How to Cite Sources APA Style


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Basic rules for citing sources, presenting tables and figures, and using heading are presented. Examples are provided.

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How to Cite Sources APA Style

  1. 1. How  You  Should  Cite   Sources   APA  Style  
  2. 2. The American Psychological Association (APA) developed a style to help us express essential information of research in a uniform and unambiguous way.
  3. 3. APA style has become a standard to reference sources in journals, books, electronic databases, theses/ dissertations, research reports, academic papers, etc.
  4. 4. APA rules refer to a wide scope of elements of referencing sources, manuscript writing, reporting inferential statistics, electronic presentation of data, and publication process. Such amount of information has been presented in many manuals and web pages. That makes the theme intimidating for students. However, there are some basic rules that can be easily learned. They refer to citing, presentation of tables and figures, and use of headings. If you learn them, you will need help only for specific and less common cases.
  5. 5. Areas  of  Basic  Rules  to  Be   Presented   •  Citation •  Tables and Figures •  Headings
  6. 6. Citation   Periodicals 1.  Journal 2.  Magazine 3.  Newspaper Books 1.  Printed Book 2.  Edited Book 3.  Ebook 4.  Chapter in a Book
  7. 7. Periodicals  (I)   Journal  Article   Basic format •  Author’s surname,       First (and middle) name initial. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue), Page(s). Burik, S. (2009). Opening philosophy to the world: Derrida and education in philosophy. Educational Theory, 59(3), 297-312. Format tips: •  Times New Roman font •  Only journal title has the first letter of each word capitalized
  8. 8. Periodicals  (II)   Journal  Article   Journal article with digital object identifier (DOI): •  –  –  Journal article retrieved online: •    •  Same basic format DOI included after the page number     –  –  –  Home page URL included after the page number URL should be preceded by the phrase “Retrieved from http://” No retrieval date is needed Journal article written by more than one author: –  –  Include surnames and initials for up to seven authors If there are eight or more authors, include the first six authors, then write three ellipses, and add the last author
  9. 9. Periodicals  (III)   Magazine  Article   Basic format •  Author’s surname,       First (and middle) name initial. (Year, month of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume number (Issue), Page(s). Shanahan, T. (2013, November). You want me to read what?. Educational Leadership, 71(3), 10-15. Online magazine: Follow the basic format and add “Retrieved from http://….”
  10. 10. Periodicals  (IV)   Newspaper  Article   •  Basic format Author’s surname, First (and middle) name initial. (Year, month and day of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, Page(s). Preceded by “p.” or pp.” Applebaum, B. (2013, November 21 ). Fed looks for other way to aid economy. The New York Times, p. B1. •  If an article appears in on discontinuous pages, write all page numbers separated with a comma •  Online newspaper: Follow the basic format and add “Retrieved from http://….”
  11. 11. Books  (I)   Printed  Book   Basic format •  Author’s surname,       First (and middle) name initial. (Year of publication). Title of book. City of publication, State abbreviation or country (if relevant): Publisher. Sullo, B. (2007). Activating the desire to learn. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Sommers, C. & Sommers, F. (2004). Vice & virtue in everyday life: Introductory readings in ethics. London, UK: Thomson.
  12. 12. Books  (II)   Edited  Book   •    Basic format Editor’s First surname, (and middle) name     initial. (Ed.). or (Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of book. City of publication. State abbreviation or country: Publisher. Noll, J.W. (Ed.). (2011). Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  13. 13. Books  (III)   Ebook   Basic format •  Author’s surname,   First (and middle) name initial. (Year of Title of book. publication). Retrieved from ….     Denscombe, M. (2010). The good research guide: For small social research projects. Retrieved from id=I6rRC0oyotkC&redir_esc=y
  14. 14. Books  (IV)   Ebook   Ebook that is only in digital format: •  –  Ebook with digital object identifier (DOI): •  –  Include DOI at the end of the reference Ebook with a specific kind of edition: •    Write “(n.d.)” instead of year of publication     –  Include the type and version of ebook before the retrieval information. For example, “[ Kindle Fire version]”
  15. 15. Books  (V)   Chapter  in  a  book   Basic format •  Author’s surname,   First (and middle) name initial. (Year of publication) . Title of chapter. In Initial(s). Surname of editor(s) (Ed.). or (Eds.). Title of book (no period) (pp. x – xx). City, State abbreviation: Publisher.     Wittrock, M. (1998). Cognition and subject matter learning. In N.M. Lambert & B.L. McCombs (Eds.). How students learn: Reforming schools through learner-centered education (pp. 143-151). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  16. 16. In-­‐text  Citation   Different  Ways  of  Doing  It   •  Hart (2005) pointed out “In order to review a research literature you must be able to understand the design issues, methodological traditions and the specifics of research itself” (p.44) •  Hart (2005) pointed out three conditions to review a research literature. •  Understanding of design issues, methodological traditions and the specifics of research are essential to develop a literature review (Hart, 2005).
  17. 17. Tables  and  Figures   •  Tables and figures are used to (a) help readers understand the discussion and (b) display results. •  Limit their content to the essential information. Do not overuse them. •  They should be identified using the following format: chapter number. table/figure number. For example, table 4.1 (it means the table is the first of chapter 4). However, your university may have different rules. •  Refer to them using their identification number rather than expressions like “the table above” or “the figure on page 75”.
  18. 18. Example  of   table    
  19. 19. Example  of   Ligure  
  20. 20. Headings   APA style suggests five levels of headings (APA, 2010, p.62): Level   Format   1   Centered,  Boldface,  Uppercase  and  Lowercase  Heading   Instruments  to  Gather  Data   2   Flush  LeA,  Boldface,  Uppercase  and  Lowercase  Heading   Surveys   3   Indented,  boldface,  lowercase  paragraph  heading  ending  with  a   period.  Paragraph  begins  in  line  with  the  heading.                  Reading  comprehension  test.  Reading  comprehension  scores   were  gathered….   4   Indented,  boldface,  italicized,  lowercase  paragraph  heading  ending   with  a  period.                Form  A  of  the  reading  comprehension  test.   5   Indented,  italicized,  lowercase  paragraph  ending  with  a  period.              Items  included  in  the  form  A  of  the  reading  comprehension  test.  
  21. 21. Rules  to  Remember       •  Author’s first name should be given only with initials. •  Titles of books and journals are italicized in the reference list, not titles of articles or chapters. •  Only journal titles have the first letter of each word capitalized. •  Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon. •  State abbreviations should be after the city of publication and followed by a colon. •  Use Times New Roman or Courier New 12 point fonts. •  When quoting the exact words of an author (direct quotation) that are 40 words or more, write them in a block without quotation marks. If the quotation is shorter than 40 words, use quotation marks. In both cases, write the page number between parentheses at the end of the quotation.
  22. 22. Now  You  Know  APA   Basic  Rules  for:     Any Question? 1.  Citing: 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  Journal articles Magazine articles Newspaper articles Printed books Edited books Ebooks Chapter in a book 2.  Using tables and figures 3.  Using headings 4.  Some rules to remember We  are  preparing  interacLve  conferences  to   pracLce  how  to  apply  what  you  have  learned   today  
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