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  1. 1. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSalesFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchFor other uses, see Sales (disambiguation)."Salesman" redirects here. For the documentary film, see Salesman (film). The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view ofGlobeicon. the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (July 2010) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008) This section lacks a single coherent topic. Please help improve this section by Ambox rewording sentences or removing irrelevant information. Specific concerns may appear on question. the talk page. (July 2010) svg It has been suggested that account manager be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2010.A beach salesman showingnecklaces to a tourist in MexicoA sale is the act of selling a product or Marketingservice in return for money or other Key concepts [1]compensation. It is an act ofcompletion of a commercial activity.The seller orsalesperson– the provider of the goods or services– completes a sale in response to an file:///D|/Sales.htm (1 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  2. 2. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaacquisition or to an ● Product marketing ● Pricing ● Distribution ● Service ● Retail ● Brand management ● Account-based marketing ● Ethics ● Effectiveness ● Research ● Segmentation ● Strategy ● Activation ● Management ● Dominance ● Marketing operations Promotional contents ● Advertising ● Branding ● Underwriting spot ● Direct marketing ● Personal sales ● Product placement ● Publicity file:///D|/Sales.htm (2 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  3. 3. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ● Sales promotion ● Sex in advertising ● Loyalty marketing ● Mobile marketing ● Premiums ● Prizes Promotional media ● Printing ● Publication ● Broadcasting ● Out-of-home advertising ● Internet ● Point of sale ● Merchandise ● Digital marketing ● In-game advertising ● Product demonstration ● Word-of-mouth ● Brand ambassador ● Drip marketing ● Visual merchandisingfile:///D|/Sales.htm (3 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  4. 4. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ● v ● t ● eappropriation[disambiguation needed ] citation needed[ ] or to a request. There follows the passing of title(property or ownership) in the item, and the application and due settlement of a price, theobligation for which arises due to the sellers requirement to pass ownership. Ideally, a seller agreesupon a price at which he willingly parts with ownership of or any claim upon the item. Thepurchaser, though a party to the sale, does not execute the sale, only the seller does that. To beprecise the sale completes prior to the payment and gives rise to the obligation of payment. If theseller completes the first two above stages (consent and passing ownership) of the sale prior tosettlement of the price, the sale remains valid and gives rise to an obligation to pay.Contents ● 1 Sales techniques ● 2 Sales agents r 2.1 Inside sales vs. Outside sales ● 3 The relationships between sales and marketing r 3.1 Marketing potentially negates the need for sales r 3.2 Industrial marketing ● 4 Sales and marketing alignment and integration ● 5 See also ● 6 References[edit] Sales techniques [2]A sale can take place through: ● Direct sales, involving person to person contact ● Pro forma sales ● Agency-based r Sales agents (for example in real estate or in manufacturing) r Sales outsourcing through direct branded representation r Transaction sales file:///D|/Sales.htm (4 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  5. 5. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia r Consultative sales r Complex sales r Consignment r Telemarketing or telesales r Retail or consumer ● Traveling salesman r Door-to-door methods r hawking ● Request for proposal – An invitation for suppliers, through a bidding process, to submit a proposal on a specific product or service. An RFP usually represents part of a complex sales process, also known as "enterprise sales". ● Business-to-business – Business-to-business ("B2B") sales are much more relationship-based citation needed owing to the lack of emotional attachment[ ] to the products in question. Industrial/professional sales involves selling from one business to another ● Electronic r Web – Business-to-business ("B2B") and business-to-consumer ("B2C") r Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) – A set of standard for structuring information to be electronically exchanged between and within businesses ● Indirect, human-mediated but with indirect contact r Mail-order r vending machine ● Sales methods: r Selling technique r Consultative selling r Sales enablement r Solution selling r Conceptual Selling r Strategic Selling r Transactional Selling r Sales Negotiation r Reverse Selling r Paint-the-Picture r The take away r Sales Habits r Relationship Selling[edit] Sales agentsAgents in the sales process can represent either of two parties in the sales process; for example: file:///D|/Sales.htm (5 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  6. 6. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 1. Sales broker or Seller agency or seller agent: This is a traditional role where the salesman represents a person or company on the selling end of a deal. 2. Buyers broker or Buyer brokerage: This is where the salesman represents the consumer making the purchase. This is most often applied in large transactions. 3. Disclosed dual agent:This is where the salesman represents both parties in the sale and acts as a mediator for the transaction. The role of the salesman here is to oversee that both parties receive an honest and fair deal, and is responsible to both. 4. Transaction broker: This is where the salesperson represent neither party but handles the transaction only. The seller owes no responsibility to either party getting a fair or honest deal, just that all of the papers are handled properly. 5. Sales outsourcing involves direct branded representation where the sales representatives are recruited, hired, and managed by an external entity but hold quotas, represent themselves as the brand of the client, and report all activities (through their own sales management channels) back to the client. It is akin to a virtual extension of a sales force (see sales outsourcing). peacock term 6. Sales managers: qualified and talented[ ] sales managers aim to implement various sales strategies and management techniques in order to facilitate improved profits and increased sales volume. They are also responsible for coordinating the sales and marketing department as well as oversight concerning the fair and honest execution of the sales process by their agents. 7. Salesmen: The primary function of professional sales is to generate and close leads, educate prospects, fill needs and satisfy wants of consumers appropriately, and therefore turn prospective customers into actual ones. Questioning – to understand a customers goal and requirements relevant to the product – and the creation of a valuable solution by communicating the necessary information that encourages a buyer to achieve their goal at an economic cost comprise the functions of the salesperson or of the sales engine (for example, the Internet, a vending machine, etc). A good salesman should never mis-sell or over- evaluate the customers requirements.[edit] Inside sales vs. Outside salesSince the advent of the telephone, a distinction has been citation neededmade[ ] between "inside sales" and "outside sales" [3]although it is generally agreed that those terms have no hard-and-fast definition. In the UnitedStates, the Fair Labor Standards Act defines outside sales representatives as "employees [who] selltheir employers products, services, or facilities to customers away from their employers place(s) ofbusiness, in general, either at the customers place of business or by selling door-to-door at the [4]customers home" while defining those who work "from the employers location" as inside sales.Inside sales generally involves attempting to close business primarily over the phone via cold callingor telemarketing, while outside sales (or "field" sales) will usually involve initial phone work to booksales calls at the potential buyers location to attempt to close the deal in person. Some companies file:///D|/Sales.htm (6 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  7. 7. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahave an inside sales department that works with outside representatives and book theirappointments for them. Inside sales sometimes refers to upselling to existing customers.[edit] The relationships between sales and marketingMarketing and sales differ greatly, but have the same goal. Marketing improves the sellingenvironment and plays a very important role in sales. If the marketing department generates a listof potential customers, that can benefit sales. A marketing department in an organization has thegoal increasing the number of interactions between potential customers and the organization.Achieving this goal may involve the sales team using promotional techniques such as advertising,sales promotion, publicity, and public relations, creating new sales channels, or creating newproducts (new product development), among other things. It can also include bringing the potentialcustomer to visit the organizations website(s) for more information, or to contact the organizationfor more information, or to interact with the organization via social media such as Twitter, Facebookand blogs. when?The relatively new[ ] field of sales process engineering views "sales" as the output of alarger system, not just as the output of one department. The larger system includes manyfunctional areas within an organization. From this perspective, "sales" and "marketing" (amongothers, such as "customer service") label for a number of processes whose inputs and outputssupply one another to varying degrees. In this context, improving an "output" (such as sales)involves studying and improving the broader sales process, as in any system, since the component [5]functional areas interact and are interdependent.Most large corporations structure their marketing departments in a similar fashion to sales citation neededdepartments[ ] and the managers of these teams mustcoordinate efforts in order to drive profits and business success. For example, an "inbound" focusedcampaign seeks to drive more customers "through the door", giving the sales department a betterchance of selling their product to the consumer. A good marketing program would address anypotential downsides as well.The sales department would aim to improve the interaction between the customer and the salesfacility or mechanism (example, web site) and/or salesperson. Sales management would breakdown the selling process and then increase the effectiveness of the discrete processes as well asthe interaction between processes. For example, in many out-bound sales environments, the typicalprocess includes out-bound calling, the sales pitch, handling objections, opportunity identification,and the close. Each step of the process has sales-related issues, skills, and training needs, as wellas marketing solutions to improve each discrete step, as well as the whole process.One further common complication of marketing involves the inability to measure results for a greatdeal of marketing initiatives. In essence, many marketing and advertising executives often lose file:///D|/Sales.htm (7 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  8. 8. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediasight of the objective of sales/revenue/profit, as they focus on establishing a creative/innovativeprogram, without concern for the top or bottom lines - a fundamental pitfall of marketing formarketings sake.Many companies find it challenging to get marketing and sales on the same citation neededpage.[ ] The two departments, although different innature, handle very similar concepts and have to work together for sales to be successful. Buildinga good relationship between the two that encourages communication can be the key to success - [6]even in a down economy.[edit] Marketing potentially negates the need for salesSome sales authors and consultants contend that an expertly planned and executed marketingstrategy may negate the need for outside sales entirely. They suggest that by effectively bringingmore customers "through the door" and enticing them into contact, sales organizations candramatically improve their results, efficiency, profitability, and allow salespeople to provide adrastically higher level of customer service and satisfaction, instead of spending the majority of [7]their working hours searching for someone to sell to.[edit] Industrial marketingThe idea that marketing can potentially eliminate the need for sales people depends entirely oncontext. For example, this may be possible in some B2C situations; however, for many B2Btransactions (for example, those involving industrial organizations) this is mostly citation neededimpossible.[ ] Another dimension is the value of thegoods being sold. Fast-moving consumer-goods (FMCG) require no sales people at the point of saleto get them to jump off the supermarket shelf and into the customers trolley. However, thepurchase of large mining equipment worth millions of dollars will require a sales person to managethe sales process - particularly in the face of competitors.[edit] Sales and marketing alignment and integrationAnother area of discussion involves the need for alignment and integration between corporate salesand marketing functions. According to a report from the Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) Council, only40 percent of companies have formal programs, systems or processes in place to align andintegrate the two critical functions.Traditionally, these two functions, as referenced above, have operated separately, left in siloedareas of tactical responsibility. Glen Petersen’s book The Profit [8]Maximization Paradox sees the changes in the file:///D|/Sales.htm (8 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  9. 9. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediacompetitive landscape between the 1950s and the time of writing as so dramatic that thecomplexity of choice, price and opportunities for the customer forced this seemingly simple andintegrated relationship between sales and marketing to change forever. Petersen goes on tohighlight that salespeople spend approximately 40 percent of their time preparing customer-facingdeliverables while leveraging less than 50 percent of the materials created by marketing, adding toperceptions that marketing is out of touch with the customer and that sales is resistant tomessaging and strategy.[edit] See also Look up sale in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ● buzzword ● Choice architecture ● Customer service ● Demand chain ● Point of sale ● Retailing ● Sales (accounting) ● Sales Effectiveness ● Sales Incentive Plan ● Sales process engineering ● Sales management ● Sales territory ● Sales variance ● Selling ● Trade ● Transaction ● Vendor[edit] References 1. ^ "Sales". Retrieved 2007-04- 07. 2. ^ Compendium of Professional Selling . United Professional Sales Association. ?. ISBN ?. 3. ^ "What is Inside Sales?". The Bridge Group, Inc. 2009-07-14. http://blog.bridgegroupinc. com/blog/tabid/47760/bid/9977/What-is-Inside-Sales.aspx. Retrieved 2011-05-25. file:///D|/Sales.htm (9 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  10. 10. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 4. ^ "elaws - FLSA Overtime Security Advisor". US Department of Labour. Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-05-25. 5. ^ Paul H. Selden (December 1998). "Sales Process Engineering: An Emerging Quality Application". Quality Progress : 59–63. 6. ^ "Sales Vs Marketing - The Battle of the Words?". words/. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 7. ^ Rumbauskas, Frank (2006). Never Cold Call Again . John Wiley & Sons. p. 192. ISBN 0-471-78679-9. Page image [1] 8. ^ Petersen, Glen S. (2008). The Profit Maximization Paradox: Cracking the Marketing/ Sales Alignment Code . Booksurge Llc. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-4196-9179-9. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: SalesmenRetrieved from ""Categories: ● Business ● Business process ● Business terms ● Entrepreneurship ● SalesHidden categories: ● Articles with limited geographic scope from July 2010 ● Articles needing additional references from April 2008 ● All articles needing additional references ● Articles to be merged from August 2010 ● All articles to be merged ● Articles with links needing disambiguation from February 2012 ● All articles with unsourced statements ● Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010 ● All articles with peacock terms ● Articles with peacock terms from July 2010 ● Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010 ● Vague or ambiguous time from July 2010 ● Articles with unsourced statements from April 2007 file:///D|/Sales.htm (10 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  11. 11. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPersonal tools ● Log in / create accountNamespaces ● Article ● TalkVariantsViews ● Read ● Edit ● View historyActionsSearch SearchNavigation ● Main page ● Contents ● Featured content ● Current events ● Random article ● Donate to WikipediaInteraction ● Help ● About Wikipedia ● Community portal ● Recent changes ● Contact WikipediaToolbox file:///D|/Sales.htm (11 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  12. 12. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ● What links here ● Related changes ● Upload file ● Special pages ● Permanent link ● Cite this pagePrint/export ● Create a book ● Download as PDF ● Printable versionLanguages ● Afrikaans ● •••• ● ‫ﺓﻱﺏﺭﻉﻝﺍ‬ ● Česky ● Deutsch ● Esperanto ● Français ● ••• ● Íslenska ● •••• •••/••••••••••••• ••••••• ● ‫תירבע‬ ● Latviešu ● Nederlands ● ••• ● ‪Norsk (bokmål)‬ ● Русский ● Simple English ● Slovenčina ● Svenska ● ‫שידִיי‬ ● •• ● This page was last modified on 12 April 2012 at 04:10. ● Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. file:///D|/Sales.htm (12 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]
  13. 13. Sales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. ● Contact us ● Privacy policy ● About Wikipedia ● Disclaimers ● Mobile view Wikimedia ● Foundation Powered by ● MediaWikifile:///D|/Sales.htm (13 of 13) [4/23/2012 12:25:52 AM]