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  1. 1. 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901 present: The Digital Divide
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Defining the divide? </li></ul><ul><li>Why the Divide? </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of the Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging the Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  3. 3. <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul>Defining The Divide 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  4. 4. The Divide 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  5. 5. Defining the Divide <ul><li>The ‘gap’ between the technologically advanced and the technologically poor </li></ul><ul><li>Exists between the global North and South, within continents and countries </li></ul><ul><li>Brings many setbacks to the area involved </li></ul><ul><li>Can be solved and transformed into ‘Digital Opportunities’ </li></ul><ul><li>The Digital Divide includes disproportion in physical access to technology as well as disproportion in resources and skills needed to participate in technology </li></ul><ul><li>It is argued that the Digital Divide is nothing more than a perceived gap. </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  6. 6. Defining The Divide <ul><li>High vs Degraded quality of access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low performance computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low performance connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High price connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access through Internet café or at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different levels of skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to operate the technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to actually use the technology for some purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for reading and writing skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different levels of training capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Computer-literate” </li></ul></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  7. 7. Penetration Rate 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  8. 8. Computer/Internet Users by Country:
  9. 9. Computers Per Person 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  10. 10. Digital Divide Worldwide – The leading countries <ul><li>Europe : A study in 2005 in 14 European countries focused on the digital divide found that within the EU, the digital divide is primarily a matter of age and education. Among the young or educated the proportion of computer or Internet users is much higher than with the old or uneducated. The divide is also higher in rural areas. It was found the presence of children in a household increases the chance of having a computer. The study also notes that &quot;Despite increasing levels of ICT usage in all sections of society, the divide is not being bridged.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>United States : A 2008 Pew Internet & American Life report, “55% of adult Americans have broadband Internet connections at home, up from 47% who had high-speed access at home last year at this time”. This increase of 8% compared to the previous year’s increase of 5% suggests that the digital divide is decreasing. </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  11. 11. Why The Divide 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  12. 12. Why the Divide? <ul><li>The result of unpreparedness of the ‘victims’. </li></ul><ul><li>Worse in areas that do not pay attention to the benefit of ICT in economic growth or cannot afford to. </li></ul><ul><li>The original lack of help from the north </li></ul><ul><li>Although the internet is available everywhere, somehow, (apart from the poles) most service providers are north based and charge more to the south . </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  13. 13. Effects of The Divide 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  14. 14. Effects of the Divide <ul><li>The Digital Divide deepens poverty levels – the poor spend more to live rich </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of bridging the Digital Divide has negative effects on economic stability </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals at the “bitter” end of the divide cannot compete with their counterparts due to technological disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>The Digital Divide reduces the possibility of a global “level” in trade, investment and relations </li></ul><ul><li>The Digital Divide can create a complex situation in which the South is perpetually at the mercy of the North due to issues such as Data Control </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  15. 15. <ul><li>What can be done? </li></ul>Bridging the Divide 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  16. 16. Bridging the Divide <ul><li>The Digital Divide can be bridged, and can be transformed into Digital Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging the Digital Divide will involve nations on both sides reaching bilateral agreements, e.g. World Summit on the Information Society, United Nations </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  17. 17. Bridging the Divide <ul><li>Take advantage of young people – the future workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Equip children early with ICT skills needed </li></ul><ul><li>Provide ICT equipment (OLPC) (SolarNet) </li></ul><ul><li>Large companies donate old IT stock –without the hard drives of course! </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  18. 18. Bridging the Divide <ul><li>The use of community-run, government funded places of connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Use of more (free!) integrated systems in the household </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  19. 19. Bridging the Divide <ul><li>Policy is essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to support these strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to decide among them in the allocation of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing/Emerging Countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of ICT related laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For e-Commerce </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For intellectual property </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  20. 20. Example <ul><li>South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic and Communications Act (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICT Policy Framework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting historical imbalances in the provision of </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communication services through easy and cheap access to ICT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing an innovation system for ICT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing ICT human resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making South Africa globally competitive in ICT products and services </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opening up opportunities for historically disadvantaged communities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilise ICT for further integration in Africa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  21. 21. Conclusion 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>Digital Divides are being bridged slowly now, thanks to major companies and benefactors </li></ul><ul><li>Major players in bridging Digital Divides will “drive” the post-Digital Divide era – businesses, governance, institutions, individuals, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: What is not being done to bridge my country’s Divide, and how can I/We take steps towards influencing the situation? </li></ul>0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  23. 23. Thanks For Listening! 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901
  24. 24. <ul><li>&quot;BBC - BBC Internet Blog: Digital Divide Discussion.&quot; BBC - Homepage. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;BBC - BBC Internet Blog: The Digital Divide.&quot; BBC - Homepage. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;BBC NEWS | Technology | Bridging Brazil's digital divide.&quot; BBC NEWS | News Front Page. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  Cullen, Rowena. &quot;Addressing the digital divide.&quot; Online Information Review 25 (2001): 311-20. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;The Daily, Thursday, June 12, 2008. Canadian Internet Use Survey.&quot; Statistics Canada: Canada's national statistical agency / Statistique Canada : Organisme statistique national du Canada. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  Digital divide facing a crisis or creating a myth? Cambridge, Mass: MIT P, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>  The Digital Divide Network. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  Global Alliance for ICT and Development Home. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;Internet-in-a-box for areas without electricity | Springwise: your daily fix of new business ideas.&quot; Springwise | New business ideas from around the world. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  Kuttan, Appu. From Digital Divide to Digital Opportunity. Lanham: ScarecrowEducation, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;A List Apart: Articles: Down By Law.&quot; A List Apart: A List Apart. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  Loges, William E., and Joo-Young Jung. &quot;Exploring the digital divide.&quot; Communication Research (2001). </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;Pew Global Attitudes Project: Summary of Findings: Truly a World Wide Web.&quot; Pew Global Attitudes Project - A series of worldwide public opinion surveys. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  Servon, Lisa J. Bridging the Digital Divide Technology, Community, and Public Policy. Grand Rapids: Blackwell Limited, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>  Skerrat, Rusten/. Information and Communication Technologies in Rural Society (Routledge Studies in Technology, Work and Organizationsá). New York: Routledge, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>  Warschauer, Mark. Technology and Social Inclusion Rethinking the Digital Divide. New York: The MIT P, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;Which countries/areas have no internet access? -.&quot; Yahoo! Answers India. 15 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>References 0603306, 0606586 and 0505901