n=55
45.5%
54.5%
Do you follow sports?
Yes
No
96.4%
3.6%
Do you follow sports online?
Yes
No
Sports
Sports
n=55
Sports news sites (e.g. ESPN)
Sports news pages (e.g. sports section of mainstream news
Official Team/Club webs...
Most sports that take up
prime time television seem
to be geared towards men,
so in order to find
information about prime
...
I think misogynist men's voices are
unfortunately the loudest ones we hear in
society, both online and offline. Society
pl...
I don't think its 'dominated by men.' I
think men are the majority however on
all my favorite sports sites/blogs there
are...
Sports
16
52
33
18
0
0
0
3
19
42
55
0
0
0
6
22
34
43
4
0
0
0%
 20%
 40%
 60%
 80%
 100%
Extremely Masculine
Highly Masculi...
At Work
74
73
31
31
16
16
22
23
26
22
21
21
12
11
7
7
17
18
10
9
9
6
9
10
3
8
5
5
5
5
1
2
0%
 20%
 40%
 60%
 80%
 100%
Co-...
81
27
43
23
8
3
18
6
19
25
0
35
32
38
43
0%
 20%
 40%
 60%
 80%
 100%
Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn
Instagram
Google+
I use th...
Sharing Life
0%
 10%
 20%
 30%
 40%
 50%
 60%
 70%
 80%
 90%
100%
Do not share online with anyone
Private Forum/Site
Famil...
Sharing About Health
13.3%
86.7%
Are there any specific health issues you have faced
that you would talk about with other ...
Please list up to 3 specific health issues you have
faced that you would talk about with other men
online that you wouldn'...
My attraction to men is not known to my
family and friends - online is a way you can
talk to other same-sex attracted men ...
Being able to discuss these issues in an
anonymous online forum allows you to be more
open and forthcoming with informatio...
You're more likely to find
people with similar
experiences you can learn
from and discuss things
with. There's also a degr...
10
17
4
6
0
1
23
18
25
31
33
16
16
24
0%
 10%
 20%
 30%
 40%
 50%
 60%
 70%
 80%
 90%
 100%
Have shared with my partner (M...
Online Personal Video Sharing
n=113
1
4
2
3
0
0
3
1
4
4
5
1
1
2
0%
 20%
 40%
 60%
 80%
 100%
Have shared with my partner (...
42.5%
57.5%
Have you ever used digital media to find
sexual/romantic partners?
Yes
No
Finding Partners
n=113
Sharing Life
Sense of Humour
Independence
Maturity
Physicality
Sense of Adventure
Lifestyle Habits (e.g. Drinking habits, ...
Having Partners
n=113
n=40
36.3%
63.7%
Have you ever had cybersex?
Yes
No
 Friends - Male
I don't discuss cybersex activit...
Accessing and Distributing Porn
86.6%
13.4%
In the last 12 months have you accessed online
pornography?
Yes
No
n=112
12
19...
Gender, Sexuality and
Digital Media
References
boyd, d. (2008a). Why Youth ♥ Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life.
In Yo...
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Gender, Sexuality and Digital Media

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Presentation of preliminary data for Gender, Sexuality and Digital Media project

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Gender, Sexuality and Digital Media

  1. 1. Gender, Sexuality and Social Media Elija Cassidy / Ben Light - @doggyb
  2. 2. Digital Media Publics Communication in computer based networks (Johnson 1997) reproducibility – information can easily be reproduced with digital media - information can be recorded, it can observed and it is persistent; scope – electronic networks can offer greater reach in terms of information sharing in contrast to physical networks; anonymity – individuals can communicate with digital media by using pseudonyms.
 Networked Publics (boyd 2008a; boyd 2008b) replicability - expressions can be copied from one place to another verbatim; persistence - communications are recorded for posterity; invisible audiences – it can not be fully known who may engage with content in such arenas; searchability – information can be easier to find due to indexing and search facilities; scalability - have greater reach and impact than physical networks
  3. 3. Digital Media Publics Networked publics as political and exclusionary and as reinforcing structural arrangements through inaction
 
 (Crawford et. al. 2014; Light 2014)
  4. 4. Networked Masculinities Those masculinities (co)produced and reproduced in conjunction with digitally mediated networked publics and their associated properties. Co-production and re-production, rather than just production - networked publics work often involves other people and things. 
 See: Light, B. (2013) Networked Masculinities and Social Networking Sites: A Call for the Analysis of Men and Contemporary Digital Media, Masculinities and Social Change, 2(3): 245-265. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65758/
  5. 5. Why Networked Masculinities? Many seek to validate their masculinity in the public world rather than the private world of family and relationships - we need to see power as something that circulates via the social web (Whitehead & Barrett, 2001). A key part of the masculinities studies enterprise should be researching institutions in which masculinities are embedded and which have weight in social orders as a whole - we need to think about power structures on a global scale (Connell, 2012). Gender is influential in reasons for social networking site usage (boyd, 2008b; Hargittai, 2007; Tufekcki, 2008)
  6. 6. Why Networked Masculinities? It will offer a greater range of sites within which the construction of masculinity and male difference occurs (Moore & Schmidt, 1999). It responds to continued lack of attention paid to the men’s gendered experiences more generally (Hearn et al., 2003). If we are to continue to the work on overcoming the persistent problem of gender being predominantly attributed to women (Faulkner, 2002), then research that takes men, as a central unit of analysis, continues to be required.
  7. 7. Negotiating Publics Encrypted pseudonyms on the French public Minitel (Livia 2002) Resistance and appropriation (Light 2007) Crypto-tagging, the use of face masking techniques, and the adjustment of audience settings (Lange 2007). Networked identity work (Vivienne and Burgess 2012) Social steganography (boyd and Marwick 2011). Articulation of private spheres of interaction (Papacharissi 2010) Continued use of unpopular spaces (Robards 2012) Disconnect.me (Karppi 2014) Disconnective Practice (Light 2014)
  8. 8. Demographics Male Transgender Other 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0% 50.0% 18 - 24 25 - 34 35 - 44 45 - 54 55 - 64 65 + n=148 n=148
  9. 9. Heterosexual Gay Bisexual Queer Unsure Do you have a disability? Yes No n=148 n=147
  10. 10. American 26 Argentinian 1 Australian 103 British 6 Canadian 1 Filipino 1 German 1 Hungarian 1 Korean 1 Mexican 1 New Zealander 4 Salvadorian 1
  11. 11. Demographics n=148 Higher managerial, administrative or professional Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional Supervisory or clerical and junior managerial, administrative or professional Skilled manual worker (Formal training required for position) Semi-skilled manual worker (Informal training required for position) Unskilled manual worker (No training required for position) Student Retired Unemployed 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% How would you describe your main occupation at present?
  12. 12. Demographics n=148 Living very comfortably on present income Living comfortably on present income Getting by on present income Finding it difficult on present income Finding it very difficult on present income 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% Compared to someone who might be described as living on the poverty line in your country, which one of these phrases comes closest to describing the nature of your income at present?
  13. 13. Dancing Games(e.g. Dance, Dance Revolution) Singing Games(e.g. Singstar) Vehicle Simulation(e.g. Flight Simulator X) MMORPG(e.g. World of Warcraft) Social Networking Site Based Games(e.g. Farmville, Words with Friends) Musical Instrument Based Games(e.g. Guitar Hero, DJ Hero) Sports Games(e.g. FIFA) Life Simulation(e.g. The Sims) Racing Games(e.g. Ridge Racer) Fighting Games(e.g. Street Fighter) Platform Games(e.g. Mario, Sonic) Sandbox(e.g. Grand Theft Auto) Shooter(e.g. Halo, Call of Duty) Puzzle Games(e.g. Candy Crush Saga, Bejewelled, Tetris) 0 50 100 150 I don't play these games Puzzle Games(e.g. Candy Crush Saga, Bejewelled,Tetris) Shooter(e.g. Halo, Call of Duty) Sandbox(e.g. Grand Theft Auto) Platform Games(e.g. Mario, Sonic) Fighting Games(e.g. Street Fighter) Life Simulation(e.g.The Sims) Racing Games(e.g. Ridge Racer) Musical Instrument Based Games(e.g. Guitar Hero, DJ Hero) Sports Games(e.g. FIFA) Social Networking Site Based Games(e.g. Farmville,Words with Friends) MMORPG(e.g.World of Warcraft) Vehicle Simulation(e.g. Flight Simulator X) Singing Games(e.g. Singstar) Dancing Games(e.g. Dance, Dance Revolution) -10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 Play n=133
  14. 14. 64 34 49 36 21 34 26 18 18 16 16 23 3 8 12 38 19 26 20 1 12 27 23 18 19 3 16 10 12 7 6 17 9 1 6 20 7 19 9 0 17 10 5 1 1 9 1 3 4 6 3 4 4 0 6 2 4 3 3 7 7 0 1 3 3 1 0 0 2 1 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Puzzle Games(e.g. Candy Crush Saga, Bejewelled, Tetris) Shooter(e.g. Halo, Call of Duty) Sandbox(e.g. Grand Theft Auto) Platform Games(e.g. Mario, Sonic) Fighting Games(e.g. Street Fighter) Life Simulation(e.g. The Sims) Racing Games(e.g. Ridge Racer) Musical Instrument Based Games(e.g. Guitar Hero, DJ Hero) Sports Games(e.g. FIFA) Social Networking Site Based Games(e.g. Farmville, Words with Friends) MMORPG(e.g. World of Warcraft) Vehicle Simulation(e.g. Flight Simulator X) Singing Games(e.g. Singstar) Dancing Games(e.g. Dance, Dance Revolution) I play these games alone With male friends/family With female friends/family With female partner With male partner n=133 Play
  15. 15. Play 37 22 22 17 8 6 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 40 37 33 26 17 14 1 5 1 0 0 0 0 29 41 39 55 48 45 57 17 19 0 4 1 1 0 12 21 25 23 38 44 47 97 88 55 65 76 66 54 0 3 0 1 1 7 0 7 9 38 41 35 36 40 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 3 21 10 11 18 24 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 9 3 2 5 8 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Shooter(e.g. Halo, Call of Duty) Fighting Games(e.g. Street Fighter) Sandbox(e.g. Grand Theft Auto) Sports Games(e.g. FIFA) Racing Games(e.g. Ridge Racer) MMORPG(e.g. World of Warcraft) Vehicle Simulation(e.g. Flight Simulator X) Platform Games(e.g. Mario, Sonic) Musical Instrument Based Games(e.g. Guitar Hero, DJ Hero) Dancing Games(e.g. Dance, Dance Revolution) Life Simulation(e.g. The Sims) Puzzle Games(e.g. Candy Crush Saga, Bejewelled, Tetris) Social Networking Site Based Games(e.g. Farmville, Words with Friends) Singing Games(e.g. Singstar) Extremely Masculine Highly Masculine Somewhat Masculine Neutral Somewhat Unmasculine Highly Unmasculine Extremely Unmasculine
  16. 16. Sexualization of characters and game marketing influenced my ratings of these game genres. Call of Duty wasn't marketed with pink guns or rainbows, for example. Gender of known gamers in these categories. Content of certain games. For example, conversations with male friends point to being comfortable with the escapism of controversial games such as GTA, whereas female friends typically found the game abhorrent and unappealing.
  17. 17. I know very few female gamers. The male gamers I know flock to the games that I rated masculine, and strongly shun any other style of game that doesn't meet the criteria. I know people that refuse to play Guitar Hero, won't even try it, just because it lacks the inherent masculinity of a sport game or shooter. Additionally, games like Gears of War are so overly male oriented, its hilarious.
  18. 18. I work in the game industry and so I thought about the people that we generally market to or are generally marketed to for each genre of game. I also thought about people I know who play each type of game and who are immersed in the culture of each type of game. I don't think video games have anything to do with masculinity or femininity. I've played many Online games and tend to find females and men playing. Many men also play as female characters and no one cares.
  19. 19. Gaming Based on the game Based on players Based on stereotypes Contradictions in masculinity
  20. 20. 122 101 99 99 90 89 73 38 36 33 32 21 20 18 3 18 22 21 24 28 42 50 61 52 66 57 38 68 0 2 3 3 4 3 7 21 13 8 20 24 24 21 0 3 1 1 5 4 3 16 15 32 7 23 42 18 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Boating(e.g. Motorboats, Powerboats, Sailboats, Kayaks/Paddleboats, Jet skis, Parts/Accessories) Children's Clothes & Accessories(e.g. clothes, shoes, underwear, watches, jeweller) Automotive(e.g. Cars/Vans/Trucks, Motorbikes/Scooters, Trailers/ Campervans, Parts/Accessories) Hardware(e.g. Tools, Garden needs) Homewares(e.g. Furniture, White Goods, Home decor) Women's Clothes & Accessories(e.g. clothes, shoes, underwear, watches, jewellery) Sports and Fitness(e.g. Bikes, Gym Equipment, Camping/Hiking Gear, Bats/Balls/Racquets/Clubs, Sports Supplements) Men's Clothes & Accessories(e.g. clothes, shoes, underwear, watches, jewellery) Print Media(e.g. Books, Magazines) Miscellaneous/Other(e.g. Flowers, Groceries, Alcohol, Shares, Antiques/ Collectibles) Electronics(e.g. Computers, TV/DVD, Games consoles, Audio Systems, Cameras, Phones) Travel(e.g. Plane Trips, Public Transport, Rental Car, Hotel, Holiday Package) Digital Media(e.g. Music, Games, Movies, TV Shows) Tickets(e.g. Movies, Concerts, Theatre/Dance, Other Events) Did not buy 1-5 times 6-10 times More than 10 times Shopping
  21. 21. Shopping n=32 Female friends Male friends Female family members Female co-workers Male co-workers Male family members Other- please specify (e.g. clubs, groups, blog readership etc) 0 10 20 30 40 50 Who shares online offers with you? n=58 Male friends Female friends Female family members Female partner Male family members Female co-workers Male co-workers Male partner 0 10 20 30 40 50 Who do you share online offers with?
  22. 22. n=123 n=55 45.5% 54.5% Do you follow sports? Yes No 96.4% 3.6% Do you follow sports online? Yes No Sports
  23. 23. Sports n=55 Sports news sites (e.g. ESPN) Sports news pages (e.g. sports section of mainstream news Official Team/Club websites Facebook groups and pages Official Association/League websites (e.g. AFL, NRL) Twitter (e.g. following players, events) Fan sites/forums Official Event/Competition websites (e.g. Wimbledon) Fantasy leagues Instagram (e.g. following players, events) YouTube Google News/Search cricinfo Watch Online 0 10 20 30 40 In what ways do you follow/engage with sports online Online sports fandom is dominated by men what extent do you agree with the following statement: Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Don't know n=122
  24. 24. Most sports that take up prime time television seem to be geared towards men, so in order to find information about prime time viewing television, the information is sourced online, So it would make sense for the information to be geared towards men. It depends what sports you're talking about - eg. tennis might be equally followed by women as it is by men. But yeah, by and large, sports fandom online is a guy thing.
  25. 25. I think misogynist men's voices are unfortunately the loudest ones we hear in society, both online and offline. Society places higher value on men's sport than women's sport and consequently we are shown and hear more about men's sport, which is highly male-oriented, with females only as scantily-clad cheerleaders. From what I gather on social media sites, when a major game is on, State of Origin for example, the majority of statuses/ comments come from men. Women participate, but are definitely not as loud or passionate for the game as men (appear).
  26. 26. I don't think its 'dominated by men.' I think men are the majority however on all my favorite sports sites/blogs there are many female commenters. Additionally, both of my main Fantasy Football leagues were won by 2 different females. Not sure if that's much of a justification of a broader principle though.
  27. 27. Sports 16 52 33 18 0 0 0 3 19 42 55 0 0 0 6 22 34 43 4 0 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Extremely Masculine Highly Masculine Somewhat Masculine Neutral Somewhat Unmasculine Highly Unmasculine Extremely Unmasculine Participating in a football match Attending a football match Participating in online football fandom
  28. 28. At Work 74 73 31 31 16 16 22 23 26 22 21 21 12 11 7 7 17 18 10 9 9 6 9 10 3 8 5 5 5 5 1 2 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Co-worker (male) Co-worker (female) Immediate Supervisor (male) Immediate Supervisor (female) Immediate Supervisor's Manager (male) Immediate Supervisor's Manager (female) Staff I manage (male) Staff I manage (female) Because we're friends/mates To help advance my career To keep an eye on them/track their activities Other n=83
  29. 29. 81 27 43 23 8 3 18 6 19 25 0 35 32 38 43 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Google+ I use this site to connect with work colleagues I do not use this site to connect with work colleagues I am not a user of this site at all At Work n=85
  30. 30. Sharing Life 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Do not share online with anyone Private Forum/Site Family Members (Male) Family Members (Female) Mates (Male) Mates (Female) Colleagues (Male) Colleagues (Female) Do not share online with anyone Private Forum/Site Family Members (Male) Family Members (Female) Mates (Male) Mates (Female) Colleagues (Male) Colleagues (Female) Finance 79 4 13 13 12 10 4 1 Relationship Issues/Concerns 73 5 8 12 21 18 3 3 Health Problems 66 12 15 18 20 16 3 2 Personal Grooming (e.g. haircuts, facial hair, clothes, or grooming products) 64 8 15 17 29 24 11 9 Personal Fitness 54 18 20 21 30 30 14 13 Experience of Grief (e.g death of a loved one) 52 7 21 24 25 25 8 7 DIY/Household Projects 47 11 29 26 37 31 19 18 Parenting Activities 34 2 6 8 6 6 3 4 Who do you share information about the following areas of your life with online?
  31. 31. Sharing About Health 13.3% 86.7% Are there any specific health issues you have faced that you would talk about with other men online that you wouldn't talk about with other men offline? Yes No n=113
  32. 32. Please list up to 3 specific health issues you have faced that you would talk about with other men online that you wouldn't talk about offline? Relationship issues Sexual issues Sexual health Abscess on penis Chronic Depression Relationship Issues Childhood Abuse stds/herpes/aids/etc STI's Depression Phimosis STD fears Other sexual health issues Mental health issues/ Depression & anxiety Sexual health issues. Mental health concerns/ Depression & Anxiety. Sexual health issues. Depression erection issues dick stuff varicose veins in testicles Depression Sexual function Depression Sex Relationships
  33. 33. My attraction to men is not known to my family and friends - online is a way you can talk to other same-sex attracted men about sti prevention etc Online you can chose to be nameless or faceless. I don't want to acknowledge these issues to friends out of fear of judgement or gossip.
  34. 34. Being able to discuss these issues in an anonymous online forum allows you to be more open and forthcoming with information and experiences of health issues that may carry a stigma in day to day life. The fear of stigma would prevent me from opening up about these issues offline. I am careful talking about depression, relationship issues and childhood abuse because of the stigma. In the anonymity of public online forums, I can express myself more freely. I don't care if it's males or females who answer.
  35. 35. You're more likely to find people with similar experiences you can learn from and discuss things with. There's also a degree of anonymity, plus I feel like I can discuss things with more time and more specifics when working in text than face to face. Because it's embarrassing to talk about a genital problem offline. Duh.
  36. 36. 10 17 4 6 0 1 23 18 25 31 33 16 16 24 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Have shared with my partner (Male) Have shared with my partner (Female) Have shared with friends (Female) Have shared with friends (Male) Have shared with colleagues (Female) Have shared with colleagues (Male) Have shared with strangers (e.g. on dating site, health/fitness forum, or sex site) Naked/Nude Shirtless Online Personal Image Sharing 75 38 56 57 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Have never shared Have Shared Naked/Nude Shirtless n=113
  37. 37. Online Personal Video Sharing n=113 1 4 2 3 0 0 3 1 4 4 5 1 1 2 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Have shared with my partner (Male) Have shared with my partner (Female) Have shared with friends (Female) Have shared with friends (Male) Have shared with colleagues (Female) Have shared with colleagues (Male) Have shared with strangers (e.g. on dating site, health/fitness forum, or sex site) Naked/Nude Shirtless 106 7 103 10 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Have never shared Have shared Naked/Nude Shirtless
  38. 38. 42.5% 57.5% Have you ever used digital media to find sexual/romantic partners? Yes No Finding Partners n=113
  39. 39. Sharing Life Sense of Humour Independence Maturity Physicality Sense of Adventure Lifestyle Habits (e.g. Drinking habits, Drug habits, Dietary preferences) Sensitivity Hobbies Sexual Prowess Sense of Style Career Success Practicality Other (please specify) Financial Success/Stability Political Persuasion Sporting Prowess Spiritual/Religious views 0 10 20 30 40 What main traits were you trying to emphasise about yourself when using digital media to find sexual/romantic partners (e.g. on your personal profile)? n=47
  40. 40. Having Partners n=113 n=40 36.3% 63.7% Have you ever had cybersex? Yes No Friends - Male I don't discuss cybersex activities with anyone Partner - Female Friends - Female Partner - Male Colleagues - Male Colleagues - Female Mother Father Siblings - Male Siblings - Female 0 10 20 Who did/do you discuss your cybersex activity with?
  41. 41. Accessing and Distributing Porn 86.6% 13.4% In the last 12 months have you accessed online pornography? Yes No n=112 12 19 8 2 1 1 0 0 64 8 11 13 2 1 1 1 0 70 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Partner (Male) Partner (Female) Friends (Male) Friends (Female) Family Members (Male) Family Members (Female) Colleagues (Male) Colleagues (Female) Nobody In the past 12 months I have VIEWED pornography with In the past 12 months I have SHARED pornography with n=97
  42. 42. Gender, Sexuality and Digital Media
  43. 43. References boyd, d. (2008a). Why Youth ♥ Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life. In Youth Identity and Digital Media. D. Buckingham, Ed. Cambridge, MIT Press: 119-142. boyd, d. (2008b). Taken out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Berkley, USA, University of California-Berkeley. Crawford, G., Gosling, V., Bagnall, G., & Light, B. (2014). Is There an App for That? A Case Study of the Potentials and Limitations of the Participatory Turn and Networked Publics for Classical Music Audience Engagement. Information, Communication and Society, Online First, 1-14. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2013.877953 http://eprints.qut.edu.au/68422 Johnson, D. G. (1997). "Ethics Online." Communications of the ACM 40(1): 60-65. Karppi, T. (2014). Disconnect.Me User Engagement and Facebook (Thesis Narrative for PhD by Publication). Turku, University of Turku. Lange, P. G. (2007). "Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13(1): 361-380. Light, B. (2007). "Introducing Masculinity Studies to Information Systems Research: the Case of Gaydar." European Journal of Information Systems 16(5): 658-665. Light, B. (2013). "Networked Masculinities and Social Networking Sites: A Call for the Analysis of Men and Contemporary Digital Media." Masculinities and Social Change 2(3): 245-265. Light, B. (2014). Disconnecting with Social Networking Sites. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Livia, A. (2002). "Public and Clandestine: Gay Men's Pseudonyms on the French Minitel." Sexualities 5(2): 201-217. Mansell, R. and B. S. Collins (2005). Cyber Trust and Crime Prevention. In Trust and Crime in Information Societies. R. Mansell and B. S. Collins, Eds. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited: 11-56. Marwick, A. E. and d. boyd (2011). "I Tweet Honestly, I Tweet Passionately: Twitter Users, Context Collapse, and the Imagined Audience." New Media & Society 13(1): 114-133. Papacharissi, Z. (2010). A Private Sphere. Cambridge, Polity Press. Robards, B. (2012). "Leaving Myspace, Joining Facebook: 'Growing up' on Social Network Sites." Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies 26(3): 385-398. Vivienne, S. and J. Burgess (2012). "The Digital Storyteller's Stage: Queer Everyday Activists Negotiating Privacy and Publicness." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56(3): 362-377.

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