Kirby bauer Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing

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Kirby Bauer Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing

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  • Large CF populationDisc diffusion quality control testing65% agents concurrently being tested for quality assurance on existing Etest™ batteriesAdvances in Vitek allow for Dtest, cefoxiting and VRSA screen to be automatedDO NOT COMPROMISE QUALITY FOR SPEED
  • Kirby bauer Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing

    1. 1. KIRBY-BAUER DISK DIFFUSION TESTING SKILL BASED LEARNING Dr.T.V.Rao MDDR.T.V.RAO MD 1
    2. 2. PRINCIPLES OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTINGDR.T.V.RAO MD 2
    3. 3. KIRBY-BAUER TEST IS A AGAR DISK DIFFUSION METHOD• Kirby – Bauer Agar disk diffusion method provides qualitative interpretive category results of susceptible, interme diate, and resistant bacterial isolates.DR.T.V.RAO MD 3
    4. 4. KIRBY-BAUER ANTIBIOTIC TESTING• Kirby-Bauer antibiotic testing (KB testing or disk diffusion antibiotic sensitivity testing) is a test which uses antibiotic-impregnated paper disks to test whether particular bacteria are susceptible to specific antibiotics. A known quantity of bacteria are grown on agar plates in the presence of thin filter paper discs containing relevant antibiotics. If the bacteria are susceptible to a particular antibiotic, an area of clearing surrounds the wafer where bacteria are not capable of growing (called a zone of inhibition).DR.T.V.RAO MD 4
    5. 5. AGAR DISK DIFFUSION METHOD• Medium Mueller Hinton 4 mm thickness pH 7.2 to 7.4• Antibiotic storage -20oC minimum disks temperature• Inoculum McFarland 0.5 (108 bacteria/mL)• Incubator temperature 35oC• atmosphere ambient air 5 5
    6. 6. PROCEDURE • Prepare a pure culture (18-24 hrs) of the sample on a non- selective medium • Adjust turbidity until it is equivalent to the 0.5 McFarland Turbidity Standard Sample 0.5 McFarland StandardDR.T.V.RAO MD 6
    7. 7. ASEPTIC TRANSFER OF COLONIES FOR PROPAGATION OF BACTERIASelect at least 4 to 5 well-isolatedcolonies of the samemorphological type from an agarplate. Touch the top of eachcolony with a wire loop andtransfer the growth to a tubecontaining 4 to 5 mL of a suitablebroth medium, such as tryptic-soybroth. Allow the broth culture toincubate at 35°C until it achievesor exceeds the turbidity of 0.5McFarland standard.DR.T.V.RAO MD 7
    8. 8. CHOOSING A COLONY FOR TESTINGDR.T.V.RAO MD 8
    9. 9. MCFARLAND 0.5 AND ADJUSTED TEST ORGANISMDR.T.V.RAO MD 9
    10. 10. INOCULATE THE PLATE WITH UNIFORMITY • Within 15 minutes after adjusting the turbidity of the inoculum suspension, dip a sterile non-toxic swab on an applicator into the adjusted suspension. Rotate the swab several times, pressing firmly on the inside wall of the tube above the fluid level to remove excess inoculum from the swab.DR.T.V.RAO MD 10
    11. 11. UNIFORM INOCULUM ON PLATES IS ESSENTIAL FOR EFFECTIVE DETECTION • Inoculate the dried surface of a Muller-Hinton agar plate by streaking the swab over the entire sterile agar surface. Repeat this procedure two more times, and rotate the plate 60° each time to ensure an even distribution of inoculum. Replace the plate top and allow 3 to 5 minutes, but no longer than 15 minutes, for any excess surface moisture to be absorbed before applying the antibiotic disks.DR.T.V.RAO MD 11
    12. 12. PROCEDURE • Within 15 minutes of adjusting the turbidity • dip a sterile cotton swab into the sample • streak a lawn of bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar  Leave the lid agar for 3-5 minutes (no more than 15 minutes) to allow plate to dryDR.T.V.RAO MD 12
    13. 13. BE CAUTIOUS• The agar medium should have pH 7.2 to 7.4 at room temperature. The surface should be moist but without droplet of moisture. The antibiotic disks should be maintained at 8°C or lower or freeze at -14°C or below until needed, according to the manufacturers recom-mendations. Allow the disks to warm to room temperature before use. Dont use expired disks.DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
    14. 14. GETTING IDEAL RESULTS DEPEND ON RIGHT INOCULUM• There should be an almost confluent lawn of growth when done properly. If only isolated colonies grow, the inoculum was too light and the test should be repeated. To avoid extremes in inoculum density, never use undiluted overnight broth cultures for streaking plates./li>DR.T.V.RAO MD 14
    15. 15. PROCEDURE • Apply antibiotic impregnated disks on the bacterial lawn • Important: where the disk drops is where it stays • Incubate for 16-18 hours at 33 ± 2oC unless otherwise instructedDR.T.V.RAO MD 15
    16. 16. DO NOT LOAD THE PLATES WITH TOO MANY ANTIBIOTIC DISKS • Place the appropriate disks evenly (no closer than 24 mm from center to center) on the surface of the agar plate either by using a sterile forceps or the dispensing apparatus. No more than 12 disks should be placed on one 150 mm plate or more than 5 disks on a 100 mm plate. A disk is not to be moved once it has come in contact with the agar surface since some of the compound diffuses almost instan-taneously.DR.T.V.RAO MD 16
    17. 17. PROCEED WITH INCUBATION OF PLATES• Invert the plate and place them in an incubator at 35°C within 15 minutes after disks are applied. The plates should be incubated aerobically . After 16-18 hrs. of incubation, examine each plate and measure the diameters of the zones of complete inhibition, including the diameter of the disk. Measure the zones to the nearest millimeter using a ruler. Large colonies growing within a clear zone of inhibition should be subcultured, reidentified and retested to know whether they are contaminants or mutantsDR.T.V.RAO MD 17
    18. 18. INTERPRETATIONThe main concept is the “clinical categorisation"• Strains are sorted according to level of Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) versus reference breakpoints• c and C are the minor and major breakpoints Susceptible Intermediate Resistant MIC < c ≤ MIC < C ≤ MIC
    19. 19. UNDERSTANDING BREAKPOINTS Words of laboratory specialists • It is not possible to work alone • Breakpoints are the expression of a consensus among the scientific community at a given time in a countryBreakpoints are determined using two approaches • Pharmacological concept • Epidemiological concept
    20. 20. RESULTS • Antibiotics diffuse out onto the agar • Concentration of antibiotics decrease as they diffuse further away from the disks • After incubation, observe for a clearing on the bacterial lawn (zone of inhibition) Bacterial growth incubationDR.T.V.RAO MD Zone of inhibition 20
    21. 21. FOLLOW THE GUIDELINES FOR MEASURING ZONES OF RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY• Interpret the zone sizes by referring to the manufacturer provided standard table and report the organism to be either susceptible, intermediate, o r resistant. Never compare the zone sizes of two different antibiotics and judge their effectiveness accordingly.DR.T.V.RAO MD 21
    22. 22. RESULTS • Measure the diameters of the zone of inhibition • Interpret the results as “resistant” or “susceptible” according to the guideline provided by the CLSI • Interpretation of the zone of inhibition is different for each bacteria-antibiotic combinationDR.T.V.RAO MD 22
    23. 23. DISK SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING PROBLEMS PROPER INOCULUM AND HEAVY INOCULUM23 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 23
    24. 24. DISK SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING PROBLEMSDISK PROPERLY APPLIED DISK NOT PROPERLY APPLIEDDR.T.V.RAO MD 24
    25. 25. AN AGAR GEL THAT IS TOO THICK LEADS TO SMALLER ZONESDR.T.V.RAO MD 25
    26. 26. STANDARD STRAINS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCEPrecision and accuracy ensured through control strains • Known susceptibility to antimicrobial agentsStandard strains include • Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 • Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 • Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853
    27. 27. E-TEST ®• Same principle as the Kirby-Bauer Test• Uses a plastic strip with a predefined gradient of antibiotic concentration• Results are read directly on the strip where the zone of inhibition intersects with the strip E Zone of inhibition Bacterial growth DR.T.V.RAO MD 27
    28. 28. RESULTS• Interpret results as “resistant” or “susceptible” according to the guidelines provided in the package insert• For ambiguous results, refer to the provided reading guide for : • Organism related effects • Drug related effects • Resistance mechanism related effects • Technical and handling effects DR.T.V.RAO MD 28
    29. 29. PATIENT RESULTS MAY BE INCORRECT IF:• The organism was misidentified• A clerical error was made• Inappropriate choice of antimicrobials were tested and reported• The wrong patient’s sample was examined• The wrong test was ordered• The sample was not preserved properly 29
    30. 30. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING GOALS • When possible, don’t duplicate systems • Meet regulatory and other guiding requirements • Use automation when possible and technically sound • Have flexibility in antimicrobial battery • Focus technologist time on tasks that utilize their training and expertise • Get accurate results out as soon as possible
    31. 31. • Programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Microbiologists in the Developing World • Email • doctortvrao@gmail.comDR.T.V.RAO MD 31

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