Brain Tumours

9,645 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Education
2 Comments
28 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,645
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
162
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
2
Likes
28
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • HELLO,
  • Brain Tumours

    1. 1. BRAIN TUMOURS NEW STAFF DAYS April 29 th 2005
    2. 2. BRAIN TUMOURS <ul><li>Brain tumours are the most common solid tumour in children. </li></ul><ul><li>About 300 new cases are diagnosed each year. We see about 30 – 40 new cases a year. </li></ul>
    3. 3. 4 Main Types Of Tumours Found In Children <ul><li>Astrocytoma </li></ul><ul><li>Ependomoma </li></ul><ul><li>PNET </li></ul><ul><li>Craniopharingyoma </li></ul>
    4. 4. Brain Cells <ul><li>Brain cells are made up of two main types of cells </li></ul><ul><li>NEURONES – nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>GLIAL – supporting cells and structures </li></ul>
    5. 5. Glial Cells <ul><li>3 main types of glial cell giving 3 types of tumour - </li></ul><ul><li>Astrocytes – Astrocytomas </li></ul><ul><li>Ependyma - Ependomoma </li></ul><ul><li>Oligodendracytes - Oligodendroglioma </li></ul>
    6. 6. Tumour Grading <ul><li>Most tumours – all types are graded 1- 4 (benign – malignant). </li></ul><ul><li>Grading takes in tendency to spread, growth rate and similarity to normal cells. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Astrocytoma Astrocytoma’s grow from astrocytes, a star shaped cell found throughout the brain. Therefore the tumours can be found all over the brain, supra and infra-tentorial, and the spinal column.
    8. 8. Astrocytomas <ul><ul><li>Low grade astrocytomas include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These tumours would be treated with surgery and follow up scans. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Astrocytoma <ul><li>High grade tumours include. </li></ul><ul><li>Anaplastic astrocytoma. </li></ul><ul><li>Glioblastoma multiforme. </li></ul><ul><li>These invade local tissue and are much harder to excise. </li></ul><ul><li>They would be treated with surgery and follow up radiation and/or chemotherapy. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Ependymoma <ul><li>Growing from the ependymal cells found lining the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Low grade – subependymoma (4 th ventricle) </li></ul><ul><li>High grade – anaplastic ependymoma </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment – surgery and radiation </li></ul>
    11. 11. PNET ( PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOUR) <ul><li>They develop from primitive underdeveloped cells left over from foetal development. </li></ul><ul><li>All these tumours are all highly malignant they are also called </li></ul><ul><li>Medulloblastoma </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal tumours (pinealblastoma) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is surgery followed by radiation. These tumours are very difficult to treat and cure. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Craniopharingyoma <ul><li>These are benign, cystic tumours often involving the 3 rd ventricle, optic nerve and pituitary gland. Leading to diabetes insipidus and long term hormone problems. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Craniopharingyoma <ul><li>Treatment involves surgery followed by radiation and long term endocrinology involvement. </li></ul>
    14. 14. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Post fossa tumours </li></ul><ul><li>- Headaches and early morning </li></ul><ul><li>vomiting (caused by hydrocephalus) </li></ul><ul><li>- Papilloedema </li></ul><ul><li>- Ataxia </li></ul>
    15. 15. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Brain stem tumours </li></ul><ul><li>- headaches and early morning </li></ul><ul><li>vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>- Ataxia </li></ul><ul><li>- Dysphasia </li></ul><ul><li>- Visual problems, squint, cross eyed </li></ul>
    16. 16. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Frontal tumours </li></ul><ul><li>- Hemiplegia </li></ul><ul><li>- Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>- Defective memory </li></ul><ul><li>- Personality changes </li></ul>
    17. 17. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Parietal tumours </li></ul><ul><li>- Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>- Speech disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>- Spatial disorders </li></ul>
    18. 18. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Occipital tumours </li></ul><ul><li>- Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>- Blindness in one direction </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal tumours </li></ul><ul><li>- Often silent </li></ul><ul><li>-Occasional seizures </li></ul>
    19. 19. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Spinal cord tumours </li></ul><ul><li>- limb/back/neck pain </li></ul><ul><li>- weakness of limb </li></ul><ul><li>- Decrease in bladder/bowel </li></ul><ul><li> control/function </li></ul>
    20. 27. ? AND ANSWERS (HOPEFULLY)

    ×