The symptoms of cholera are caused by the V. cholerae bacteria producing a poison (toxin) in your small bowel. A large number of the V. cholerae bacteria are required to produce enough toxin to cause the symptoms. Cholera is usually spread through water contaminated with infected faeces. If you drink contaminated water you may develop symptoms. You can also get cholera from contaminated food, particularly poorly cooked seafood. It's rare to catch cholera directly from another person. The main treatment for cholera is to replace the fluids that you have lost through diarrhoea. Your body will then usually fight off the infection by itself. You should drink enough fluids to replace those you have lost. It's also advisable that you take an oral rehydration therapy to replace lost salt and minerals. You can buy these from your pharmacist. Always read the patient information that comes with your medicine and if you have any questions, ask your pharmacist for advice. You can also make homemade solutions using sugar and salt, but you should contact your GP or pharmacist for advice first.
Transmission of medical knowledge
Transmission of Medical KnowledgeCrawley, 20 July 2012.
Aims of Session• Introduce humoral medicine• Note taking• Skim reading• What to put in your essay (working with narrative)
Humoral system of medicineHumor Temperame Element Season Qualities Personal nt qualitiesBlack bile melancholic Earth Autumn Cold/dry Creative, kind, considerateYellow/red sanguine Fire Summer Hot/dry Extrovertedbile socialblood choleric Air Spring Hot/wet Energetic, passionate, charismaticphlegm phlegmatic Water Winter Cold/wet Dependable, kind, affectionate
Which humour? Sanguine Humor: Blood Element: Air Season: Summer Age: Adolescence Qualities: Hot & Dry Organ: Heart Planet: Jupiter
Which humour? Melancholic Humor: Black Bile Element: Earth Season: Autumn Age: Maturity Qualities: Cold & Dry Organ: Spleen Planet: Saturn
Islamic medicine• Reading 5.3• Reading 5.4How do these readings relate to the key principles of Greek medicine?
European Medicine• Reading 5.7• Reading 5.8How do these reading replicate and challenge Islamic interpretations of Greek medical works?
Case A• unusual tiredness• headache• runny nose• sore throat• shortness of breath or cough• loss of appetite• aching muscles• diarrhoea or vomiting• It’s been very cold recently
Case B• a headache• aching muscles• tummy ache, diarrhoea and vomiting• weakness or lack of energy• Shivering, hotness and sweating• jaundice - yellow skin and eyeballs• feeling light-headed or shaky• Bleeding under the skin (showing as pin pricks or bruises) or from the nose or gums• pale or bluish skin• fast heart beat & fast breathing• Recent separation from husband• Just returned from Africa with male friend
Case C• has watery faeces with a mild, fishy smell and bits of mucus - looks like water in which rice has been washed• feels sick and vomit• has abdominal (tummy) cramps• Very thirsty, dry mouth, dry looking skin• Very tired• Sunken eyes• has a fever• recently travelled abroad
Skim reading• Read headings• Look at figures and examples• Read first line and last line of each paragraph.• Note down what the approximate content is of the chapter.• Note down what sources of evidence you have.
Thinking about your notesMaking notes• When do you make notes?• Why do you make notes?• How do you make notes?• Why do you make notes like this?• Have you always made notes like this?
Some methods• Linear• Highlighting• Underlining• Concept tree/mind map/spider diagram• Index cards
What happens next?• What do you do with your notes?• When do you use your notes?• Why do you use your notes?• How do you use your notes?• Do your notes do what you want them to do?• How do you know when they are working?• How do you know when they aren’t working so well?
Pirate notesQuestion:Why are these notes so useful?Because they RRRRRRS
Record• Record as many facts and ideas as you can• Don’t write every word• Don’t worry about grammatical correctness• Use key words – streamline
Reduce or Question• Reduce important facts to key words or phrases: memory cues.• Formulate questions based on the facts and ideas: clarify meanings.
Recite• State out loud and in your own words the facts and ideas• Hearing your thoughts will sharpen your thinking• Cover your notes while you are doing this.• Leave your cue words and questions uncovered.
Reflect• Enhance reflection by asking yourself questions: – How do these facts fit into what I already know? – How can I apply them? – How is knowing this important? – What is their significance?
Recapitulate• Summarise your notes at the bottom of the note page.• Write in your own words• Reflect the main points you want to remember
The system2. Reduce orQuestion: writekey phrases or 1. Record: writequestion that down facts andserve as cues for ideas in phrases.notes taken inclass.Cue phrases andquestions shouldbe in your own 4. & 5. reflect andwords. 4 & 5 Reflect and review Review Review your notes3. Recite: Review your notes periodically by recitingWith classroom periodically by reciting think about what younotes covered, think about what you have learned.read each key have learned.word or question.Recite the fact oridea brought tomind by key words 6. Recapitulate: summarise each mainor questions idea Use complete sentences