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Renal doppler


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Renal doppler

  1. 1. RENAL DOPPLER Dr Mohit Goel 6 feb, 2014
  2. 2. ANTERIOR APPROACH The renal arteries are clearly imaged in B Mode from an anterior, subcostal approach however as it is perpendicular to the ultrasound beam it is not suitable for Doppler assessment. Supernumerary (duplicate) arteries can be seen looking posterior to the IVC in B Mode and Color in a sagittal plane. ULTRASOUND OF THE RENAL ARTERIES - NORMAL
  3. 3. Anterior Approach
  4. 4. OBLIQUE APPROACH By moving the probe to the left of midline and angling toward the patient's right, an acceptable Doppler angle of 60 degrees is achieved. To avoid aliasing set the colour scale high enough so it is minimized. If the scale is too low then it is difficult to determine which vessel is the vein and which vessel is the artery.
  5. 5. Anterior Approach Oblique Approach Transverse B-mode view of the abdominal aorta and right renal artery from an anterior approach. The ultrasound probe is oriented at midline and the Doppler cursor placed in the proximal right renal artery. The angle of incidence of the Doppler beam to the flow is unacceptable at approximately 89 degrees. By moving the probe to the left of midline and angling toward the patient’s right, an acceptable Doppler angle of 60 degrees is achieved
  6. 6. Flank/ Coronal Approach Roll the patient into a decubitus position to avoid bowel gas and improve visibility of the renal artery, especially the mid to distal portion.
  8. 8. Oblique approach for right renal artery Right Decubitus for left renal artery
  9. 9. The Doppler sample volume is placed within the proximal right renal artery. In this view, an acceptable Doppler angle of 60 degrees or less is easily obtained. Flank approach showing the abdominal aorta and origin of both renal arteries. The Doppler reading of the abdominal aorta is taken near the level of the renal arteries. This value is applied to the RAR .
  10. 10. Arterial anatomy Upon reaching the renal hilum, the main renal arteries divide into anterior and posterior segmental arteries. These further divide to feed the multiple segments of the kidney. The segmental arteries, in turn, give rise to the interlobar arteries which course alongside the renal pyramids toward the periphery of the kidney. The interlobar arteries branch into arcuate arteries at the corticomedullary junction. The arcuate arteries travel across the top of the renal pyramids and give rise to the interlobular arteries
  11. 11. Variant anatomy is common in the renal vascular system. Approximately 30% of individuals have more than a single renal artery on each side. Supernumery arteries may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Most accessory renal arteries arise from the abdominal aorta, but they may also originate from the common iliac, superior or inferior mesenteric, adrenal, and right hepatic arteries. Supernumery right renal arteries.
  12. 12. Anomalous anatomy affects the venous drainage as well as the arterial inflow. The left renal vein may follow a retroaortic course passing posterior to the aorta instead between the aorta and SMA. Anomalous left renal vein
  13. 13. Circum Aortic Left Renal Vein Alternatively, the renal vein may be circumaortic, dividing before reaching the aorta with one branch coursing anteriorly and another posteriorly
  14. 14. Normal renal arteries demonstrate low resistance waveforms – R I < 0.7. Increased vascular resistance with decreased diastolic flow may be seen in hydronephrosis, renal vein thrombosis and chronic renal disease. RI increases with decreasing diastolic flow.
  15. 15. • Normal intrarenal arteries • – low resistance • – R I is < 0.7 • – ESP (Early systolic peak) present • Rapid acceleration to peak systole (< .07s)
  16. 16. A low resistance waveform with sharp systolic upstroke is expected in the normal main renal artery (A). The early systolic peak (ESP) (arrow) is seen as a small notch in systole in the normal intrarenal arterial waveform. The systolic upstroke is rapid with an acceleration time of 0.07 seconds or less. Normal Doppler waveforms obtained from the main renal artery and segmental renal artery
  17. 17. Contrast angiography (CA) is the gold standard in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS). Due to its invasive nature, however, CA is not suitable for screening. Multiple studies have shown that Doppler Ultrasound can be an effective tool in the diagnosis of RAS.
  18. 18. TWO DOPPLER METHODS FOR DETECTING RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS • Direct Evaluation • Direct visualization with Doppler throughout the Main renal artery and all accessory renal arteries • Indirect Evaluation • Doppler of the segmental/interlobar renal arteries at the upper, mid and lower renal poles Two Doppler Methods for Detecting Renal Artery Stenosis • Direct Evaluation – Direct visualization with Doppler throughout the Main renal artery and all accessory renal arteries • Indirect Evaluation – Doppler of the segmental/interlobar renal arteries at the upper, mid and lower renal poles The most reliable approach combines the two methods.
  19. 19. The direct method involves Doppler interrogation of the entire length of the main renal artery, including any accessory renal arteries. Although stenosis is usually located near the renal artery origin, fibromuscular dysplasia is more often located in the mid to distal segment, thus requiring a look at the entire length of each artery. The highest velocity found in the renal artery is compared to that of the abdominal aorta (at the level of the renal arteries). This is termed the renal/aortic ratio or RAR. Direct Evaluation
  20. 20. Direct Evaluation • Velocities greater than 200 cm/sec have been shown to indicate a >60% RAS. • Post-stenotic turbulence must be documented beyond any focal velocity increase to confirm stenosis. • Bruits seen in Color Doppler or in the spectral waveform can also increase diagnostic confidence and aid in localization of a stenosis. • The RAR is calculated by dividing the highest peak systolic velocity in the renal artery by the normal aortic velocity. An RAR greater than 3.5 is considered abnormal. The use of the RAR instead of the absolute PSV value is preferable since hypertension itself can cause increased PSV velocities in all the vessels in hypertensive patients Criteria for Renal Artery Stenosis
  21. 21. Patient with renal artery stenosis Image A is a color Doppler image of a stenotic right renal artery origin. A color bruit is seen in the tissue surrounding the area of the post stenotic turbulence. The presence of the bruit can help to identify the location of the stenosis and increase diagnostic confidence.
  22. 22. A Doppler reading(B) obtained near the renal artery origin shows velocities over 600 cm/s in systole and over 300 cm/s in diastole consistent with a high grade stenosis. The arrows are pointing to a bruit that is evident on the spectral display.
  23. 23. Image C shows a spectral waveform obtained in the area of poststenotic turbulence just beyond the maximal area of stenosis. The velocity is lower at 317 cm/s and the waveform profile is irregular due to the turbulent flow.
  24. 24. Indirect Evaluation • Absence of ESP (most sensitive criterion) • Tardus Parvus shape • Delayed acceleration time (AT > .07 sec) • RI difference between kidneys exceeding >0.05–0.07 Criteria for Renal Artery Stenosis
  25. 25. The Doppler waveform obtained from the segmental renal arteries within the right kidney shows a tardus parvus shape with absence of the ESP (D). The AT measures 0.11 sec.
  26. 26. Tardus–parvus waveform in a patient with RA stenosis. Note the delayed and dampened upstroke yielding a rounded appearance to the waveform.
  27. 27. Normal Range of abnormal waveforms with increasing levels of renal artery stenosis from top to bottom. • The ESP is detected on each waveform. • In some cases, the ESP is the highest peak, but in others, the highest peak occurs later in systole. • The AT is always measured to the first systolic peak, which is the ESP in normal waveforms. Since the ESP is absent on abnormal waveforms, the AT is measured from the beginning of systole to the systolic peak. These waveforms are termed tardus parvus due to the delayed systolic acceleration.
  28. 28. RENAL TRANSPLANT • Pathologies • Rejection. • Infraction. • Renal artery anastomotic stenosis • Renal vein anastomotic stenosis • A V fistula.
  29. 29. REJECTION In cases of severe acute rejection, the transplanted kidney becomes edematous and manifests as a globular, hypoechoic mass with poor differentiation of the central renal sinus fat.
  30. 30. The edema leads to increased vascluar resistance and elevation of the resistive index. However, the finding of increased resistive index is a non-specific finding which can also be seen in the setting of infection, acute tubular necrosis, perioperative ischemia, hydronephrosis and extrinsic compression
  31. 31. Infarct of a renal graft. ©2005 by Radiological Society of North America Power Doppler US image demonstrates segmental loss of perfusion in the transplanted kidney (arrows), a finding compatible with infarct.
  32. 32. Renal artery anastomotic stenosis
  33. 33. Renal vein anastomotic stenosis Ultrasound findings of hemodynamically significant venous stenosis include • focal narrowing with upstream luminal dilatation, • focal color aliasing and • focally increased velocity with 4-fold or greater gradient across the segment of suspected stenosis.
  34. 34. Venous thrombosis can occur secondary to infection, severe rejection or technical problems with the anastomosis. The diagnostic ultrasound findings include absence of flow on Power, color and spectral Doppler analysis. Venous thrombosis results in a high-resistance vascular circuit and can result in subsequent reversal of diastolic flow in the arterial waveform; however, reversed diastolic flow is a nonspecific finding which can be seen in severe rejection, severe pyelonephritis, drug toxicity and extrinsic compression.
  35. 35. Arteriovenous fistula. Color Doppler US image demonstrates a highly vascular lesion.
  36. 36. Arteriovenous fistula. Akbar S A et al. Radiographics 2005;25:1335-1356 ©2005 by Radiological Society of North America Duplex Doppler US image of the lower pole segmental artery shows increased velocity and decreased resistive index.
  37. 37. Arteriovenous fistula. Akbar S A et al. Radiographics 2005;25:1335-1356 ©2005 by Radiological Society of North America Duplex Doppler US image of the adjacent vein shows arterialization of flow, a finding consistent with arteriovenous fistula.
  38. 38. THANK YOU