Creating e-learning Content for Medical Profession


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Creating e-learning Content for Medical Profession

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  • E-learning is to classroom learning as cell phones are to a pay phone at the bus station. At least it is in some ways. For instance, e-learning allows you to learn anywhere and usually at any time, as long as you have a properly configured computer. Cell phones allow you to communicate any time and usually anywhere, as long as you have a properly configured phone. E-learning can be CD-ROM-based, Network-based, Intranet-based or Internet-based. It can include text, video, audio, animation and virtual environments. It can be a very rich learning experience that can even surpass the level of training you might experience in a crowded classroom. It's self-paced, hands-on learning. The quality of the electronic-based training, as in every form of training, is in its content and its delivery. E-learning can suffer from many of the same pitfalls as classroom training, such as boring slides, monotonous speech, and little opportunity for interaction. The beauty of e-learning, however, is that new software allows the creation of very effective learning environments that can engulf you in the material. 'Blended Learning is an approach to blend different learning methods, techniques and resources and apply and deliver them in an interactive meaningful learning environment. Learners should have easy access to different learning resources to apply the knowledge and skills they learn under the supervision and support of the teacher inside and /or outside the classroom. Such approach may apply face-to-face instruction with computer-mediated instruction. It also applies science or computer laboratory activities with the assistance of innovative educational technologies through computer, cellular or I-phones, Sky TV channels or any other electronic media. Learners and teachers can work together to improve the quality of learning and teaching. The terminal aim of blended learning is to provide realistic practical opportunities for learners and teacher to make learning independent, useful, sustainable and ever growing.' [1]
  • Creating e-learning Content for Medical Profession

    2. 2. WHAT IS E-LEARNING?Delivery of learning, training or education programs byelectronic means.*Involves the use of a computer or electronic device (e.g.:mobile phone) in some way to provide training, educationalor learning material.May involve a greater variety of equipment than onlinetraining or education, for as the name implies, "online"involves using the Internet or an Intranet. CD-ROM and DVDmaterials may also be used.Blended learning is e-learning combined with other trainingmethods.
    4. 4. WHY E-LEARNING? Excellence ExcellenceIn every stage, e-learningpositively impacts workforceexcellence. Retention and Growth • Competency mastery and recognition • Coaching and mentoring • Creating a learning community Employee Satisfaction • Flexible access to training opportunities • Cycle time for retooling skills • Access to best practices information Recruitment • New recruits lack certain skills • Speed to baseline competency • Orientation learning curve
    5. 5. HOW TO DEVELOP AN LEARNING OBJECT COURSE Design Learning Object Intellectual Sensual factors factors curriculumLearning style User behavior Context Granularity usability design Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    6. 6. COMPONENTS OF E-LEARNINGe-learning is the Technology Curriculumuse of technologyand servicesto deliver acurricula and, Servicesultimately, tofacilitate learning.
    7. 7. MAKING SENSE OFE-LEARNING SPECIFICATIONS & STANDARDS “The phrase „e-learning standards‟ is one of the most powerful and most misunderstood aspects of the e- Learning revolution.” . The MASIE Center, 2002
    8. 8. DELIVERING EDUCATION Workforce e-Learning is a Excellence Planning tool used within Performance each point of the Metrics Implementationeducation process and e-learning powerfully Reporting and Feedback Assignment coordinates the organization. Training Types of Learning Evaluation Technologies Delivery
    9. 9. FRAMEWORK FOR E-LEARNING Technological Interface design Pedagogical E-learning Center Evaluation Maintenance 9Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    10. 10. MEETING THE NEEDS OF 21ST CENTURY LEARNERSMain reason for usingtechnology in teaching:• to develop the skillsneeded in a knowledge-based society• not just IT literacy:embedding use of IT inteaching and learning• also developingknowledge-based skills 10Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    11. 11. CONCEPT OF LEARNING OBJECTS Lego ExampleContentis seen as“buildingblocks” Module from one course Module from another course using „chunks‟ of content. re-purposing „chunks‟ of content and adding new content.
    12. 12. LEARNING OBJECT MODELS Lego Atoms (D. Wiley) • Small pieces • Small pieces “Ideal” • Assemble in many ways • Not every atom is combinableconcept • All lego blocks fit together with every • Anybody can put Lego other atom together • Atoms can only be assembled in certain structures prescribedDefinitions vary: by their own internal structure• “as small as a drop, as wide as the ocean” • Some training is required in• the context of how learning objects are order to assemble atoms used is important• need the “glue” to tie learning objects A bit more together to create a meaningful learning reality-based experience concept
    13. 13. METADATA: "INFORMATION ABOUT INFORMATION” Administrative metadata  Map • Author • Revision date  Text • Rights, . . .  Interactive Technical metadata (medium-specific)  Image • Duration  Video • Digital format • Platform requirements, . . . Subject classification • Catalogue system • Subject heading(Learning Object) • Keywords
    14. 14. OUR VISION IS “INCLUSIVE E-LEARNING CONTENTS” We define “inclusive e-learning contents” as: • those digital learning materials which are bias-free, pedagogically flexible, customisable, and accessible.We strongly believe that: • Creating strategies, methodologies and technologies for the development and diffusion of inclusive e-learning contents is a step forward to ensure that all citizens regardless of their gender, race or ethnic origin, religion or beliefs, disability, age, social and economic condition or sexual orientation have access to high quality e- learning contents. 14Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    15. 15. Is there an information problem in Medicine?• Information explosion -15 million “facts” must a medical student learn -1990-91 = 50,000 articles in gastroenterology -250,000 art. Every 2 years, 342 / day, 4.2 /min.• “Facts” that are not facts p.e. apendicitis and pain localization• The imprecission of medical language F. T. de Dombal, 1993 15 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    16. 16. Education: Trends• Influencie of the media and the Internet• Sociologic changes in the education professions• Changes in the learner-teacher relations, braking away from authoritarian and paternalistic models• Changes in the relation between users and educational establishments, as a consequence of social changes• Emergence of a conscience of tax-payer and informed consumer 16 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    17. 17. Emerging Paradigm• Education and training along the whole life• Without barriers of time or place• Access to best knowledge whereever it is located• Possibility for all to be readers and writers, students and teachers• Utilization of all technologies available, at present or in the future, for accessing contents and learning 17 experiences Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    18. 18. E- LEARNING METHODS ARE COMPLEX TOO ….Various e-learning methods and strategiesinclude presentation, demonstration, drilland practice, tutorials, games, storytelling, simulations, role-playing,discussion, interaction, modeling,facilitation, collaboration, debate, fieldtrips, apprenticeship, case studies,generative development, and motivation 18Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    19. 19. THE SUCCESS OF E- CONTENT DEPENDS UPON APPROPRIATE MATERIALRemember that the overall aim is tobuild the confidence of your learner todeliver health care more effectively. Thelearner should enjoy your module andfeel that they have achieved somethingvaluable by completing it. Therefore,make sure that the learning outcomesare appropriate for your learner and thatthe module allows them to achieve newknowledge and skills with confidence. 19Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    20. 20. SKILLS OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED WORKERS• problem solving, critical thinking• communication skills• computing/Internet skills• independent learners• entrepreneurial, initiative• flexibility• team-work/networkingAS WELL AS subject expertise 20 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    21. 21. THINK BEFORE YOU STARTHave a clear idea of who your learneris. What knowledge and skills do theyhave already? How should yourmodule be designed to be mostappropriate for their learning needs?Always keep in your mind‟s eye amental image of your learner sitting atthe computer studying your module 21Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    22. 22. Educating a Professional• Transmmiting knowledge- To know- Intellectual Component• Acquire skills and habilities- To know how- Operative Component• Acquire and develope attitudes- “Hows” and “Whys”- Emotional and Moral Component 22 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    24. 24. CREATE SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES We all learn from multiple sources(textbooks, websites, conversations withexperienced colleagues and, mostimportantly, from patients themselves).You should encourage your learner toseek-out other information tocomplement your module. However, themodule must be self-contained andcontain all that the learner needs to meetits specific learning objectives. 24Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    25. 25. TITLE SLIDEThe title should state clearly what your moduleis about.This first slide is the essence for your module.It is your best chance to capture your learner‟sattention and make them want to study themodule.So make it as attractive and informative aspossible! 25Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    26. 26. CREATE THE CONTENT TO IMPROVE A MODULE AIMS TO IMPROVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS (TB). DECIDE WHETHER EACH OF THE FOLLOWING LOS IS GOOD OR BAD. THEN CLICK ON THE SQUARE TO SEE OUR ASSESSMENT. At the end of this module, you should: a. Know about the diagnosis of TB a b. Understand how TB is diagnosed b c. Be able to describe the methods used to diagnose TB c d. Be able to describe how CXR and sputum examination are used in the d diagnosis of TB 26Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    27. 27. CREATE CONTENT TO UPDATE KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATIONThe content is the information that youwant the learner to acquire.Clearly, this information has to be accurateand up-to-date.The content should also be clearlyreferenced so that the learner is able tocheck the source of the information.Start by identifying a small number ofreliable and up-to-date sources ofinformation. It is often useful to use arecent review as the main source of yourcontent. 27Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    28. 28. USING THE MAP FOR DEVELOPING THE E-C0NTENT Does the teaching and assessment of X match up? Is X being taught and assessed too much or too little? Where is this particular discipline How does the addressed in the teaching of X match curriculum? professional competencies? 28Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    29. 29. USING THE MAP PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS What would they teach me in this particular course ? What would I need to do throughout the course ? How would I be How is this taught and course different assessed? to those at other colleges ? 29Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    30. 30. ENGAGING THE LEARNER - SUMMARYThese are only a few suggestions and there are many different approaches. Doinvent your own methods for presenting information in an engaging way!A few general comments on presenting information: Do not use too many Think carefully about the different methods within a single module. To avoid likely learning style of confusing the learner, allow your learners and also them to become familiar with how best this particular just 2-3 different methods in information might be your module. presented. Remember that the aim Although effective, “active” learning is quite of the module is for the tiring. Including some learner to achieve the “spoonfeeding” of learning outcomes – not information as well as to demonstrate your one or two more skills as a teacher! demanding methods is 30 often best.Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    31. 31. CONTENT DEVELOPMENT & DELIVERY: THE BIG PICTURE Learning Existing Content Create Content Authoring Tools Repurpose Chunk Assemble Import Track LMS Deliver Courtesy of Robby Robson, Eduworks 2002
    32. 32. BUILDING WORKFORCE EXCELLENCEHEALTHCARE ORGANIZATION AND EDUCATION ISSUES Qua Qua n lat io Popu g Agin l ty lit y Em Sa plo O of C t is ye AH SHA f Ca fac e JC O t io ar e d re n an Emergency New-hire Preparedness cycle time ee ploy er HIPAA Em nov Tur WW Sh orkf t en ag k an is or or Pat i em M R at ien ta ce sur es Pr es ial ge c s nt S Finan t Sa afet fet y y
    33. 33. HOW TO PUBLISH THE E-COURSE (MOODLE)Understand what Moodle can do, how it comparesto other e-learning packages, and how it cansupport your teaching strategiesInstall the Moodle software on your own computeror a server, and understand your way around itKnow how to create different kinds of courses.Moodle can support courses where the group worksthrough the classes with a shared schedule, orwhere individual students work through at their ownpace, or courses where students are free to explorethe different topics in their own time. This book willshow you how. 33Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    34. 34. HOW TO PUBLISH THE E-COURSE (MOODLE)Understand all of Moodles learningfeatures. Moodle provides features formanaging course content, interactiveresources, and social activities such asforums and wikis. This book explains whateach of these features are, how they work,and most importantly how and when to usethem effectively.Manage students – so that you can ensurethat the right students are going to the rightclasses; allow students to enrollthemselves, or invite students to join acourse. You can even set up commercial 34courses where students pay to signDr.T.V.Rao MD
    35. 35. UNESCO AND MULTILINGUALITYPromoting a wider, more equitable access to information(« Recommendation on the promotion of multilingualism and universalaccess to Cyberspace »/ Initiative B@bel)Raising awareness of issues of equitable access andmultilingualismEncouraging Member States to • Develop strong policies which promote and facilitate language diversity on the Internet Guidelines for Terminology Policies • Create widely-available online tools and applications (such as terminologies, automatic translators, dictionaries) for content in local languages • Share of best practices and information  ISO/TC 37ISO/TC 37 – Bamako 2005-06/07
    36. 36. ADVOCATING OPEN ACCESS SOLUTIONS“Member States and international organizations shouldencourage open access solutions including theformulation of technical and methodologicalstandards for information exchange, portability andinteroperability, as well as online accessibility ofpublic domain information on global informationnetworks.”(UNESCO Recommendation on Multilingualism and Access toCyberspace)“Governments should promote the development anduse of open, interoperable, non-discriminatory anddemand-driven standards.” (WSIS Action Plan) Open source software? + Open content?ISO/TC 37 – Bamako 2005-06/07
    37. 37. A FEW THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND ABOUT E-LEARNING STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONSE-Learning Specifications & Standards areemerging as important considerations forcontent development. • Supporting new ways of developing content (e.g., notion of Learning Object, tagged content, structured content)Benefits of standards are many & varied: • Mix and match of content • Interchangeable content • Not “trapped” by a particular proprietary learning technology • Manage & track contentMany e-learning standards and specificationsexist in varying degrees of development. • Different standards bodies have different roles & responsibilities. • Often compliment each other in a holistic way.
    38. 38. THE LIMIT TO E-LEARNING IS OUR IMAGINATIONDifferent students, differenteducational outcomesNew tools give learnerspower to create anddemonstrate knowledgeNew designs andorganization of teachingneededOnly limitation: ourimagination 38 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    39. 39. FINAL REMARKSPlease remember that there are no rightanswers to eLearning. You should look at asmany other examples as you can,experiment and develop your ownapproaches.The key to success is to have a clear idea ofthe needs of your target audience, carefullydesigned and clearly stated LOs and then anengaging module that allows the learner toachieve the LOs with confidence. 39 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    41. 41. REFERENCESE-learning Specifications& Standards Solvig Norman Open School British Columbia &EduSpecs Technical Liaison Office an Ann BoweringMultimedia Learning Group Industry Canada 41Dr.T.V.Rao MD
    42. 42. The programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for e-resource developers in the Medical Profession Email 42Dr.T.V.Rao MD