Swine flu - Bio Safety and Prevention

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Swine flu - Bio Safety and Prevention

Swine flu - Bio Safety and Prevention

  1. 1. SWINE FLU Biosafety and Prevention Dr.T.V.Rao MDDr.T.V.Rao MD 1
  2. 2. What is Swine influenza• Swine influenza (also called H1N1 flu, swine flu, hog flu, and pig flu) is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigsDr.T.V.Rao MD 2
  3. 3. Swine flu – Acute respiratory infection• Swine flu is an infection caused by a virus. Its named for a virus that pigs can get. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. The virus is contagious and can spread from human to human. Symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3
  4. 4. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4
  5. 5. SWINE FLU• 2009 swine flu outbreak is the epidemic spread of a new strain of influenza virus that was clinically identified in April 2009 The new virus strain is a type of influenza A (H1N1) virus, commonly called the swine flu. The outbreak has also been called the H1N1 influenza, 2009 H1N1 flu, Mexican flu, or swine-origin influenza.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5
  6. 6. How man is Exposed• Most commonly, these cases occur in persons with direct exposure to pigs (e.g. children near pigs at a fair or workers in the swine industry). In addition, there have been documented cases of one person spreading swine flu to others. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6
  7. 7. Pigs infect Humans• Pigs can pass mutated viruses back to humans, and these can be passed from human to human. Transmission among humans is thought to occur in the same way as with seasonal flu.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7
  8. 8. What are the flu emergency signs to watch for in adults?• Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen Sudden dizziness Confusion Severe or persistent vomiting Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8
  9. 9. The flu emergency signs to watch for in children? • Rapid breathing or trouble breathing • Bluish skin colour • Not drinking enough fluids • Not waking up or not interacting • Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough • Fever with a rashDr.T.V.Rao MD 9
  10. 10. Diagnosis• To diagnose swine influenza A infection, a respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Identification as a swine flu influenza A virus Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10
  11. 11. Specimen collection for Diagnosis• Sample Collection and handling is same as for human avian flu or seasonal influenza like illness (Refer CD Alert on AI). Sample Collection: should be labelled clearly and include patient’s complete information and should be sent to designated Laboratory. Laboratory biosafety measures should be followed for collection, storage, packaging and shipping of influenza samples.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11
  12. 12. Diagnosis of Swine Flu• For diagnosis of swine influenza A infection, respiratory specimen (NP (nasopharyngeal swab), throat swab , nasal aspirate, nasal washing) would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12
  13. 13. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13
  14. 14. Currently Available Tests• Rapid Antigen Tests: not as sensitive as other available tests. RT–PCR Virus isolation Virus Genome Sequencing Four–fold rise in swine influenza A (H1N1) virus specific neutralizing antibodies. It is important to note that samples from all cases, once the Pandemic starts, are not required to be tested.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14
  15. 15. What Protection Laboratory Staff need1) For those performing rapid immunoassaytests for influenza, splash protection isrequired;2) For those performing more complexprocedures (e.g., direct or indirectfluorescent antibody tests[DFA, IFA], culture, molecular assays), aClass II biosafety cabinet (BSC) in abiosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratory isrequired. Biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) practices are nolonger required for viral isolation. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15
  16. 16. Precaution during a EISA Test• Rapid immunoassay test procedures outside a Class II biosafety cabinet (BSC) should be performed to minimize the creation of anticipated splashes and/or aerosols. The appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for minimizing risks associated with splash for these types of rapid tests include:• laboratory coat• gloves• eye protectionDr.T.V.Rao MD 16
  17. 17. Rapid Diagnosis • RT PCR can make rapid DiagnosisDr.T.V.Rao MD 17
  18. 18. Dealing with Bio Hazard Waste in Swine flu• All bio hazardous waste disposal procedures should be followed as outlined in your facility standard laboratory operating procedures. Steam autoclaving is the preferred method for all decontamination processes. Alternative methods may be considered based on applicable local, state and federal regulations, as well as on a site specific risk assessment.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18
  19. 19. What Disinfectants to use during Swine flu• Several chemical disinfectants, including chlorine, alcohols, peroxygen, detergents, iodophor es, quaternary ammonium and phenolic compounds, are effective against human influenza viruses if used at the correct concentration for the appropriate contact time as specified in the manufacturer’s recommendations.• Work surfaces and equipment should be decontaminated as soon as possible after specimens are processed. Studies have shown that influenza viruses can survive on environmental surfaces and can infect a person for up to 2–8 hours after being deposited on the surface. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19
  20. 20. How we control Health care Associated Spread• Combination of infection control strategies is recommended to decrease transmission of influenza in health-care settings. These include placing influenza patients in private rooms when possible and having health-care personnel wear masks for close patient contact (i.e., within 3 feet) and gowns and gloves if contact with respiratory secretions is likely .Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20
  21. 21. Use of Mask by Patients and Health care Workers • The use of surgical or procedure masks by infectious patients may help contain their respiratory secretions and limit exposure to others. Likewise, when a patient is not wearing a mask, as when in an isolation room, having health-care personnel mask for close contact with the patient may prevent nose and mouth contact with respiratory dropletsDr.T.V.Rao MD 21
  22. 22. Can the Mask Prevent the Spread of Flu ???• However, no studies have definitively shown that mask use by either infectious patients or health-care personnel prevents influenza transmission Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22
  23. 23. Prevention is best option • Covering your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after youDr.T.V.Rao MD use it. 23
  24. 24. Using N95 mask reduces the Risk• You can cut your risk of contracting the flu or other respiratory viruses by as much as 80 percent by wearing a mask over your nose and mouth, according to a new study. Emerging Infectious Diseases, the journal of the Centres for DiseaseDr.T.V.Rao MD 24 Control and Prevention (CDC) .
  25. 25. Health Care Personal Should Protect With• During a surgical or procedure mask should be worn by health-care personnel who are in close contact (i.e., within 3 feet) with a patient who has symptoms of a respiratory infection, particularly if fever is present, as recommended for standard and droplet precautions. These precautions should be maintained until the patient has been determined to be non infectious or for the duration recommended for the specific infectious agent.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25
  26. 26. Institutional Measures• Use of antiviral drugs for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza is a key component of influenza outbreak control in institutions that house patients at higher risk for influenza complications. In addition to antiviral medications, other outbreak-control measures include instituting droplet and contact precautions and establishing cohorts of patients with confirmed or suspected influenza, re-offering influenza vaccination (if available) to unvaccinated staff and patients, restricting staff movement between wards or buildings, and restricting contact between ill staff or visitors and patients. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26
  27. 27. Best way to Prevent Influenza• Vaccination is the primary method for preventing Influenza in persons at high risk for complications secondary to influenza infection. Administration of antiviral medications, either for the early treatment of influenza infection or for prophylaxis against infection, is a useful adjunct in the control of influenza in these personsDr.T.V.Rao MD 27
  28. 28. Control with Antiviral Drugs • Both adamantine and neuraminidase inhibitors have been used successfully to control outbreaks caused by susceptible strains when antiviral medications are combined with other infection-control measures. • Currently Oseltamivir has gained importance as safe and effective Antiviral agent.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28
  29. 29. Swine flu Vaccination• Everyone 6 months of age and older should get vaccinated against the flu as soon as the 2010- 2011 season vaccine is available. People at high risk of serious flu complications include young children, pregnant women, people with chronic health conditions like asthma, diabetes or heart and lung disease and people 65 years and older. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29
  30. 30. "flu shot”• The "flu shot" — an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is given with a needle, usually in the arm. The flu shot is approved for use in people older than 6 months, including healthy people and people with chronic medical conditions. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30
  31. 31. Nasal vaccination • The nasal-spray flu vaccine —a vaccine made with live, weakened flu viruses that do not cause the flu (sometimes called LAIV for "live attenuated influenza vaccine" or FluMist®). LAIV (FluMist®) is approved for use in healthy* people 2-49 years ofDr.T.V.Rao MD age who are not 31
  32. 32. HAND WASHING REDUCES SPREAD OF INFLUENZADr.T.V.Rao MD 32
  33. 33. Clean Hands – Safe Hands Even Reduces Inluenza • Washing your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. You can also use alcohol- based hand cleaners.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33
  34. 34. • Programme Created By Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Health Care Professionals • Email • doctortvrao@gmail.comDr.T.V.Rao MD 34

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