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الحقيبة التدريبية للأمراض الجلدية

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الحقيبة التدريبية للأمراض الجلدية

  1. 1. ‫األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫األمراض اجللدية‬ ‫الشائعة‬ ‫‪Guidelines for the Management of‬‬ ‫‪Common Dermatological Disorders in‬‬ ‫’‪Primary Care‬‬ ‫د/ِٛعٝ ثٓ عّؾبْ ثٓ ساعٟ اٌؼٕضٞ‬ ‫اعزشبسٞ ؿت األعشح‬ ‫ِذ٠ش إداسح اٌزذس٠ت ٚاٌجشاِظ‬ ‫اٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫ٚصاسح اٌظؾخ‬
  2. 2. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫ِمذِخ‬ ‫, ٚٔظشا ألّ٘١خ اٌغٍذ وؼؼٛ أعبعٟ ٚفؼبي فٟ ؽّب٠خ اٌغغُ‬ ‫اٌغٍذ ٘ٛ أوجش أػؼبء عغُ اإلٔغبْ ؽغّب‬ ‫ِٚشآح رؼىظ اٌظؾخ اٌذاخٍ١خ ٌٍفشد وبٔذ اٌؾبعخ إٌٝ ٚػغ دٌ١ً ػٍّٟ ِٚجغؾ ػٓ و١ف١خ رشخ١ض ِٚؼبٌغخ‬ ‫األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ فٟ اٌّشاوض اٌظؾ١خ , ٚاٌزٞ عٛف ٠غبُ٘ فٟ رٛف١ش اٌٛلذ ٚاٌغٙذ ٚاٌّبي ٚاٌّٛاسد‬ ‫ٚ٠خفف ِٓ أػجبء اإلؽبالد إٌٝ اٌّغزشف١بد إال فٟ اٌؾبالد اٌؼشٚس٠خ 0 ٚلذ سٚػٟ ػٕذ ٚػغ ٘زا اٌجشٔبِظ‬ ‫اٌزذس٠جٟ اٌٙبَ ِٛاوجخ االرغب٘بد اٌؾذ٠ضخ فٟ اوزشبف ٚرشخ١ض األِشا ع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ ٚ اخز١بس أٔغت‬ ‫اٌـشق اٌؼالع١خ ثبعزخذاَ اٌـت اٌّجٕٟ ػٍٝ اٌجشا٘١ٓ فٟ ػالط رٍه األِشاع0 ِّب عٛف ٠ىْٛ ٌٗ ثبٌغ األصش‬ ‫فٟ رؾغ١ٓ ِشدٚد األداء – ثئرْ اهلل -‬ ‫د/ِٛعٝ ثٓ عّؾبْ ثٓ ساعٟ اٌؼٕضٞ‬ ‫اعزشبسٞ ؿت األعشح‬ ‫ِذ٠ش إداسح اٌزذس٠ت ٚاٌجشاِظ‬ ‫اٌشعا٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫ٚصاسح اٌظؾخ‬ ‫2‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  3. 3. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫اٌغ١شح اٌزار١خ ٌٍّذسة‬ ‫االعُ : ِٛعٝ ثٓ عّؾبْ ثٓ ساعٟ اٌج١بػٟ اٌؼٕضٞ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ربس٠خ اٌّ١الد: 6831٘ـ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌغٕغ١خ : عؼٛدٞ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌؼًّ: ٚصاسح اٌظؾخ ( اٌشئْٛ اٌظؾ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع )‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌزخظض : اعزشبسٞ ؿت أعشح‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌؼٕٛاْ : اٌٍّّىخ اٌؼشث١خ اٌغؼٛد٠خ اٌش٠بع ص ة 164121 اٌشِض اٌجش٠ذٞ 99611‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫رٍ١فْٛ اٌؼًّ : 140578410‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫فبوظ : 140578410‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫عٛاي : 9280045550‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌجش٠ذ االٌ١ىزشٟٚٔ :‪dralanazi@yahoo.com‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌّؤ٘الد اٌؼٍّ١خ‬ ‫ثىبٌٛس٠ٛط اٌـت ٚاٌغشاؽخ عبِؼخ اٌٍّه ػٛد ثبٌش٠بع ػبَ 8141 ٘ـ‬ ‫ط‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌضِبٌخ اٌؼشث١خ ٌـت األعشح ٚاٌّغزّغ ػبَ 3241 ٘ـ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌذوزٛساٖ فٟ اٌـت اٌٙ١ئخ اٌغؼٛد٠خ ٌٍزخظظبد اٌظؾ١خ ػبَ 3241 ٘ـ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫شٙبدح اإلٔؼبػ اٌمٍجٟ اٌشئٛٞ ِٓ عّؼ١خ اٌمٍت اٌغؼٛد٠خ ٚاألِش٠ى١خ ػبَ 3002 َ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫شٙبدح ِٕظّخ اٌظؾخ اٌؼبٌّ١خ وّذسة ٌٍّؼبٌغخ اٌّزىبٍِخ ٌٍـفً ػبَ 5002 فٟ ِٕـمخ اٌش٠بع .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌخجشاد اٌؼٍّ١خٚ اٌؼٍّ١خ‬ ‫13 / 5 /1002 َ 7‬ ‫اٌؼًّ فٟ رخظض ؿت األعشح ٚاٌّغزّغ فٟ ِشوض اٌذساعبد اٌؼٍ١ب ثبٌّذ٠ٕخ إٌّٛسح فٟ اٌفزشح ِٓ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫/1 /3002 َ.‬ ‫اٌؼًّ ِغبػذا ٌّذ٠ش اٌشئْٛ اٌظؾ١خ آٔزان ِٚؼبٌٟ ٚص٠ش اٌظؾخ ؽبٌ١ب دوزٛس ؽّذ ثٓ ػت د اهلل اٌّبٔغ فٟ اٌفزشح ِٓ 92‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫/ 21 /3241 ٘ـ ـ 82/3/4241 ٘ـ.‬ ‫اٌؼًّ سئ١ظ ٌغٕخ اٌؼالط ثبعش ٚاٌؼّبْ اٌظؾٟ فٟ إداسح اٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع ؽزٝ ا٢ْ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ػؼٛ ِٕظّخ اٌظؾخ اٌؼبٌّ١خ ٌزذس٠ت أؿجبء ٚصاسح اٌظؾخ فٟ اٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ ٌٍّؼبٌغخ اٌّزىبٍِخ ٌظؾخ اٌـفً‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫(‪. ) IMCI‬‬ ‫شٙبدح ِٓ اٌىٍ١خ اٌٍّى١خ االعزشاٌ١خ ٌذساعخ اٌٛػغ اٌظؾٟ فٟ دٌٚخ اعزشاٌ١ب ٚرٌه ػبَ 4002 َ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ػؼٛ ٌغٕخ اٌزذس٠ظ ٌٍزذس٠ت اٌـجٟ اٌّغزّش فٟ إداسح اٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌؼًّ فٟ اٌىٍ١خ اٌٍّى١خ االعزشاٌ١خ ٌزخظض ؿت األعشح ثّذ٠ٕخ ع١ذٟٔ ٍِٚجٛسْ ثبعزشاٌ١ب فٟ اٌفزشح ِٓ 32 /8 /4002‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ؽزٝ 02 / 9 / 4002 َ ٌٍٛلٛف ػٍٝ اٌزغشثخ االعزشاٌ١خ فٟ اٌزخظظبد اٌظؾ١خ .‬ ‫اٌؼًّ سئ١غب ٌٍغٕخ اِزؾبٔبد اٌؼّبٌخ اٌٛافذح ِٓ اٌفٍج١ٓ ٌٍؼًّ ثّغزشف١بد ٚصاسح اٌظؾخ ِٓ فئخ األؿجبء ٚاٌزّش٠غ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ٚاٌظ١بدٌخ فٟ اٌفزشح ِٓ 52 /4 /4002 َ ؽزٝ 03 /4 /4002 َ فٟ ِذ٠ٕخ ِبٔ١ال .‬ ‫اٌّشبسوخ فٟ ِؼبٌغخ اإلطبثبد فٟ اٌؾشة فٟ ِذ٠ٕخ ثغذاد ٚرٌه ِغ ِغزشفٝ اٌمٛاد اٌّغٍؾخ اٌغؼٛد٠خ اٌّزٕمً‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ثبٌؼشاق فٟ ػبَ 4241 ٘ـ .‬ ‫سئ١ظ ٌغٕخ رم١١ُ األؿجبء فٟ اٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ػؼٛ ٌغٕخ رم١١ُ األؿجبء اٌؼبٍِ١ٓ ِشاوض اٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ٌّٕـمخ ِىخ اٌّىشِخ 0341 ٘ـ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ٔبئت سئ١ظ اٌٍغٕخ اٌفٕ١خ اٌزٕف١ز٠خ ٌّىبفؾخ اٌذاء اٌغىشٞ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫رٚ ِشبسوخ فؼبٌخ فٟ إػذاد اٌؾم١جخ اٌزذس٠ج١خ ٌّىبفؾخ اٌذاء اٌغىشٞ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع 0341 ٘ـ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌّشبسوخ اٌمٛ٠خ إػذاد اٌؾم١جخ اٌزذس٠ج١خ ٌّهافؾخ اٌذاء اٌغىشٞ ثبٌٛصاسح ٚفك اٌذٌ١ً األوٍغٕ١ىٟ اٌّٛؽذ 0341 ٘ـ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫رٚ ٔشبؽ ٚاػؼ ِٚضّش فٟ رذس٠ت األؿجبء اٌؼبٍِ١ٓ ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع ِٕٚبؿك اٌزـٛ٠ش ثبٌجبؽخ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ٚاٌخشط ٚاٌغٛف .‬ ‫خـبثبد اٌشىش ٚاٌزضو١خ‬ ‫‪ ‬خـبة شىش ِٓ ِؼبٌٟ ٚص٠ش اٌظؾخ اٌغبثك اٌذوزٛس ؽُ د ثٓ ػجذ اهلل اٌّبٔغ ٌٍّشبسوخ فٟ اٌفش٠ك اٌـجٟ اٌّشبسن ِٓ‬ ‫ؽىِٛخ خبدَ اٌؾشِ١ٓ اٌشش٠ف١ٓ ثبٌّغزشفٝ اٌغؼٛدٞ اٌّ١ذأٟ ثبٌؼشاق فٟ 91 /3/4241٘ـ .‬ ‫‪ ‬خـبة شىش ِٓ ِذ٠ش ػبَ اٌشئْٛ اٌظؾ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌّذ٠ٕخ إٌّٛسح ٌٍّشبسوخ فٟ إٔغبػ ؽظ 0241 ٘ـ‬ ‫3‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  4. 4. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫ؽٟ ثشّبي اٌّذ٠ٕخ إٌّٛسح ٌٍّشبسوخ ٌؾظ ػبَ 0241 ٘ـ .‬ ‫شٙبدح شىش ِٓ ِذ٠ش اٌمـبع اٌض‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫شٙبدح شىش ِٓ ِذ٠ش اٌمـبع اٌظؾٟ ثشّبي اٌّذ٠ٕخ إٌّٛسح ٌٍّشبسوخ ٌؾظ ػبَ 1241 ٘ـ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫شٙبدح شىش ِٓ ِذ٠ش اٌمـبع اٌظؾٟ ثشّبي اٌّذ٠ٕخ إٌّٛسح ٌٍّشبسوخ ٌؾظ ػبَ 2241 ٘ـ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫شٙبدح شىش ِٓ اإلداسح اٌؼبِخ ٌٍّشاوض اٌظؾ١خ ثٛصاسح اٌظؾخ ٌٍّشبسوخ فٟ اٌمبء اٌّؾبػشاد ٚ إٌشبؽ اٌزذس٠جٟ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌـجٟ اٌّغزّش وّؾبػش فٟ اٌّشاوض اٌّٛعّ١خ فٟ اٌؾظ ٌؼبَ 5241 ٘ـ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌؼًّ ؽبٌ١ب ِذ٠ش اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ثبٌشئْٛ اٌظؾ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع ٚسئ١ظ ٌغٕخ اٌزؼٍ١ُ اٌـجٟ اٌّغزّش ثئداسح اٌشػب٠خ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌظؾ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع .‬ ‫خـبة شىش ِٓ عؼبدح ِذ٠ش اإلداسح اٌؼبِخ ٌٍّشاوض اٌظؾ١خ ثٛصاسح اٌظؾخ اٌذوزٛس / ػظبَ اٌغبِذٞ ػٍٝ اٌغٙذ اٌّزّ١ض‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫فٟ إػذاد اٌؾمبئت اٌزذس٠ج١خ ٌٍجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ اٌّخزٍمخ ٚرّ١ض٘ب ػٍٝ ِغزٜٛ إٌّبؿك ثبٌٍّّىخ ٌؼبَ 9241 ٘ـ0‬ ‫خـبة شىش ِٓ عؼبدح ِذ٠ش اٌشئْٛ اٌظؾ١خ ثب ٌش٠بع اٌذوزٛس / ٘شبَ ثٓ ِؾّذ ٔبػشح ػٍٝ اٌغٙذ اٌّزّ١ض فٟ إػذاد‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌؾمبئت اٌزذس٠ج١خ ٌٍجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ اٌّخزٍمخ ٚرّ١ض٘ب ػٍٝ ِغزٜٛ إٌّبؿك ثبٌٍّّىخ ٌؼبَ 9241 ٘ـ0‬ ‫خـبة شىش ِٓ عؼبدح اٌذوزٛس / ِششف اٌمـبع األٚعؾ ٌّشبسوزٗ اٌفؼبٌخ ٚاٌزٟ عبّ٘ذ فٟ ٔغبػ دٚسح األِشاع‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌّضِٕخ ٚاٌزٟ أل١ّذ ثّغزشفٝ األ٠ّبْ اٌؼبَ ػبَ 0341 ٘ـ رؾذ سػب٠خ عؼبدح ِذ٠ش اٌشئْٛ اٌظؾ١خ ثبٌش٠بع اٌذوزٛس‬ ‫/٘شبَ ٔبػشح‬ ‫خـبة شىش ِٓ عؼبدح اٌذوزٛس رٛف١ك خٛعخ ِذ٠ش ػبَ اٌّىزت اٌزٕف١زٞ ٌّغٍظ ٚصساء اٌظؾخ ٌذٚي اٌزؼبْٚ اٌخٍ١غٟ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ٚرٌه ػٓ األػذاد اٌّزّ١ض ٌٍؾم١جخ اٌزذس٠ج١خ ٌّهافؾخ اٌذاء اٌغىشٞ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع 0341 ٘ـ‬ ‫فؾخ اٌذاء‬ ‫خـبة شىش ِٓ عؼبدح اٌذوزٛس ِؾّذ خش١ُ ٚو١ً اٌٛصاسح ٌٍزخـ١ؾ ٚاٌزـٛ٠ش ػٓ اٌؾم١جخ اٌزذس٠ج١خ ٌّىب‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌغىشٞ ٌّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫4‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  5. 5. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫اعُ اٌجشٔبَ ط : األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫ِجشساد اٌجــشٔبِظ :‬ ‫٠ّىٓ اٌمٛي ثأْ ٕ٘بن اٌؼذ٠ذ ِٓ اٌُ ثشساد اٌزٟ رذػٛا إٌٝ إلبِخ ِضبي ٘زا اٌجشٔبِظ اٌزذس٠جٟ ؛ ٌؼً ِٓ أثشص٘ب‬ ‫اٌّجشساد اٌشئ١غخ اٌزبٌ١خ‬ ‫1) اٌؾذ ِٓ أزشبس األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ ٚرٛؽ١ذ أعبٌ١ت اٌّؼبٌغخ ِٚزبثؼخ رٍه األِشاع فٟ اٌّشاوض اٌظؾ١خ‬ ‫ٚفك أؽذس األعظ ٚاٌـشق اٌؼٍّ١خ اٌّجٕ١خ ػٍٝ اٌجشا٘١ٓ0‬ ‫2) اٌزخـ١ؾ اٌغٍ١ُ ٚاٌجٕبء ٌٍؼٍّ١خ اٌزذس٠ج١خ0‬ ‫3) رٛف١ش اٌٛلذ ٚاٌغٙذ ٚاٌّبي ٚاٌّٛاسد.‬ ‫4) ػبًِ أعبعٟ ٌإلفبدح ِٓ اإلِىبٔبد اٌّزبؽخ ٌؼٍّ١خ اٌزذس٠ت.‬ ‫5) ِؼشفخ اٌششٚؽ اٌزٟ ٠ٍضَ رٛافش٘ب ٌٍٛفبء ثبالؽز١بعبد اٌزذس٠ج١خ .‬ ‫6) ِؤشش طبدق ٚؽم١مٟ ٌٕغبػ اٌجشٔبِظ اٌزذس٠جٟ ألٔٗ ِجٕٟ ػٍٝ اؽز١بط فؼٍٟ.‬ ‫اٌٙذف اٌؼــبَ ٌٍجشٔبِظ : ٠زٛلغ فٟ ٔٙب٠خ اٌجشٔبِظ أْ ٠ىْٛ اٌّشبسن لبدسا ػٍٝ :‬ ‫ِٛاوجخ االرغب٘بد اٌؾذ٠ضخ فٟ اوزشبف ٚرشخ١ض األِشا ع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ ٚ اخز١بس أٔغت اٌـشق اٌؼالع١خ‬ ‫ثبعزخذاَ اٌـت اٌّجٕٟ عٌٝ اٌجشا٘١ٓ فٟ ػالط رٍه األِشاع‬ ‫األ٘ــذاف اٌزفظ١ٍ١خ ٌٍجشٔبِظ : ٠زٛ لغ فٟ ٔٙب٠خ اٌجشٔبِظ أْ ٠ىْٛ اٌّشبسن لبدساً ػٍٝ أْ‬ ‫1-ِؼشفخ ِفَٙٛ األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ ( رشش٠ؼ اٌغٍذ & اٌّظـٍؾبد اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ & اٌٛعبئً‬ ‫اٌزشخ١ظ١خ ٚاٌغشاؽ١خ اٌؾذ٠ضخ).‬ ‫2-ِؼشفخ أٔٛاع األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ.( األرغب٘بد اٌؾذ٠ضخ فٟ ػالط ؽت اٌشجبة&‬ ‫اٌزٙبثبد اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌجىز١ش٠خ & األرٙبثبد اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌفـش٠خ( ِشع فـش اٌىبٔذ٠ذا& اٌز١ٕ١ب اٌٍّٛٔخ& األرٙبثبد‬ ‫اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌف١شٚع١خ(ِشع اٌٙشثظ اٌجغ١ؾ & اٌٙشثظ اٌؼظجٟ & اٌٍّ١غبء اٌّؼذ٠خ & اٌضأٌ١ً& اٌؼذٜٚ‬ ‫ح اٌخج١ضخ & أِشع اٌفمبػبد اٌغٍذ٠خِشع‬ ‫اٌـف١ٍ١خ اٌغٍذ٠خ( ِشع اٌغشة& اٌمًّ& األِشاع اٌغٍذٞ‬ ‫اٌضؼٍجخ& ِشع إٌخبٌخ اٌٛسد٠خ & اٌز١ٕ١ب اٌٍّٛٔخ & ِشع اٌضأٌٛي & ِشع اٌجٙبق & أِشاع اٌؾغبع١خ &‬ ‫لشش شؼش اٌشأط & & ِشع فـش اٌىبٔذ٠ذا & ِشع اٌؾضاص إٌّ١غؾ & ص٠بدح ٌْٛ اٌغٍذ(فشؽ‬ ‫اٌزظجغ)&اٌـفؼ اٌذٚائٟ & اوـض٠ّــب األؿفبي اٌٛساص١ـــخ &اٌؾظف اٌّؼذٞ& - ِشع اٌؾضاَ إٌبسٞ & ِشع‬ ‫اٌظذف١خ & اٌؾشٚق& إٌذٚة‬ ‫3- اخز١بس أٔغت اٌـشق اٌؼالع١خ ثبعزخذاَ اٌـت اٌّجٕٟ ػٍٝ اٌجشا٘١ٓ فٟ ػالط رٍه األِشاع‬ ‫اٌّغزٙذفْٛ ِٓ ثشٔبِظ :‬ ‫اي‬ ‫5‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  6. 6. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫األؿجبء ٚاٌـج١جبد اٌؼبٍِ١ٓ فٟ اٌّشاوض اٌظؾ١خ‬ ‫اٌغذٚي اٌضِٕٟ ثشٔـبِظ :‬ ‫ًٌ‬ ‫طُّ ٘زا اٌجشٔبِظ اٌزذس٠جٟ ػٍٝ صالس ٚؽذاد رذس٠ج١خ ، رمذَ ػٍٝ ِذٜ ( ٠ِٛبْ ) ثّؼذي (6) عبػبد ٠ِٛ١ب‬ ‫، ٠زخٍٍٙب اعزشاػر١ٓ ٌّذح ( 03 ) دل١مخ .‬ ‫8‬ ‫: (21 ) عبػخ رذس٠ج١خ ، رمذَ خالي اٌفزشح اٌظجبؽ١خ ِٓ اٌغبػخ‬ ‫ٌ١ىْٛ ِغّٛع عبػبد ٘زا اٌجشٔبِظ‬ ‫021 دل١مخ .‬ ‫طجبؽً ٚؽزٝ اٌضبٌضخ ظٙشً ، ػٍٝ ٚؽذر١ٓ وً ِّٕٙب ِمغّخ اٌٝ صالس عٍغبد ِذح وً عٍغخ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ٚع١ىْٛ اٌغذٚي اٌضِٕٟ ػٍٝ إٌؾٛ اٌزبٌٟ :‬ ‫اٌغٍغخ اٌضبٌضخ‬ ‫اعزشاؽخ ( 2 )‬ ‫اٌغٍغخ اٌضبٔ١خ‬ ‫اعزشاؽخ ( 1 )‬ ‫اٌغٍغخ األٌٚٝ‬ ‫1- 3‬ ‫ٌّذح 03 دل١مخ‬ ‫03 : 01 – 03 :21‬ ‫ٌّذح 03 دل١مخ‬ ‫8 - 01‬ ‫6‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  7. 7. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫اٌضِٓ‬ ‫٘ذف اٌغٍغخ اٌغٍٛوٟ‬ ‫ِٛػٛػبد اٌغٍغخ‬ ‫اٌـغٍغخ‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح‬ ‫اٌ١َٛ‬ ‫ِجبدا ػبِخ ؽٛي (رشش٠ؼ اٌغٍذ & أْ ٠ؼشف اٌّزذسة ِفَٙٛ ٚأٔٛاع‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫ؽمبئك ػٓ اٌغٍذ )‬ ‫اٌّظـٍؾبد اٌّغزخذِخ فٟ األِشاع‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫( 021 دل١مخ )‬ ‫اٌغٍغخ األٌٚٝ‬ ‫اٌغٍذ٠خ‬ ‫أْ ٠ىزغت اٌّزذسة ِٙبساد‬ ‫رشخ١ض اٌـفؼ اٌغٍذٞ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌزؼشف ٚرشخ١ض األِشاع‬ ‫األخزجبساد اٌغٍذ٠خ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫األعشاءاد اٌغشاؽ١خ ٌألِشاع‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌغٍذ٠خ‬ ‫اعزشاؽخ ٌّذح 03 دل١مخ‬ ‫ِمذِخ ػٓ األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ ايشبئؼخ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫األرغب٘بد اٌؾذ٠ضخ فٟ ػالط ؽت‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫( 021 دل١مخ )‬ ‫اٌغٍغخ اٌضبٔ١خ‬ ‫أْ ٠ىزغت اٌّزذسة ِٙبساد‬ ‫اٌشجبة‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ‬ ‫اٌزؼشف ٚرشخ١ض األِشاع‬ ‫اٌمشػ اٌفشاش١خ & اٌىبٌٛ (ػ١ٓ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌ١َٛ األٚي‬ ‫اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫اٌغّىخ) & إٌخبٌخ اٌٛسد٠خ &0000‬ ‫اٌظذف١خ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌزٙبثبد اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌجىز١ش٠خ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اٌغٍغخ‬ ‫اعزشاؽخ ٌّذح 03 دل١مخ‬ ‫اٌضبٌش‬ ‫ح‬ ‫األرٙبثبد اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌفـش٠خ ( ِشع فـش‬ ‫اٌىبٔذ٠ذا& اٌز١ٕ١ب اٌٍّٛٔخ&0000‬ ‫(ِشع‬ ‫األرٙبثبد اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌف١شٚع١خ‬ ‫( 021 دل١مخ )‬ ‫اٌٙشثظ اٌجغ١ؾ & اٌٙشثظ اٌؼظجٟ &‬ ‫اٌٍّغبء اٌّؼذ٠خ& اٌضأٌ١ً000000 ...‬ ‫اٌؼذٜٚ اٌـف١ٍ١خ اٌغٍذ٠خ ( ِشع اٌغشة &‬ ‫دساعخ ؽبالد – ِششائؼ ػشع‬ ‫اٌمًّ0000000 ....‬ ‫ِٕبلشخ ػبِخ ٚؽٛاس .‬ ‫اٌضِٓ‬ ‫٘ذف اٌغٍغخ اٌغٍٛوٟ‬ ‫ِٛػٛػبد اٌغٍغخ‬ ‫اٌـغٍغخ‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح‬ ‫اٌ١َٛ‬ ‫‪ ‬األٌزٙبثبد اٌغٍذ٠خ ( اوض٠ّب اٌغٍذ)‬ ‫‪ ‬األٌزٙبثبد اٌغٍذ٠خ أألخشٜ (لشش‬ ‫اٌغٍغخ األٌٚٝ‬ ‫شؼش اٌشأط & اٌؾغبع١خ &‬ ‫021 دل١مخ‬ ‫أْ ٠ىزغت اٌّزذسة ِٙبساد اٌزؼشف‬ ‫اٌزٙبثبد اٌّالِغخ(0000‬ ‫ٚرشخ١ض األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫‪ ‬اٌـفؼ اٌذٚائٟ‬ ‫‪ ‬األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌخج١ضخ‬ ‫‪ ‬أِشع اٌفمبػبد اٌغٍذ٠خ‬ ‫اٌ١َٛ اٌضبٟٔ‬ ‫اعزشاؽخ ٌّذح 02 دل١مخ‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح‬ ‫اٌضبٔ١خ‬ ‫أْ ٠زؼشف اٌّزذسة ػٍٝ اخز١بس‬ ‫‪ ‬اٌؾشٚق‬ ‫دلٟ‬ ‫ٌغخ‬ ‫اٌظ‬ ‫21‬ ‫ٔ١خ‬ ‫اٌضب‬ ‫لخ‬ ‫0‬ ‫أٔغت اٌـشق اٌؼالع١خ ثبعزخذاَ‬ ‫إٌذٚة اٌغٍذ٠خ‬ ‫7‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  8. 8. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫اٌـت اٌّجٕٟ ػٍٝ اٌجشا٘١ٓ فٟ ػالط‬ ‫ِشبوً اٌشؼش‬ ‫رٍه األِشاع‬ ‫(فشؽ ٚٔمض‬ ‫( ص٠بدح ٚٔمض ٌْٛ اٌغٍذ‬ ‫اٌزظجغ)‬ ‫اٌزغب٘بد اٌؾذ٠ضخ فٟ رشخ١ض ٚػالط‬ ‫ؽ١خ‬ ‫األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ فٟ اٌشػب٠خ اٌض‬ ‫األٌٚ١خ‬ ‫اٌغٍغخ‬ ‫اعزشاؽخ ٌّذح 03 دل١مخ‬ ‫اٌضبٌضخ‬ ‫ٚسشخ ػًّ دساعخ ؽبالد – ػشع ِششائؼ‬ ‫021 دل١مخ‬ ‫ِٕبلشخ عّبػ١خ ٚخزبَ‬ ‫إسشبداد ٌٍّذسث١ٓ :‬ ‫ٌجزي‬ ‫ب ب‬ ‫1. اؿٍغ ػٍٝ أ٘ذاف اٌجشٔبِظ ٌاللزٕبع ثٙب أٚ ً لجً اٌجذء فٟ اٌزذس٠ت ، ؽ١ش ٠ؼذ االلزٕبع دافؼً لٛ٠ً‬ ‫ال‬ ‫اٌغٙذ ٚٔغبػ اٌّذسثخ .‬ ‫2. لَٛ ثبإلػذاد اٌغ١ذ ، ٚاالؿالع ػٍٝ ؽم١جخ اٌّذسة ، ٚاٌّزذسة ، ٚاألٔشـخ ......‬ ‫3. رأوذ ِٓ رٛفش اٌّٛاد اٌزذس٠ج١خ اٌالصِخ ِغجمً ( أعٙضح ، شفبف١بد ، ألالَ ،أٚساق ...).‬ ‫ب‬ ‫– ِىبْ اٌزذس٠ت – ِٕٚبعجزٙب ٌٍغٍغبد اٌزذس٠ج١خ ٚرٌه ثبٌٛلٛف‬ ‫4. رأوذ ِٓ عب٘ض٠خ اٌج١ئخ اٌزذس٠ج١خ‬ ‫ِجبششح لجً ثذء اٌغٍغبد ثٛلذ وبف .‬ ‫5. ٚصع اٌّزذسث١ٓ إٌٝ ِغّٛػبد ِٓ ( 4 – 6 ) أشخبص .‬ ‫6. اؿٍت ِٓ وً ِغّٛػخ أْ رؾذد ُمشسً ٌىزبثخ اإلعبثخ اٌّٛؽذح .‬ ‫ِ ا‬ ‫7. ٚػؼ أ٘ذاف اٌجشٔبِظ ػًِّٛ ، ٚأ٘ذاف اٌغٍغخ خظٛطً ، ٚؽذد اٌّٙبَ ٌٍّزذسث١ٓ ٚأػؾ ٌُٙ رؼٍ١ّبد‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ٚاػؾخ ثشأْ رٕظ١ُ اٌؼًّ داخً اٌّغّٛػبد ٚخبسعٙب .‬ ‫8. رم١ذ ثخـخ رٕف١ز اٌغٍغبد ٚٚلزٙب .‬ ‫8‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  9. 9. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫9. اخزبس أسثؼخ ِزذسث١ٓ ػشٛائ١ً وؾذ أدٔٝ ، ٌؼشع ِٕٚبلشخ إٌشبؽ فٟ اٌزـج١مبد اٌفشد٠خ.‬ ‫ب‬ ‫01. ثؼذ رٕف١ز األٔشـخ اٌغّبػ١خ اؿٍت ِٓ وً ِغّٛػخ رٍخ١ض ِب رٛطٍٛا إٌ١ٗ ، ٚوزبثزٗ ػٍٝ ٚسلخ أٚ‬ ‫شفبف١خ ٌؼشػٗ ػٍٝ ثبلٟ اٌّغّٛػبد .‬ ‫11. ٚفش شفبف١بد ٚألالَ ٍِٛٔخ ٚأٚساق ٌىزبثخ اإلعبثبد ، ٚٚصػٙب ثشىً وبف ػٍٝ اٌّغّٛػبد‬ ‫21. ٚصع األٔشـخ ػٍٝ أػؼبء اٌّغّٛػبد ِب أِىٓ ، إلربؽخ اٌفشطخ ٌٍغّ١غ .‬ ‫اد اٌزٟ رظٙش‬ ‫31. رغٛي ث١ٓ اٌّغّٛػبد أصٕبء إٌشبؽ ، ٌإلششاف ٚاٌّزبثؼخ ، ٚرمذ٠ُ اٌّغبػذح ٚرزٌ١ً اٌؼمت‬ ‫أصٕبء رٕف١ز األٔشـخ .‬ ‫41. ٚصع اٌّبدح اٌؼٍّ١خ ٌٍٕشبؽ ثؼذ ػشع اٌّزذسث١ٓ ، صُ لُ ثؼشػٙب ِٕٚبلشزٙب.‬ ‫٠ٓ‬ ‫51. ا٘زُ ثبٌؼاللبد اإلٔغبٔ١خ ٚنْٚ ِزٛاػغا ، ٚال رذػٟ اٌؼٍُ ، ٚنْٚ لذٚح ٌٍّزذسة‬ ‫61. ا٘زُ ثبٌزفبػً اٌٍفظٟ ٚغ١ش اٌٍفظٟ .‬ ‫٠ٓ ػٍٝ األعئٍخ ٚرجبدي اٌخجشاد .‬ ‫71. شغغ اٌّزذسة‬ ‫81. ؽٛي اٌّؼبسف إٌٝ ِٙبساد ٚ اثزؼذ ػٓ اٌزفبط١ً ٚسوضٞ ػٍٝ إٌمبؽ اٌٙبِخ .‬ ‫9‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  10. 10. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫إسشبداد ٌٍّزذسث١ٓ :‬ ‫ٔشىش ٌه أخٟ اٌّزذسة ؽؼٛسن ٘زا اٌجشٔبِظ اٌزذس٠جٟ ،ٚٔمذس ؽشطه ػٍٝ اوزغبة اٌّٙبسح ٚاٌزضٚد ِٓ‬ ‫اٌّؼشفخ ، ٚؽشطبً ػٍٝ رؾم١ك اٌٙذف ِٓ اٌزذس٠ت فئٕٔب ٔزوشن ثّب ٠ٍٟ :‬ ‫1. ايرذس٠ت ال ٠ىْٛ فؼبال إال ثبٌّشبسوخ اٌغّبػ١خ ػٓ ؿش٠ك ؿشػ األفىبس ٚإثذاء ا٢ساء ، ٚاٌزؼج١ش ػٕٙب‬ ‫ثؾش٠خ ، ٚدْٚ رشدد أٚ خغً .‬ ‫أخٟ اٌّزذسة ال رزؼغً اٌؾىُ ػٍٝ ِب رغّؼٗ أٚ رشب٘ذٖ ثبإل٠غبة أٚ اٌغٍت ، ٚاعؼً ؽىّه فٟ ٔٙب٠خ‬ ‫2.‬ ‫اٌجشٔبِظ .‬ ‫ٌ١ظ ثبٌؼشٚسح أْ وً ِب رؼزمذٖ ال ثذ أْ ٠ىْٛ طٛاثً ، فشثّب اٌظٛاة أٚ األفؼً – ػٍٝ ألً رمذ٠ش - ٌُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫3.‬ ‫رزؼٍّٗ ثؼذ ، فال رؾشَ ٔفغه ِؼشفخ اٌظٛاة أٚ األفؼً ؛ ثغجت لٕبػبره اٌغبثمخ .‬ ‫– ثئرْ اهلل – ٌىٓ ششؽ أْ ٠ىْٛ ٌذ٠ه‬ ‫٠ّىٓ أْ ٠ؾذس اٌجشٔبِظ رغ١١شً وج١شً فٟ أفىبسٔب ِٚٙبسارٕب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫4.‬ ‫االعزؼذاد اٌذاخٍٟ ٌٍزغ١١ش َ ْ راره .‬ ‫أخٟ اٌّزذسة ٔمذس ٌه ٚػغ ٘برفه اٌغٛاي ػٍٝ اٌٛػغ اٌظبِذ .‬ ‫5.‬ ‫ؽبٚي أْ رغغً فٟ ؽم١جزه وً فبئذح رش٠ٕٙب رؼ١ف ٌه عذ٠ذً ، ٚال رؤعٍٙب ِؼزّذح ػٍٝ ؽفظه ٚراوشره .‬ ‫ا‬ ‫6.‬ ‫7. رمجً اٌذٚس اٌزٞ ٠غٕذ إٌ١ه فٟ اٌّغّٛػخ .‬ ‫أخٟ اٌّزذسة اٌّذسة ٌ١ظ ِفٛػً ثأْ ٠أرْ ٌه ثبٌغ١بة فبؽشص ػٍٝ ِب ٠ٕفؼه .‬ ‫ب‬ ‫8.‬ ‫01‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  11. 11. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫األٔشــخ اٌزذس٠ج١خ :‬ ‫1. إٌّبلشخ ( فشد٠خ ، عّبػ١خ ) .‬ ‫2. ٚسػ اٌؼًّ .‬ ‫3. اٌّؾـبػشح ػٕذ اٌؼشٚسح .‬ ‫4. اٌؼظف اٌزٕٟ٘ .‬ ‫5. اٌؼشٚع اٌؼٍّ١خ ٌٚؼت األدٚاس .‬ ‫6. اٌؾبالد اٌؼٍّ١خ.‬ ‫اٌٛعـبئً اٌزذس٠ج١خ ( ِغزٍضِبد اٌزذس٠ت ) :‬ ‫1. عٙبص ؽبعت آٌٟ .‬ ‫2. عٙبص ػشع اٌج١بٔبد ( ‪. ) Data Show‬‬ ‫3. عٙبص اٌؼشع اٌؼٍٛٞ .‬ ‫4. شفبف١بد فبسغخ ٌالعزخذاَ .‬ ‫5. طٛس ، ِمـغ ف١ذ٠ٛ .‬ ‫6. ألـالَ ٍِٛٔخ ٚأٚساق ٌٍىزـبثخ .‬ ‫ششٚؽ االٌزؾبق ثبٌجشٔبِظ :‬ ‫٠غت أْ رزٛفش فٟ اٌّششؼ ٌٍجشٔبِظ اٌششٚؽ اٌزبٌ١خ :‬ ‫1. أْ ٠ىْٛ اٌّزذسة أؽذ ِٕغٛثٟ ٚصاسح اٌظؾخ ثبٌٍّّىخ اٌؼشث١خ اٌغؼٛد٠خ‬ ‫2. أْ ٠ىْٛ ٌذٜ دسة اٌشغجخ فٟ اإلفبدح ِٓ ٘زا اٌجشٔبِظ .‬ ‫اٌّذ‬ ‫رمـٛ٠ُ اٌجـشٔبِظ :‬ ‫٠زُ رمٛ٠ُ اٌجشٔبِظ ثبعزخذاَ األعبٌ١ت اٌزبٌ١خ‬ ‫:‬ ‫1. اعزجبٔخ رٛصع ػٍٝ اٌّشبسو١ٓ فٟ اٌجشٔبِظ رزٕبٚي اٌّؾبٚس اٌزبٌ١خ‬ ‫:‬ ‫. ة- اٌج١ئخ اٌزذس٠ج١خ- اٌّـذسة‬ ‫.‬ ‫.ط‬ ‫أ –اٌجشٔبِظ اٌزذس٠جٟ‬ ‫ؽ١ش ٠زُ رؾٍ١ً ٘زٖ ٔخ ثؼذ رٕف١ز اٌجشٔبِظ ٌزؾم١ك رغز٠خ ساعؼخ فٟ اٌّؾبٚس اٌضالصخ ، ثٙذف اإلعٙبَ فٟ رؾغ١ٓ اٌجش‬ ‫االعزجب‬ ‫11‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  12. 12. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Anatomy of the Skin Facts about the skin: The skin is the body''s largest organ, covering the entire body. In addition to serving as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection, the skin also:  regulates body temperature.  stores water and fat.  is a sensory organ.  prevents water loss.  prevents entry of bacteria. Throughout the body, the skin''s characteristics (thickness, color, texture) vary. For instance, the head contains more hair follicles than anywhere else, while the soles of the feet contain none. In addition, the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands are much thicker. The skin is made up of the following layers, with each layer performing specific functions:  epidermis  dermis  subcutaneous fat layer 12 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  13. 13. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ epidermis The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the skin and consists of three parts:  stratum corneum (horny layer) This layer consists of fully mature keratinocytes which contain fibrous proteins (keratins). The outermost layer is continuously shed. The stratum corneum prevents the entry of most foreign substances as well as the loss of fluid from the body.  keratinocytes (squamous cells) This layer, just beneath the stratum corneum, contains living keratinocytes (squamous cells), which mature and form the stratum corneum.  basal layer The basal layer is the deepest layer of the epidermis, containing basal cells. Basal cells continually divide, forming new keratinocytes that replace the cells that are shed from the skin''s surface. The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment). dermis The dermis is the middle layer of the skin. The dermis contains the following:  blood vessels  collagen bundles  lymph vessels  fibroblasts  hair follicles  nerves  sweat glands The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen, made by fibroblasts. This layer also contains pain and touch receptors. subcutis The subcutis is the deepest layer of skin. The subcutis, consisting of a network of collagen and fat cells, helps conserve the body''s heat and protects the body from injury by acting as a shock absorber. 13 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  14. 14. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Describing a Skin Condition How to describe a skin condition: A physician may ask you to describe your dermatological condition and its location. Here are some of the more common terms that may help you in providing a more accurate description: atrophic thin, wrinkled blister fluid-filled bump formation of dried blood, pus, or other skin fluid crust/scab over a break in the skin cyst deeply seated lesion that contains material excoriation a scratch hives/wheals pink or white swelling of the skin lichenification skin that has thickened macule a flat discolored spot nodule/papule solid, raised bump raised bumps bumps that stick out above the skin surface patch flat, discolored spot pustule inflamed lesions that appear to contain pus (pimple) scales dead skin cells that form flakes scar fibrous tissue that forms after a skin injury 14 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  15. 15. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Descriptive terms Macule the term macule is used to describe changes in colour or consistency ► without any elevation above the surface of the surrounding skin. There may be an increase of melanin, giving a black or blue colour ► depending on the depth of the pigment. Loss of melanin leads to a white macule. Vascular dilatation and inflammation produce erythema. Papules and nodules A papule is a circumscribed, raised lesion, conventionally less than 1 cm in ► 0diameter. It may be due to either epidermal or dermal changes A nodule is similar to a papule but over 1 cm in diameter. A vascular papule or nodule is known as an haemangioma Plaque Plaque is one of those terms which conveys a clear meaning to ► dermatologists . Plaques are most commonly seen in psoriasis. 15 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  16. 16. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Vesicles and bullae Vesicles and bullae are raised lesions that contain fluid. A bulla is a vesicle larger than 0.5 cm. They may be superficial ► within the epidermis or situated in the dermis below it. Lichenification Lichenification is another term frequently used in dermatology . ► Some resemblance to lichen seen on rocks and trees does occur, ► with hard thickening of the skin and accentuated skin markings. It is most often seen as a result of prolonged rubbing of the skin ► in localized areas of eczema Nummular Nummular means a ―coin-like‖ lesion. There is no hard and fast distinction from discoid lesions, which are flat ► disc-like lesions of variable size. 16 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  17. 17. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ It is most often used to describe a type of eczematous lesion . ► pustule The term pustule is applied to lesions containing purulent material—which ► which may be due to infection 0R sterile pustules, are seen in pustular psoriasis. Atrophy Atrophy refers to loss of tissue which may affect the epidermis, dermis, or ► subcutaneous fat. Thinning of the epidermis is characterised by loss of the normal skin ► markings, and there may be fine wrinkles, loss of pigment, and a translucent appearance. There may be other changes as well, such as sclerosis of the underlying ► connective tissue, telangiectasia, or evidence of diminished blood supply. Ulceration Ulceration results from the loss of the whole thickness of the epidermis and ► upper dermis. Healing results in a scar. 17 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  18. 18. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ An erosion An erosion is a superficial loss of epidermis that generally heals without scarring. Excoriation Excoriation is the partial or complete loss of epidermis as a result of scratching Fissures Fissures are slits through the whole thickness of the skin. Desquamation Desquamation is the peeling of superficial scales, often following acute ► inflammation. 18 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  19. 19. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Annular lesions Annular lesions are ring shaped lesions The term reticulate means ―net-like‖. It is most commonly seen ► when the pattern of subcutaneous blood vessels becomes visible. acne - a chronic disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Acne is characterized by black heads, pimple outbreaks, cysts, infected abscesses, and (sometimes) scarring. albinism - a rare, inherited disorder characterized by a total or partial lack of melanin (skin pigment) in the skin. alopecia - baldness. angioma - a benign tumor in the skin, which is made up of blood or lymph vessels. 19 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  20. 20. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ atopic dermatitis (Also called eczema.) - a skin disorder that is characterized by itching, scaling, thickening of the skin, and is usually located on the face, elbows, knees, and arms. atrophic skin - skin that is thin and wrinkled. basal cell carcinoma - the most common form of skin cancer; characterized by small, shiny, raised bumps on the skin that may bleed. basal cells - type of cells that are found in the outer layer of skin. Basal cells are responsible for producing the squamous cells in the skin. birthmark - abnormality of the skin that is present at birth or shortly afterward. bed sores - ulcers that occur on areas of the skin that are under pressure from lying in bed, sitting in wheelchairs, wearing a cast, or being immobile for a long period of time. biopsy - a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. blister - a fluid-filled bump. boil - tender, swollen areas that form around hair follicles. botulinum toxin type A - an injection of botulinum toxin into specific muscles will immobilize those muscles, preventing them from forming wrinkles and furrows. candidiasis (Also called yeast infection.) - a skin infection caused by yeast that can occur in the skin folds, navel, vagina, penis, mouth, and nail beds. carbuncles - clusters of boils on the skin. cavernous hemangioma - a raised, red or purple mark in the skin, made up of enlarged blood vessels. cellulitis - a bacterial infection of the skin that is characterized by swelling and tenderness. chemical peels - a procedure often used to minimize sun-damaged skin, irregular pigment, and superficial scars. The top layer of skin is removed with a chemical application to the skin. By removing the top layer, the skin regenerates, often improving the skin''s appearance. 20 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  21. 21. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ cold sore - small blisters around and in the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus. collagen - a natural protein found in humans that forms connective tissue and provides strength, resilience, and support to the skin, ligaments, tendons, bones, and other parts of the body. collagen injections - one type of collagen, which is derived from purified bovine (cow) collagen, is injected beneath the skin to replace the body''s natural collagen that has been lost. Injectable collagen is generally used to treat wrinkles, scars, and facial lines. creeping eruption - a skin infection caused by hookworms that is characterized by severe itching. crust (Also called scab.) - a formation of dried blood, pus, or other skin fluid over a break in the skin. cryosurgery - destruction of a lesion on the skin by freezing with liquid nitrogen. cyst - a deep lesion that is filled with pus or other contents. dermabrasion - used to minimize small scars, minor skin surface irregularities, surgical scars, and acne scars. As the name implies, dermabrasion involves removing the top layers of skin with an electrical machine that "abrades" the skin. As the skin heals from the procedure, the surface appears smoother and fresher. dermatitis - a number of skin conditions characterized by inflammation of the skin. dermatofibroma - small, red or brown bumps in the skin. dermis - the middle layer of skin, which is made up of blood vessels, lymph vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, collagen bundles, and fibroblasts. dermoid cyst - a benign tumor made up of hairs, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. eczema (Also called atopic dermatitis.) - a skin disorder that is characterized by itching, scaling, thickening of the skin, and is usually located on the face, elbows, knees, and arms. epidermis - the outermost layer of skin. erysipelas - a bacterial skin infection that usually affects the arms, legs, or face, characterized by shiny, red areas, small blisters, and swollen lymph nodes. 21 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  22. 22. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ erythema multiforme - a skin condition characterized by symmetrical, red, raised skin areas all over the body. erythema nodosum - a skin condition characterized by red bumps that usually appear on the shins. erythrasma - a skin infection of the top layer of skin characterized by irregular pink patches that turn to brown scales. exanthem - a rash. excoriation - an area of the skin covered by a crust, or scab, usually caused by scratching. folliculitis - an inflammation of the hair follicles due to an infection or irritation. freckles - darkened, flat spots that typically appear only on sun-exposed areas of skin. granuloma annulare - a chronic skin condition characterized by small, raised bumps that form a ring with a normal or sunken center. herpes zoster (Also called shingles.) - a common viral infection of the nerves, characterized by a painful skin rash of small blisters anywhere on the body. hirsutism - excessive hairiness. hives (Also called urticaria.) - a condition in which red, itchy, and swollen areas appear on the skin - usually as an allergic reaction from eating certain foods or taking certain medications. immune system - a collection of cells and proteins that works to protect the body from potentially harmful, infectious microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. immunocompromised - an abnormal condition in which one''s ability to fight infection is decreased. This can be due to a disease process, certain medications, or a condition present at birth. impetigo - a bacterial skin infection characterized by microscopic, pus-filled blisters. inflammation - redness, swelling, heat, and pain in a tissue due to chemical or physical injury, infection, or allergic reaction. 22 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  23. 23. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ keloids - smooth, pink, raised, firm, fibrous growths on the skin that form secondary to injury. keratinocytes (Also called squamous cells.) - the primary cell types found in the epidermis, the outer layer of skin. keratoacanthomas - round, flesh-colored growths with craters that contain a pasty material. keratosis pilaris - a common skin condition characterized by small, pointed bumps, especially on the back and sides of the upper arms. laser resurfacing - uses high-energy light to burn away damaged skin. Laser resurfacing may be used to minimize wrinkles and fine scars. lice - tiny parasites that can infest the skin; characterized by intense itching. lichenification - skin that has thickened. lipomas - round or oval lumps under the skin caused by fatty deposits. lymphangioma - a raised, yellow-tan or red mark in the skin, made up of enlarged lymphatic vessels. macular stains (Also called angel''s kisses or stork bites.) - faint, red marks that appear in the skin at birth. Angel''s kisses are marks on the forehead and eyelids. Stork bites are marks on the back of the neck. macule - the smaller version of a patch - a flat discolored spot. malignant melanoma - a rare, but sometimes deadly, skin cancer that begins as a mole that turns cancerous. melanocytes - cells present in the epidermis that produce melanin (skin pigment). melasma - dark, brown symmetrical patches of pigment on the face. moles - small skin marks caused by pigment-producing cells in the skin. Mongolian spots - Bluish-black marks on the lower back and buttocks; affects mainly African-American or Asian children. nodule (Also called papule.) - a solid, raised bump. 23 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  24. 24. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ paronychia - a skin infection around a finger or toenail. patch - a flat, discolored spot. pityriasis rosea - a common skin condition characterized by scaly, pink, and inflamed skin. port-wine stains (Also called nevi flammeus.) - permanent flat, pink, red, or purple marks on the skin. prickly heat - a rash caused by trapped sweat under the skin. psoriasis - a chronic skin condition characterized by inflamed, red, raised areas that develop silvery scales. punch grafts - small skin grafts to replace scarred skin. A hole is punched in the skin to remove the scar, which is then replaced with unscarred skin (often from the back of the earlobe). Punch grafts can help treat deep acne scars. pustule (Also called pimple.) - inflamed lesions that look like pink bumps. pyogenic granuloma - red, brown, or bluish-black raised marks caused by excessive growth of capillaries. ringworm - a fungal skin infection characterized by ring-shaped, red, scaly, or blistery patches. rosacea - a common skin condition characterized by redness, pimples, and broken blood vessels. salicylic acid - a keratolytic drug (a drug that removes the outer layer of skin) that is used to treat various skin conditions. sarcoidosis - an inflammation of the lymph nodes and other organs. scabies - an infestation of mites in the skin characterized by small pimples that itch. scales - dead skin cells that look like flakes or dry skin. scar - fibrous tissue that has formed after a skin injury. sebaceous glands - glands in the skin that secrete oil to the surface of the skin. 24 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  25. 25. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ seborrheic keratosis - flesh-colored, yellow, brown, or black wart-like spots. skin tags - soft, small, flesh-colored skin flaps on the neck, armpits, or groin. spider angioma - a bright red mark with a distinct dark spot in the skin. squamous cells (Also called keratinocytes.) - the primary cell types found in the epidermis, the outer layer of skin. squamous cell carcinoma - a form of skin cancer that affects about 20 percent of patients with skin cancer. This highly treatable cancer is characterized by red, scaly skin that becomes an open sore. subcutis - the deepest layer of skin; also known as the subcutaneous layer. tinea versicolor - a common fungal skin infection characterized by white or light brown patches on the skin. toxic epidermal necrolysis - a life-threatening skin disorder characterized by blistering and peeling of the top layer of skin. tretinoin - a drug which is chemically related to vitamin A; used to treat acne and other scaly skin disorders. trichotillomania - hair pulling. urticaria (Also called hives.) - a condition in which red, itchy, and swollen areas appear on the skin - usually as an allergic reaction from eating certain foods or taking certain medications. urushiol - resin in poison ivy plants that causes an allergic skin reaction. vitiligo - smooth, white patches in the skin caused by the loss of pigment-producing cells. wart - a non-cancerous skin growth caused by a virus. 25 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  26. 26. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Diagnosis of rash • Previous episodes of the rash, particularly in childhood, suggest a ► constitutional condition such as atopic eczema • Recurrences of the rash, particularly in specif situations, suggests a ► contact dermatitis. Similarly a rash that only occurs in the summer months may well have a ► photosensitive basis. • If other members of the family are affected, particularly without any ► previous history, there may well be a transmissible condition such as scabies A simplistic approach to rashes is to clarify them as being from ―inside‖ or ► ―outside‖ Examples of ―inside‖ or endogenous rashes are atopic eczema or drug rashes, whereas fungal infection or contact dermatitis are ―outside‖ rashes. History A relevant history should be taken in relation to occupational and environmental factors • Where? Site of initial lesion(s) and subsequent distribution • How long? Has condition been continuous or intermittent? • Prognosis—Is it getting better or worse? • Previous episodes—How long ago? Were they similar? Have there been other skin conditions? • Who else? Are other members of the family affected? Or colleagues at work or school? • Other features—Is there itching, burning, scaling, or blisters? Any association with drugs or other illnesses? • Treatment—By prescription or over the counter? Have prescribed treatments actually been used? Examinination The following points are helpful when examining skin lesions Distribution • This may give the essential clue, so a full examination is necessary. For example, there are many possible causes for 26 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  27. 27. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ dry thickened skin on the palms, and finding typical psoriasis on the elbows, knees, and soles may give the diagnosis Morphology • Are the lesions dermal or epidermal? Macular (flat) or forming papules? Indurated or forming plaques? With a well defined edge? Forming crusts, scabs, or vesicles? Pattern • This is the overall clinical picture of both morphology and distribution. For example, an indeterminate rash may be revealed as pityriasis rosea when the ―herald patch‖ is found Skin Tests What are skin tests? Skin tests may be performed to diagnose skin allergies, bacterial or fungal skin infections, and other diseases. Skin tests are also performed to differentiate between malignant (cancerous) cells and benign (noncancerous) growths. What are the most common skin tests?  patch testing Patch tests are used to help diagnose skin allergies. Identified allergins are applied to the skin with adhesive patches and left for a period of time. The skin is then examined for any reaction.  skin biopsy A skin biopsy is the removal of skin for laboratory analysis. The sample of skin may be removed with a scalpel or a cylindrical punch, after local anesthesia. Skin biopsies are performed to diagnose skin cancer or benign skin disorders.  culture Skin, hair, or nails may be cultured to detect bacteria, fungi, or viruses. 27 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  28. 28. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Common Dermatological Procedures The skin, the largest organ of the body, helps define a person''s look. Any unsightly skin appearance, such as scarring, can affect both mental and physical well-being. In addition, because the skin is on the outside of the body, it is more susceptible to growths, discolorations, and disease. There are many different dermatological procedures designed to improve the condition or appearance of the skin. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.  Acne Scar Removal  Chemical Peel  Dermabrasion / Dermaplaning  Laser Surgery Overview  Laser Surgery for Skin Conditions 28 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  29. 29. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ What Are the Common Skin Diseases? The skin is the largest organ of the body, covering the entire body. As the outer protective covering of the body, it is exposed to the environment, making it vulnerable to growths, rashes, discoloration, cysts, burns, injuries, infections, and other disorders. Dermatology is the study of skin diseases and conditions.  Common Skin Disorders o Acne o Bed Sores o Calluses and Corns o Dry Skin o Keratosis Pilaris o Pityriasis Rosea o Psoriasis o Rosacea o Sebaceous Cysts  Skin Infections o Bacterial Infections of the Skin o Fungal Infections of the Skin o Parasitic Infections of the Skin o Viral Infections of the Skin  Skin Inflammation (Rashes) o Dermatitis o Drug-Induced Rashes o Erythema Multiforme o Erythema Nodosum o Granuloma Annulare o Poison Ivy / Poison Oak o Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis  Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders o Birthmarks o Other Benign Skin Growths o Skin Cancer o Skin Pigment Disorders  Skin Sweating Disorders o Excessive Sweating o Prickly Heat  Skin Injury o Blisters o Burns o Sunburn o Scars  Skin Cancer  Hair Problems o Hair Problems Overview 29 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  30. 30. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ o Baldness (Alopecia) o Excessive Hairiness (Hirsutism) There are a great deal of common skin diseases, ranging from the very mild to the severe, so it's important to learn about all of them. Being able to recognize a dermatological disorder is the first step towards figuring out the best way to treat the condition. We will cover various afflictions and diseases of the skin in this article, some more prevalent than others. The most important thing to remember is if you notice any strange markings, itching, burning or anything out of the ordinary on any part of your body, make sure you visit your dermatologist as soon as possible. Allergic dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases, marked by an allergic reaction that usually appears within 48 hours of being exposed to the irritant. Redness, swelling and itching are symptoms, and the condition most often affects adults. Poison ivy and oak are major culprits. No list of skin disease would be complete without herpes simplex, commonly known as cold sores. This is a viral infection that is spread by close or sexual contact. Various drugs and treatments can keep it under control, but it never quite leaves your system. One of the common skin diseases related to allergic dermatitis is eczema, a stubborn rash occurring in millions of people with sensitive skin. Although there is no cure, it can be kept under control with cortisone and other medications. Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is another of the common diseases of the skin which usually occurs following puberty. It is noticeable in the armpits as well as the soles of the feet and palms, and can be controlled with an strong anti- perspirant. Ring worm is a fungal infection of the skin, called tinea corporis. It forms a lesion with a rough, circular border but can be eliminated with proper treatment. Usually an anti-fungal medication can do the trick. Some of the prevalent diseases of the skin are not true diseases, but rather conditions that may or not be treatable. Those are skin tags, warts, sun spots, moles, pimples and rashes. Many of these dermatological ailments are treatable with the right medication, and the earlier you address the situation the more likely you are to get the skin disease under control. 30 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  31. 31. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Updated Guidelines of ACNE DISEASE/CONDITION(S) Acne, including:  Comedonic acne (a. comedonicus)  Common acne (a. vulgaris) or pustular acne  Cystic acne (a. cystica)  Acne conglobata  Acne fulminans Classification of Acne  Comedonic acne  Plenty of open or obstructed comedos, but scant inflammatory changes  Common acne (a. vulgaris) or pustular acne  Pustules and comedos  Cystic acne (a. Cystica,)  Cystic foci of infection that result in scars  Acne conglobata  Multilobular inflammatory cysts containing volatile pus  Therapy-resistant, scar forming  Acne fulminans  An uncommon variant of acne in young men characterized by systemic symptoms (fever, arthralgia, skeletal foci of inflammation)  Systemic corticosteroids, not antibiotics, are the drugs of choice.  Refer patients with suspected acne fulminans to a dermatologist without delay. The painful disease is not well known, and is often left untreated for a long time. Guidelines in the treatment 1. Skin cleansing with soap or antibacterial detergents 2. Treatment of comedonic acne with retinoic acid cream or solution, adapalen gel, or benzoyl peroxide cream or gel (3 to 10%) 3. Treatment of common acne with local antibiotics (e.g., clindamycin solution), ultraviolet light therapy, combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide, and systemic treatment as indicated 4. Systemic antibiotics (tetracycline, erythromycin) 31 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  32. 32. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ 5. Local treatment and light therapy, used simultaneously with systemic treatment 6. Incision and drainage of pus-containing cysts with a large-caliber injection needle or narrow-tipped scalpel 7. Hormonal treatment for women: cyproterone acetate (an anti-androgen) + oestrogen 8. Treatment of scars by skin abrasion or laser therapy (by a dermatologist or a plastic surgeon) 9. Isotretinoin upon recommendation of a dermatologist Treatment Local Treatment  Local treatment is usually sufficient for comedonic acne and mild common acne.  Wash the skin with soap or antibacterial detergents.  Comedonic acne can be treated with  Retinoic acid cream or solution (tretinoin [Purdy, 2005] [A], isotretinoin[ [Purdy, 2005] [B])  Adapalen gel (Purdy, 2005) [C]  Benzoyl peroxide (3 to 10%)] (Purdy, 2005) [A] cream or gel  All above drugs can be irritating at first. Use a low concentration of the active drug initially, and advise the patient to wash the drug away after a few hours. The tolerance of the skin increases with time.  Common acne can be treated with  Local antibiotics (e.g., clindamycin solution) (Purdy, 2005) [A]  Combination gel containing benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin  Ultraviolet light therapy (as a course of 15 treatments added to other treatment) for widespread disease  Consider systemic treatment if the effect of local treatment is unsatisfactory 2 to 3 months from the onset of treatment. Systemic Treatment  Antibiotics  Tetracycline (Garner et al., 2003) [B] and erythromycin (Purdy, 2005) [A] are equally effective. The usual dose is 250 to 500 mg/day for a few months. Six months' treatment with tetracycline or erythromycin 1 g/day is more effective than a shorter treatment with a smaller dose. Do not use tetracyclines in children below 12 years of age. 32 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  33. 33. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Local treatment and light therapy can be used simultaneously with systemic treatment.  Local treatment is not sufficient in cystic acne and conglobate acne. Use systemic antibiotics or consider referral to a dermatologist. Pus- containing cysts can be drained by incising them with a large-caliber injection needle or narrow-tipped scalpel.  Hormonal treatment for women  Cyproterone acetate (an anti-androgen) + oestrogen for 6 months reduce the excretion of sebaceous glands and alleviate acne. Acne Scars  Consider treatment of scars by skin abrasion or laser therapy (Jordan, Cummins, & Burls, 1998; Health Technology Assessment Database [HTA]- 998502, 2001) [D] only after the activity of the disease has totally subsided.  Scars can be treated either by a dermatologist or a plastic surgeon. Indications for Specialist Consultation  Severe forms of acne (a. cystica, conglobata, fulminans)  If ordinary treatment fails, the dermatologist can consider isotretinoin. However, it has considerable teratogenicity. A program called iPLEDGE has been set up to make sure that pregnant women do not take isotretinoin and that women do not become pregnant while taking isotretinoin: Related Resources Cochrane Reviews  There is not enough data to evaluate the effectiveness of spironolactone as treatment of acne (Farquhar et al., 2003) [C]. Other Evidence Summaries  Azelaic acid may be effective in reducing inflammatory lesions and comedones in patients with acne vulgaris (Purdy, 2005) [C].  Topical erythromycin appears to be effective in reducing inflammatory lesions in patients with acne vulgaris (Purdy, 2005) [A].  Topical tetracycline appears to be effective in reducing acne severity, but it causes skin discolouration (Purdy, 2005) [B].  Oral doxycycline is as effective as oral minocycline and oral erythromycin in reducing lesions in patients with acne vulgaris (Purdy, 2005) [A]. 33 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  34. 34. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Retinoic acid cream or solution, adapalen gel, and benzoyl peroxide (3 to 10%) can be irritating at first. The tolerance of the skin increases with time.  Isotretinoin has considerable teratogenicity CONTRAINDICATIONS Tetracyclines should not be used in children below 12 years of age. Isotretinoin is contraindicated in pregnancy. RECOMMENDATION 1. Acne is common and distressing to patients but can almost always be well controlled. 2. The pathogenesis of acne starts with androgenic stimulation of the pilosebaceous unit causing increased sebum and hyperkeratinization that leads to follicular plugging and a comedone. Propionibacterium acnes then proliferates within the comedone and releases inflammatory mediators and chemoattractants. 3. Topical retinoids are an excellent cornerstone for all facets of acne therapy. 4. Patients should be reassessed after a minimum of 6 to 8 weeks to give the medications adequate time to work. Acne Vulgaris, Acne Juvenilis Acne Infantilis, Infantile Acne Acne Cystica 34 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  35. 35. ‫.‬ ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ ‫‪Acne Conglobata‬‬ ‫‪Acne Comedonica‬‬ ‫‪Acne, Scars‬‬ ‫53‬ ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ ‫9241‬
  36. 36. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Bed Sores What are bed sores? Bed sores can occur when a person is bedridden, unconscious, unable to sense pain, or immobile. Bed sores are ulcers that occur on areas of the skin that are under pressure from lying in bed, sitting in a wheelchair, and/or wearing a cast for a prolonged period of time. Why does a bed sore develop? A bed sore develops when blood supply to the skin is cut off for more than two to three hours. As the skin dies, the bed sore first starts as a red, painful area, which eventually turns purple. Left untreated, the skin can break open and become infected. A bed sore can become deep, extending into the muscle. Once a bed sore develops, it is often very slow to heal. Bed sores often occur in the buttocks area (on the sacrum or iliac crest), or on the heels of the feet. Preventing bed sores: Bed sores can be prevented by inspecting the skin for areas of redness (the first sign of skin breakdown). Other methods of preventing bed sores and preventing progression of existing bed sores include the following:  frequent turning and repositioning  providing soft padding in wheelchairs and beds to reduce pressure  providing good skin care by keeping the skin clean and dry Treatment for bed sores: Specific treatment of a bed sore is determined by your physician and based on the severity of the condition. Treatment may be more difficult once the skin is broken, and may include the following:  removing pressure on the affected area 36 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  37. 37. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬  protecting the wound with medicated gauze or other special dressings  keeping the wound clean  transplanting healthy skin to the wound area  medication (i.e., antibiotics to treat infections) Calluses and Corns What are calluses and corns? Calluses are protective pads made up of the thickened upper layer of skin due to repeated rubbing of the area. Corns are small calluses that develop on the top of the toes due to pressure or rubbing against shoes or other toes. Treatment for calluses and corns: Calluses are usually painless, but corns can be quite painful. Sometimes, corns are confused with warts. Calluses can be avoided by removing the source of the rubbing and thinning the callus with a pumice stone. Treatment for corns may include:  applying pads around the corn area  wearing larger, more comfortable shoes  surgery Dry Skin What is dry skin? Dry skin is a very common skin condition, usually characterized by irritated skin and itchiness. Dry skin often worsens in the winter, when the air is cold and dry. In addition, frequent bathing can aggravate dry skin. Dry skin may become flaky or scaly. However, dry skin symptoms may resemble other skin conditions or result from other disorders such as an underactive thyroid or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Always consult your physician for a diagnosis. Treatment for dry skin: 37 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  38. 38. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Treating dry skin may be as simple as keeping the skin moist - by taking fewer baths and using ointments or creams that keep the moisture in. Treatment may also include:  avoiding harsh soaps, detergents, and perfumes, which tend to dry the skin  avoiding rubbing or scratching the skin, which can aggravate the symptoms and cause infection  applying a salicylic acid solution or cream (which removes the top layer of skin) - if the skin is scaly Keratosis Pilaris What is keratosis pilaris? Keratosis pilaris is a common skin disorder characterized by small, pointed pimples. The pimples usually appear on the upper arms, thighs, and buttocks. The condition worsens in the winter and usually clears up in the summer. Keratosis pilaris has no known cause, but tends to run in families. Treatment for keratosis pilaris: Usually no treatment is necessary for keratosis pilaris, since it normally clears up by itself. Treatment may include:  using petroleum jelly with water, cold cream, or salicylic acid (which removes the top layer of skin) to flatten the pimples  using a tretinoin cream (a drug which is chemically related to vitamin A) 38 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  39. 39. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Pityriasis Rosea What is pityriasis rosea? Pityriasis rosea is a mild, but common, skin condition. Characterized by scaly, pink, inflamed skin, the condition can last from four to eight weeks and usually leaves no lasting marks. What causes pityriasis rosea? The cause of pityriasis rosea is not known, but it is commonly believed to be caused by a virus. It is usually seen in children, adolescents, and young adults. More than 75 percent of people with the rash are 10 to 35 years of age. The condition is more prevalent in spring and fall. What are the symptoms of pityriasis rosea? Pityriasis rosea usually starts with a pink or tan oval area (sometimes called a herald or mother patch) on the chest or back. The main patch is usually followed (after a couple of weeks) by smaller pink or tan patches elsewhere on the body - usually the back, neck, arms, and legs. The scaly rash usually lasts between four to eight weeks and will disappear without treatment. The following are other common symptoms of pityriasis rosea. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:  headaches  fatigue  aches  itching The symptoms of pityriasis rosea may resemble other skin conditions. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis. 39 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  40. 40. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ How is pityriasis rosea diagnosed? Pityriasis rosea is usually diagnosed based on a medical history and physical examination. The rash of pityriasis rosea is unique, and the diagnosis is usually made on the basis of a physical examination. In addition, your physician may order the following tests to help aid in the diagnosis:  blood tests  skin biopsy - the removal of some of the diseased skin for laboratory analysis. The sample of skin is removed after a local anesthetic is administered. Treatment for pityriasis rosea: Specific treatment for pityriasis rosea will be determined based on:  overall health, and medical history  extent of the rash  tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies  expectations for the course of the rash  opinion or preference The goal of treatment for pityriasis rosea is to relieve symptoms associated with the condition, such as itching. There is no cure for pityriasis rosea. The condition will resolve spontaneously. Treatment may include:  medicated lotions and creams (to soothe the itching)  medications by mouth (to soothe the itching)  cool baths with or without oatmeal (to soothe the itching)  ultraviolet exposure (under a physician''s supervision)  cool compresses (to soothe the affected skin) 40 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  41. 41. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Psoriasis What is psoriasis? Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition characterized by inflamed, red, raised areas that often develop as silvery scales on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. Psoriasis affects nearly 6 million people in the US. What causes psoriasis? The cause of psoriasis is unknown, however, it is thought to be caused by abnormally fast-growing and shedding skin cells. The skin cells multiply so quickly, causing the skin to shed every three to four days. Though not contagious, the condition is hereditary. Psoriasis is often recurrent and occurs in varying severities. What are the symptoms of psoriasis? The following are the most common symptoms of psoriasis. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently, as psoriasis comes in several forms and severities. Symptoms may include:  discoid psoriasis Also called plaque psoriasis, this type of psoriasis is the most common. Symptoms may include patches of red, raised skin on the trunk, arms, 41 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  42. 42. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ legs, knees, elbows, genitals, and scalp. Nails may also thicken, become pitted, and separate from the nail beds. Plaques in psoriasis  guttate psoriasis This type of psoriasis affects mostly children. Symptoms may include many small patches of red, raised skin. A sore throat usually proceeds the onset of this type of psoriasis. Guttate psoriasis  pustular psoriasis Symptoms may include small pustules (pus-containing blisters) all over the body or just on the palms, soles, and other small areas. Pustules on the foot 42 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  43. 43. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Psoriasis of both legs Pitting of the nail Psoriasis Arthropathica definition Syndrome in which psoriasis is associated with arthritis, often involving inflammation in terminal interphalangeal joints. A rheumatoid factor is not usually present in the sera of affected individuals. Acute arthropathy Psoriasis of the scalp This condition can be very difficult to clear, particularly if there are thick scales • 3% salicylic acid in a suitable base and left on for four to six hours or overnight and then washed out with a tar shampoo • Dithranol preparations are effective but will tint blonde or red hair purple • Steroid preparations can be used to control itching 43 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  44. 44. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Erythrodermic psoriasis ► Erythrodermic psoriasis is a serious, even life threatening, condition with erythema affecting nearly the whole of the skin. Diagnosis may not be easy as the characteristic scaling of psoriasis is absent, although this usually precedes the erythroderma. Less commonly the erythema develops suddenly without preceding lesions. There is a considerable increase in cutaneous blood flow, heat loss, metabolism, and water loss. How is psoriasis diagnosed? When the condition progresses to the development of silvery scales, the physician can usually diagnose psoriasis with a medical examination of the nails and skin. Confirmation of diagnosis may be done with a skin biopsy (taking a small skin specimen to examine under a microscope). 44 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  45. 45. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Treatment for psoriasis: Specific treatment for psoriasis will be determined based on:  age, overall health, and medical history  severity of the condition  tolerance of specific medications, procedures, or therapies  expectations for the course of the condition  opinion or preference The goal of treatment is to reduce inflammation and slow down the rapid growth and shedding of skin cells. At the present time, there is no cure for psoriasis. Treatment may include:  ointments and creams (to moisturize the skin)  sunlight or ultraviolet light exposure (under a physician''s supervision)  steroids (such as cortisone creams)  vitamin D cream  creams containing salicylic acid or coal tar  Anthralin - a drug that treats the thicker, hard-to-treat patches of psoriasis.  methotrexate - an anti-cancer drug that interrupts the growth of skin cells.  oral or topical retinoids  immunosuppressive medications (such as Cyclosporine) 45 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429
  46. 46. . ‫اٌٛؽذح األٌٚٝ : .. األِشاع اٌغٍذ٠خ اٌشبئؼخ‬ Rosacea What is rosacea? Rosacea is a common skin condition that usually only affects the face and eyes. Characterized by redness, pimples, and broken blood vessels, rosacea tends to begin after middle age (between the ages of 30 and 60) and is more common in fair-skinned people. The cause of rosacea is unknown. An estimated 14 million people in the US have rosacea. Rosacea Rhinophyma What are the symptoms of rosacea? Rosacea often begins with easy blushing and flushing of the facial skin. Eventually, redness will persist around the nose area, extending to the rest of the face. Rosacea has a variety of clinical symptoms and is classified into the following four types, based on these different symptoms: 46 ‫إداسح اٌجشاِظ اٌظؾ١خ ٚاٌزذس٠ت ثبٌشػب٠خ اٌظؾ١خ األٌٚ١خ ثّٕـمخ اٌش٠بع‬ 1429

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