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  • He attributed the longevity and good health of Bulgarian peasants to the consumption of fermented milk products such as
  • In 1935 he started marketing Yakult as aprobiotic yogurt-like product made by fermenting a mixture of skimmed milk with a special strain of Lactobacillus casei shirota(isolated from the human intestine, it is resistant to gastric and bile acid, enabling it to reach the lower intestie)Today, Yakult is sold in 28 countries, although the bacteriaial cultures are still provided from a mother strain from Japan regardless of production location
  • It was not until 1965 that the term “Probiotics” was coined by Lilly and Stillwell
  • To date only fructooligosaccharides have met all of the criteria mentioned previously to qualify as a prebiotic. Fructooligosaccharides are short- and medium-length chains of b-D fructans. Short-chains are referred to as oligofructose and medium-length chains are known as inulinProducts made with prebiotics are labeled as containing inulin or FOS(fructo oligo sachharides)
  • *****Non lactic acid bacteria commonly used are yeast (Saccharomyces)
  • Research studies…there are several areas of research that have been targeted for further study. Some include the following….
  • This is another evolving area in the Probiotic Research……Using Probiotics in Infant formula
  • Probiotics

    2. 2. HISTORY OF PROBIOTICS- 1900’S• At the start of the 20 th century, Russian Nobel prize winner and father of modern immunology, Elie Metchnikoff, a scientist at the Pasteur Institute, was the first to conceptualize “Probiotics” DR.T.V.RAO MD 2
    3. 3. INTESTINE IS A PARADISE OF DISEASES • Death sits in the bowels; a bad digestion is the root of all evil‖ - Hippocrates, ca. 400 BCDR.T.V.RAO MD 3
    4. 4. UNDERSTANDING THE DEFINITIONS• Prebiotic - (greek - before life) a substance (usually an oligosaccharide) that cannot be digested but does promote the growth of beneficial bacteria or probiotics• Probiotic - (for life) a substance that contains microorganisms or bacteria that are beneficial to the host organism.• Symbiotic - (plus life) a substance containing both a prebiotic and probiotic.DR.T.V.RAO MD 4
    5. 5. DEFINING A PROBIOTIC • The term probiotic comes from the Latin or Gree pro, ―before, forward‖, and bios, or ―life‖ — thus probiotics are life-promoting. In this case, we use the term probiotics to refer to beneficial bacteriaDR.T.V.RAO MD 5
    6. 6. HISTORY OF PROBIOTICSBulgarian yoghurt (sour milk), commonlyconsumed plain, is popular for its taste, aroma,and quality. The qualities arise from theLactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcusthermophilus culture strains used in BulgariaIn 1907 Metchnikoff proposed that the acid producingbacteria in fermented milk products could prevent“fouling" in the large intestine and, if consumedregularly, lead to a longer, healthier life.DR.T.V.RAO MD 6
    7. 7. HISTORY OF PROBIOTICS- 1930’SIn early 1930’s, in Japan, Minoru Shirotadeveloped a fermented milk product calledYakultIn 1935 he started marketing Yakult as aprobiotic yogurt-like product made byfermenting a mixture of skimmed milk witha special strain of Lactobacillus casei shirotaDR.T.V.RAO MD 7
    8. 8. HISTORY OF PROBIOTICS- 1965• Probiotics term coined in 1965 by Lilly And Stillwell• Probiotics defined as microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the host intestinal microbial balance• Probiotics, which means “for life” was meant to contrast “antibiotics”, popularly prescribed and known to also destroy beneficial organisms and impact the immune system. DR.T.V.RAO MD 8
    9. 9. PROBIOTICS IN INDIAN FOODS• In ancient Indian society, it became commonplace (and still is) to enjoy a before- dinner yogurt drink called a lassi. These Indian traditions were based on the principle of using sour milk as a probiotic delivery system to the body.DR.T.V.RAO MD 9
    10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE PROBIOTICS Probiotic microorganisms are:• Able to survive the passage through the digestive system• Able to attach to the intestinal epithelia and colonize• Able to Maintain good viability• Able to utilize the nutrients and substrates in a normal diet• Non-pathogenic and non-toxic• Capable of exerting a beneficial effect on the host DR.T.V.RAO MD 10
    11. 11. WHAT ARE PROBIOTICS• Probiotic organisms are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. According to the currently adopted definition by FAO/WHO, probiotics are: "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host". Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics; but certain yeasts and bacilli may also be used.DR.T.V.RAO MD 11
    12. 12. PROBIOTICS ARE PART OF THE INTESTINAL TRACT• Probiotics are bacteria that help maintain the natural balance of organisms (microflora) in the intestines camera. The normal human digestive tract contains about 400 types of probiotic bacteria that reduce the growth of harmful bacteria and promote a healthy digestive system. The largest group of probiotic bacteria in the intestine is lactic acid bacteria, of which Lactobacillus acidophilus, found in yogurt with live cultures, is the best known. Yeast is also a probiotic substance. Probiotics are also available as dietary supplementsDR.T.V.RAO MD 12
    13. 13. PREBIOTICS DIFFERS FROM PROBIOTICS• A prebiotic is a nondigestible component which beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of colonic bacteria, thereby improving the health of the host , prebiotics are nutrients that the bacteria use as a fuel source; these include dietary fiber and carbohydrates DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
    14. 14. POSSIBLE MODES OF ACTION OF PROBIOTICS  production of inhibitory compounds  competition for chemicals/available energy  competition for adhesion sites (exclusion)  enhancement of the immune response  improvement of water quality  interaction with phytoplankton  a source of macro- and micro-nutrients  enzymatic contribution to digestionDR.T.V.RAO MD 14
    15. 15. PROBIOTICS ARE PRESENT MANY CONSUMABLES • Probiotics are commonly consumed as part of fermented foods with specially added active live cultures; such as in yogurt, soy yogurt, or as dietary supplementsDR.T.V.RAO MD 15
    16. 16. PROBIOTICS ARE USED IN SEVERAL CLINICAL CONDITIONS• Probiotics were identified to beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, thus inhibiting pathogens and toxin producing bacteria. Today, specific health effects are being investigated and documented including alleviation of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, prevention and treatment of pathogen-induced diarrhoea, urogenital infections, and atopic diseases.DR.T.V.RAO MD 16
    17. 17. OUR GUT IS A COMPLEX PLACE LOADED WITH MICROBES• Huge amounts of microorganisms exist just about everywhere you can think of.. Humans and all animals are host to microbes that live on our skin and inside our bodies. It has been estimated that more microbial cells exist in the body than human cells.• There are trillions of microorganisms in your gut.• These microorganisms are collectively called your gut flora, micro flora, or beneficial bacteria and are estimated to make up about 3 pounds of your body weight. These bacteria include many different microbes both friendly and harmful.DR.T.V.RAO MD 17
    18. 18. PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS AND MODE OF ACTIONMost commonly used Probiotics are lactic acid bacteria - Lactobacilli, Streptococci and Bifidobacteria Possible modes of Action:• Competitive exclusion• Production of Bacteriocins• Production of organic acids• Altered absorption of the intestinal mucosa DR.T.V.RAO MD 18
    19. 19. COMMON PROBIOTIC AGENTS USED AS THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS• Lactobacillus acidophilus• Lactobacillus ramnosus• Lactobacillus paracasei• Lactobacillus plantarum• Lactobacillus bulgaricus• Bifidobacterium infantis• Bifidobacterium longum• Bifidobacterium breve• Streptococcus ThermophilusDR.T.V.RAO MD 19
    20. 20. COMMONLY USED OF PROBIOTICS IN CLINICAL CONDITIONS• Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been suggested to be associated with alleviation of lactose intolerance ; prevention and cure of viral, bacterial and antibiotic or radiotherapy induced diarrhoeas ; immunomodulation; antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects ; and even blood cholesterol reduction . The optimism associated with probiotics is, however, counter-balanced by scepticism as many ―probiotic‖ products in the market are unreliable in content and unproven clinicallyDR.T.V.RAO MD 20
    21. 21. IDENTIFICATION OF STRAINS OF PROBIOTICS• Effects of probiotics are strain specific. Strain identity is important to link a strain to a specific health effect as well as to enable accurate surveillance and epidemiological studies. Both phenotypic and genotypic tests should be done using validated standard methodology. Nomenclature of the bacteria must conform to the current, scientifically recognized names as per the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICPS) (available at http://www.the- MD 21
    22. 22. PROBIOTICS USE – IS IT SAFE ???• Most probiotics are like what is already in a persons digestive system. Some probiotics have been used for a very long time throughout history, such as in fermented foods and cultured milk products. These dont appear to cause illness. But more study is needed on the safety of probiotics in young children, the elderly, and people who have weak immune systems.DR.T.V.RAO MD 22
    23. 23. PROBIOTIC RESEARCH• Allergies - certain probiotics have an impact on the mucosal barrier function of the intestinal tract. This effects allergens entering the body and the activity of inflammation producing cells• Cholesterol – regular consumption of certain probiotic dairy products may have an impact on cholesterol level and may affect the levels of ―good‖ HDL in the blood• Colon Cancer – Certain probiotics may help prevent colon cancer by preventing the breakdown of enzymes that contribute to the growth of cancer causing agents DR.T.V.RAO MD 23
    24. 24. PROBIOTIC RESEARCH• Infant Health – Mother nature has long recognized the benefits of Probiotics. Human breast milk contains a protein that stimulates the growth of good bacteria to help with digestion. Therefore a way to create and maintain a perfect balance of gut bacteria in babies has been in existence for as long as babies have been born• Probiotics in Infant Formulas with the added protective benefit of beneficial probiotic cultures like those naturally promoted by breast milk, help support Baby’s healthy immune system. High levels of Bifidobacteria in the digestive tract are thought to be one of the reasons why breastfed babies are generally so healthy DR.T.V.RAO MD 24
    25. 25. PROBIOTIC RESEARCH Continued clinical research to study the benefits of probiotics in the areas of :• Obesity and Weight Management (exopolysaccharide producing probiotic strains)• Prevention of osteoporosis (improved bioavailability and absorption of nutrients)• Growth development in children (improved bioavailability and absorption of nutrients)• Treating and preventing respiratory infections, specially in children (boost immune system) DR.T.V.RAO MD 25
    26. 26. PROBIOTIC RESEARCH• Acne treatment and clearer skin (maintaining a healthy balance of beneficial intestinal micro flora)• Cancer control (bind, block or remove carcinogens, activate the host’s immune system to antitumor genesis, inhibit bacteria that directly or indirectly convert procarcinogens to carcinogens)• Animal health (boost immune system, maintain balance of intestinal microflora)DR.T.V.RAO MD 26
    27. 27. NEW PROBIOTIC RESEARCH• Identification of new strains of probiotic organisms• Development of techniques to improve efficacy and viability of probiotics• Development of probiotic compounds- “Lactoceuticals”• New Product Research to offer consumers a choice of probiotic productsDR.T.V.RAO MD 27
    28. 28. MARKETING OF PROBIOTICS• Most probiotic products contain bacteria from the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, although other genera, including Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus and Saccharomyces (a yeast) have been marketed as probiotics. Some commercial probiotic products which contain Bacillus are incorrectly labelled with a name not recognized by the scientific community, Lactobacillus sporogenesDR.T.V.RAO MD 28
    29. 29. RESEARCH ON CANCER STILL EXPERIMENTAL• The strongest evidence for the anti-cancer effects of probiotics comes from animal studies; evidence from human studies (epidemiology and experimental) is still limited. An important goal for the future should be carefully designed human clinical trials to corroborate the wealth of experimental studies.DR.T.V.RAO MD 29
    30. 30. • Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Premedical Students in the Developing World • Email • doctortvrao@gmail.comDR.T.V.RAO MD 30