WORLD HEALTH DAY
2014
Dr.T.V.Rao MD
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1
We are all one on WORLD HEALTH DAY
•World Health Day is celebrated on 7 April
every year to mark the anniversary of the
fo...
The theme of World Health Day 2014
“Vector-borne diseases”.
• Disease spreading vectors like mosquitoes (malaria, dengue
f...
What are Vectors
•Vectors are living organisms that can transmit
infectious diseases between humans or from animals
to hum...
Definitions
• Vector-borne disease (VBD)
= an illness caused by an
infectious microorganism
(pathogen) that is
transmitted...
• Types of VBD transmission
– Anthroponotic infections
• Mosquitoes (Malaria), Ticks (Lyme disease)
– Zoonotic infections
...
7 7
Definitions
•Common (arthropod) vectors
• Ticks
• Mosquitoes
• Sand-flies
Dr.T.V.Rao MD
Vectors spread diseases
•Mosquitoes, flies,
ticks, bugs and
freshwater snails
can spread
diseases that
cause serious
illne...
50% of population is at risk
•More than half of the
world’s population is
at risk of these
diseases. Increased
travel, tra...
10 10
VBD & climate change
•Climate change will affect the distribution of
VBD in three ways:
•directly, by the effect on ...
VBD & climate change
•Most
important
climate factors
•Temperature
•Precipitation
11Dr.T.V.Rao MD
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12
Temperature effects
•Vector
–Survival decrease/increase
depending on the species
–Changes in rate of vector
population gro...
Temperature effects
• Example
–Summer: more days with
higher temperature
• Longer lifespan
• Longer reproduction period
• ...
Temperature effects
• Pathogen
• Decreased extrinsic
incubation period of
pathogen in vector at higher
temperatures
• Chan...
16
Precipitation effects
• Vector
•Survival: increased rain may increase larval habitat
•Excess rain can eliminate habitat...
Precipitation effects
• Vector (continued)
• Heavy rainfall events can
synchronize vector host-
seeking and virus
transmis...
Summary effects climate change
• Climate change has the
potential to
• Increase range or
abundance of animal
reservoirs an...
Diseases are Preventable
•Diseases such as
malaria, dengue,
leishmaniasis and
yellow fever are
preventable, yet they
have ...
Protect yourself
•You can protect
yourself and your
family by taking simple
measures that include
sleeping under a bed
net...
Keep the Environment Clean and Save
many Lives
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21
SAVE THE PLANET
SAVE FROM VECTOR BORN DISEASES
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22
Websites
• www.climatetrap.eu
• www.ecdc.eu
• www.who.int/globalchange/en/
23 23
More information
Dr.T.V.Rao MD
•Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for
Medical and Health Professionals to be Partners
in Prevention of Vector Borne dise...
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WORLD HEALTH DAY 2014

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WORLD HEALTH DAY
2014

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WORLD HEALTH DAY 2014

  1. 1. WORLD HEALTH DAY 2014 Dr.T.V.Rao MD Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1
  2. 2. We are all one on WORLD HEALTH DAY •World Health Day is celebrated on 7 April every year to mark the anniversary of the founding of WHO in 1948. Each year a theme is selected that highlights a priority area of public health. The Day provides an opportunity for individuals in every community to get involved in activities that can lead to better health.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 2
  3. 3. The theme of World Health Day 2014 “Vector-borne diseases”. • Disease spreading vectors like mosquitoes (malaria, dengue fever, filarial, chikungunya, yellow fever ), ticks, bugs, sand flies, snails are also spotlighted by the WHO to make the world free from a wide range of diseases caused by parasites and pathogens. It provides better prevention and cure from the vector-borne diseases spread by vectors and travellers from one country to other. WHO supports various health authorities on global basis to make their own efforts for the public health problems to enhance better life without any diseases. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3
  4. 4. What are Vectors •Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans •Vector-borne diseases are one of the greatest contributors to human mortality and morbidity in tropical settings and beyond. Although significant progress is being made in combating some diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis and Chagas disease, other diseases such as dengue continue to spread at an alarming paceDr.T.V.Rao MD 4
  5. 5. Definitions • Vector-borne disease (VBD) = an illness caused by an infectious microorganism (pathogen) that is transmitted to people by a vector, usually arthropods • Arthropod = an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (e.g. insects or arachnids) • Small creatures – Bring 55Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  6. 6. • Types of VBD transmission – Anthroponotic infections • Mosquitoes (Malaria), Ticks (Lyme disease) – Zoonotic infections • Rodents (plague), Birds (Q-fever) • Types of VBD transmission • Anthroponotic infections • Mosquitoes (Malaria), Ticks (Lyme disease) Definitions Vector Humans Humans VectorVector Vector Animals Animals Humans 6 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  7. 7. 7 7 Definitions •Common (arthropod) vectors • Ticks • Mosquitoes • Sand-flies Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  8. 8. Vectors spread diseases •Mosquitoes, flies, ticks, bugs and freshwater snails can spread diseases that cause serious illness and death. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8
  9. 9. 50% of population is at risk •More than half of the world’s population is at risk of these diseases. Increased travel, trade and migration make even more people vulnerable. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9
  10. 10. 10 10 VBD & climate change •Climate change will affect the distribution of VBD in three ways: •directly, by the effect on virus/parasite development and vector competence •indirectly, by the effect on the range and abundance of the species that act as vectors •indirectly, through socio-economic changes that affect the amount of human contact with the transmission cycles Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  11. 11. VBD & climate change •Most important climate factors •Temperature •Precipitation 11Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  12. 12. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12
  13. 13. Temperature effects •Vector –Survival decrease/increase depending on the species –Changes in rate of vector population growth –Changes in the susceptibility of vectors to some pathogens –Changes in feeding rate and host contact 13Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  14. 14. Temperature effects • Example –Summer: more days with higher temperature • Longer lifespan • Longer reproduction period • Longer activity period –Winter: less days with low temperature • Benefits overwintering • Shorter overwintering 14Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  15. 15. Temperature effects • Pathogen • Decreased extrinsic incubation period of pathogen in vector at higher temperatures • Changes in the transmission season • Changes in geographical distribution • Decreased viral replication 15Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  16. 16. 16 Precipitation effects • Vector •Survival: increased rain may increase larval habitat •Excess rain can eliminate habitat by flooding •Low rainfall can create habitat as rivers dry into pools (dry season mosquitoes) •Decreased rain can increase container-breeding mosquitoes by forcing increased water storage Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  17. 17. Precipitation effects • Vector (continued) • Heavy rainfall events can synchronize vector host- seeking and virus transmission • Increased humidity increases vector survival and vice-vers • Pathogen • Few direct effects but some data on humidity effects on parasite development 17Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  18. 18. Summary effects climate change • Climate change has the potential to • Increase range or abundance of animal reservoirs and/or arthropod vectors • Enhance transmission • Increase importation of vectors or pathogens • Every Human at Risk 18Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  19. 19. Diseases are Preventable •Diseases such as malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis and yellow fever are preventable, yet they have the biggest impact on some of the world’s poorest people. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19
  20. 20. Protect yourself •You can protect yourself and your family by taking simple measures that include sleeping under a bed net, wearing a long- sleeved shirt and trousers and using insect repellent. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20
  21. 21. Keep the Environment Clean and Save many Lives Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21
  22. 22. SAVE THE PLANET SAVE FROM VECTOR BORN DISEASES Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22
  23. 23. Websites • www.climatetrap.eu • www.ecdc.eu • www.who.int/globalchange/en/ 23 23 More information Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  24. 24. •Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Health Professionals to be Partners in Prevention of Vector Borne diseases •Email •doctortvrao@gmail.com Dr.T.V.Rao MD 24

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