SARS Update

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SARS Update

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SARS Update

  1. 1. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS ) Dr.T.V.Rao MD1 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  2. 2. SARS and Caro Urbani  Carlo Urbani (Castelplanio, Italy October 19, 1956 – Bangkok, Thailand March 29, 2003) was an Italian physician and the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as a new and dangerously contagious disease. Although he became infected and died, his early warning to the World Health Organization (WHO) touched off a massive response that probably helped save the lives of millions of people around the world.2 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  3. 3. Severe acute respiratory Syndrome  Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus Between November 2002 and July 2003 an outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong nearly became a pandemic, with 8,422 cases and 916 deaths worldwide (10.9% fatality) according to the WHO. Within weeks SARS spread from Hong Kong to infect individuals in 37 countries in early 2003.3 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  4. 4. SARS belongs to Corona virus  Coronaviruses are positive- strand, enveloped RNA viruses that are important pathogens of mammals and birds. This group of viruses cause enteric or respiratory tract infections in a variety of animals including4 humans, livestock and Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  5. 5. SARS - Coronavirus  SARS coronavirus is a positive and single stranded RNA virus belonging to a family of enveloped coronaviruses. Its genome is about 29.7kb, which is one of the largest among RNA viruses. SARS is similar to other coronaviruses in that its genome expression starts with translation of two large ORFs 1a and 1b, which are two polyproteins.5 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  6. 6. SARS belong to Corona Virus  SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) is a viral disease caused by a virus of Corona respiratory viruses affecting mostly respiratory organs which is characterized by a fever (more than 38°C), cough, shortage of breath and underlying atypical pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs). This is a disease which spreads very easily and affecting many people worldwide (over 5,000 people worldwide).6 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  7. 7. 7 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  8. 8. When to suspect SARS  SARS may be suspected in a patient who has:  Any of the symptoms, including a fever of 38 °C (100.4 °F) or higher, and  Either a history of:  Contact (sexual or casual) with someone with a diagnosis of SARS within the last 10 days OR  Travel to any of the regions identified by the WHO as areas with recent local transmission of SARS (affected regions as of 10 May 2003[13] were parts of China, Hong Kong, Singapore and the province of Ontario, Canada).8 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  9. 9. 9 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  10. 10. CDC guidelines for Confirmatory testing  Positive RT-PCR test results should be confirmed in a reference laboratory. Confirmatory testing is particularly important in areas with a low prevalence of SARS-CoV disease, where the positive predictive value of the assay is likely to be quite low. CDC will conduct confirmatory testing during the early phases of an outbreak.10 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  11. 11. Protect Healthcare Personnel During Aerosol-Generating Procedures  Limit personnel to those essential for performing procedure  Wear appropriate personal protective equipment  Gowns and gloves  Sealed eye protection (i.e., goggles)  Respiratory protection device11 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  12. 12. Management of SARS Antibiotics are ineffective as SARS is a viral disease. Treatment of SARS so far has been largely supportive with antipyretics, supplemental oxygen and ventilatory support as needed. Suspected cases of SARS must be isolated, preferably in negative pressure rooms, with complete barrier nursing precautions taken for any necessary contact with these patients. There was initially anecdotal support for steroids and the antiviral drug ribavirin, but no published evidence has supported this therapy12 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  13. 13. Isolation and Quarantine the best options  SARS needs to be regarded as a particularly serious threat for several reasons. The disease has no vaccine and no treatment, forcing health authorities to resort to control tools dating back to the earliest days of empirical microbiology: isolation and quarantine13 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  14. 14. All are concerned to Prevent the Spread of SARS14 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  15. 15. For More Articles of Interest on Infectious Diseases Visit me on15 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  16. 16.  Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Health Care Workers in the Developing World  Email  doctortvrao@gmail.com16 Dr.T.V.Rao MD

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