Fundamentals of Ayurveda

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The complete information on the basic principles of Ayurveda, its concept, prakruti, doshic evaluation and its prominence is discussed.

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Fundamentals of Ayurveda

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Ayurveda<br />
  2. 2. Definition<br /><ul><li>“  That (science) is designated as Ayurveda where advantageous and disadvantageous as well as happy and unhappy life along with what is good and bad for life, its value could not be measured as it describes the life itself.”
  3. 3. There are 8 specialties in Ayurveda</li></ul> Charaka Samhita, Sustrastana, chapter 1, verse 41<br />                                                                       <br />
  4. 4. Kaya Chikitsa – General Medicine<br /><ul><li>The word Kaya means body. Another meaning of Kaya is Agni (internal fire). Therefore, Kaya Chikitsa means the management of the disorders of internal fire as well as the body. Defining the scope of Kaya Chikitsa,
  5. 5. The specialties of general medicine, pathology, cardiology, neurology, etc are also included in Kaya Chikitsa.</li></li></ul><li>Shalya Tantra - Surgery<br /><ul><li>The word Shalya means everything that bothers the psyche and/or soma.
  6. 6. Shalya Tantra is the branch of Ayurveda which employs Yantra (blunt surgical instruments and tools) Shastra (sharp surgical instruments) Kshara (caustic bio chemical substances), Agni (cauterization) to extract various types of foreign bodies, stones, minute particles,, lumps, bones, hairs, nails, pus, exudate, abnormal foetus, etc. as well as the study of Vrna (traumatic wounds including inflammation).
  7. 7. Shalya Tantra incorporates the specialty of surgery</li></li></ul><li>Shalakya Tantra – Opthalmology, ENT and Dentistry<br /><ul><li>All diseases that occurs above the clavicle comes under this specialty
  8. 8. Shalakya Tantra encompasses the management of the clavicle bone. The specialties of ENT, Dentistry and ophthalmology  </li></li></ul><li>Kaumarbhritya - Pedeatrics<br /><ul><li>Kaumarabhritya deals with the management of Nurturing of Infant, diseases of infancy and childhood.
  9. 9. Subsequently, the Kumara Bhritya branch has come to encompass specialties of gynecology and obstetrics together with pediatrics. </li></li></ul><li>Agada Tantra - Toxicology<br /><ul><li>Agad Tantra as the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the management of disorders arising out of the bites from snakes, insects, and other forms of poisoning
  10. 10. Agada Tantra incorporates the specialty of toxicology. </li></li></ul><li>Bhuta Vidya - Psychiatry<br /><ul><li>This discussion brings into sharp focus, the school of thought which equates the concept of Bhuta with that of mental disorders. Thus the specialty of psychiatry is included under Bhuta Vidya. </li></li></ul><li>Rasayana – General Wellness<br /><ul><li>Chakra defines Rasayana as the measures adopted to achieve the best quality of Dhatus (body tissues).
  11. 11. Rasayana Tantra as that branch of Ayurveda which deals with the measures to check the effects of aging as well as to increase life span and memory. </li></li></ul><li>Vajikarana - Geriatrics<br /><ul><li>Vajikarana Tantra is that branch of Ayurveda which deals with the management of the various disorders of reproductive system.
  12. 12. It includes andrology and sexology</li></li></ul><li>Basic Principles<br /><ul><li>Panchamahabhoota
  13. 13. Tridosha</li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br />The universe is made of 5 basic elements & human being is no exception<br />These 5 elements are called<br />PANCHAMAHABHOOTAS<br />
  14. 14. Panchamahabhootas (PMB)<br /><ul><li>Akash (Space)
  15. 15. Vayu (Air)
  16. 16. Tejas (Fire)
  17. 17. Jala (Water)
  18. 18. Prithvi (Earth)</li></ul>These 5 elements, combine to form all the living and non living forms in this universe<br />
  19. 19. PMB & Tridosha<br /><ul><li>The three physiological entities i.e. TRIDOSHAs are the result of the combination of the 5 primary elements in different proportions
  20. 20. PMB represents the structure and the Tridosha represents the functioning of this structure</li></li></ul><li>Combinations<br />DOSHA<br />PMB<br />VATA<br />Akash & Vayu<br />PITTA<br />Agni <br />KAPHA<br />Prithvi & Jala<br />
  21. 21. Tridosha<br /><ul><li>The tridosha regulates every physiological and psychological process in the living organism. The interplay among them determines the qualities and conditions of the individual.
  22. 22. A harmonious state of the three doshas creates balance and health; an imbalance, which might be an excess (vriddhi) or deficiency (ksaya), manifests as disease. </li></li></ul><li>Attributes<br /><ul><li>Vata governs the principle of Movement
  23. 23. Pitta governs Metabolism
  24. 24. Kapha governs Growth & Stability</li></li></ul><li>Individual AttributesVATA<br />DRY<br />ROOKSHA<br />COLD<br />SHEETA<br />LIGHT<br />LAGHU<br />SUBTLE<br />SOOKSHMA<br />MOBILE<br />CHALA<br />CLEAR<br />VISHAD<br />ASTRINGENT<br />KASHAYA<br />
  25. 25. Individual AttributesPITTA<br />OILY<br />SNEHA<br />HOT<br />USHMA<br />SHARP<br />TIKSHANA<br />LIGHT<br />LAGHU<br />LIQUID<br />DRAVA<br />FLOW<br />SARA<br />PUNGENT/SOUR<br />KATU/AMLA<br />
  26. 26. Individual AttributesKAPHA<br />HEAVY<br />GURU<br />COLD<br />SHEETA<br />SOFT<br />MRIDU<br />UNCTUOUS<br />SNIGDHA<br />STABLE<br />STHIRA<br />STICKY<br />PICCHILLA<br />SWEET<br />MADHURA<br />
  27. 27. Actions of Vata<br /><ul><li>Respiration
  28. 28. Zeal
  29. 29. Action
  30. 30. Expulsion of Waste
  31. 31. Control of Sense Organs & Nervous System
  32. 32. Governs Mind
  33. 33. Helps Metabolism
  34. 34. Vata also governs feelings and emotions as nervousness, fear, anxiety, pain & tremors</li></li></ul><li>Actions of Pitta<br /><ul><li>Transformation
  35. 35. Digestion
  36. 36. Absorption, assimilation & nutrition
  37. 37. Metabolism
  38. 38. Body temperature
  39. 39. Skin coloration
  40. 40. Vision </li></ul>Psychologically, it governs intelligence and understanding, Pitta arouses happiness, anger, hate and jealousy, bravery, will power etc<br />
  41. 41. Actions of Kapha<br /><ul><li>Lubricates the joints
  42. 42. Provides moisture to the skin
  43. 43. Strength, vigor and stability
  44. 44. Memory retention
  45. 45. Sexual Potency
  46. 46. Immunity</li></ul>Kapha is responsible for emotions of attachment, and long-standing envy; it is also expressed in tendencies toward calmness, forgiveness and love. <br />
  47. 47. Seat of Tridosha<br /><ul><li>Vata - Colon, Bladder, Pelvis, Bones, Legs, Skin and Ears
  48. 48. Pitta – Stomach, Intestines, Plasma, Blood, Sweat, Skin & Eyes
  49. 49. Kapha – Thorax, Head, Joints, Fatty Tissue, Stomach, Nose & Tongue</li></li></ul><li>Types of Tridoshas<br />KAPHA<br />PITTA<br />VATA<br />Kledaka<br />Pachaka<br />Prana<br />Avalambaka<br />Bhrajaka<br />Udana<br />Tarpaka<br />Alochaka<br />Vyana<br />Shleshaka<br />Ranjaka<br />Samana<br />Bodhaka<br />Sadhaka<br />Apana<br />
  50. 50. PRAKRUTIIndividuality – Human Constitution<br /><ul><li>Physical and Psychological Constitution of a person
  51. 51. Prakruti is determined at the time of conception of the fetus
  52. 52. The constitution of the person is permanent throughout the life span
  53. 53. Knowledge of Prakruti helps in maintenance of health and treatment of diseases</li></li></ul><li>Physical Constitution<br /><ul><li>Is based on the Tridosha, based on the predominance of the dosha in the sperm & ovum at the time of fertilization
  54. 54. Various Permutation and Combination of Tridosha leads to 7 major types of Constitution</li></li></ul><li>Types of Prakruti<br /><ul><li>Vata (V)
  55. 55. Pitta (P)
  56. 56. Kapha (K)
  57. 57. Vatapitta (VP/PV)
  58. 58. Vatakapha (VK/KV)
  59. 59. Kaphapitta (KP/PK)
  60. 60. Sama (VPK)</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics <br />
  61. 61. Vata Traits<br /><ul><li>Perform activities very quickly.
  62. 62. Not good at memorizing things.
  63. 63. Enthusiastic and vivacious by nature.
  64. 64. Thin physique
  65. 65. Have difficulty making decisions.
  66. 66. Develop gas or become constipated easily
  67. 67. Urine is scanty
  68. 68. Cold hands and feet.
  69. 69. Anxious or worried frequently.
  70. 70. Doesn’t tolerate cold weather as well as most people.
  71. 71. Speak quickly & Talkative
  72. 72. Mood swings and emotional by nature.
  73. 73. Have difficulty in falling asleep or having a sound night's sleep.
  74. 74. Dry Skin, especially in the winter.
  75. 75. Active, sometimes restless, but also very imaginative.
  76. 76. Energy tends to come in bursts.
  77. 77. Easily excitable.
  78. 78. Eating and sleeping habits tend to be irregular.
  79. 79. Learn quickly, but you also forget quickly</li></li></ul><li>Pitta Traits<br /><ul><li>Efficient.
  80. 80. Extremely precise and orderly, perfectionist about details
  81. 81. Strong-minded and have a somewhat forceful manner
  82. 82. Uncomfortable or easily fatigued in hot weather
  83. 83. Perspire easily
  84. 84. Irritable or angry quite easily.
  85. 85. Easily graying or balding; thin, fine, straight hair; blond, reddish, or sandy-colored hair.
  86. 86. Strong appetite.
  87. 87. Regular in bowel habits
  88. 88. Fond of cold foods, ice-cream, and ice-cold drinks.
  89. 89. Dislike foods that are very hot and spicy.
  90. 90. Enjoy challenges and are very determined</li></li></ul><li>Kapha Traits<br /><ul><li>Do things in a slow and relaxed fashion.
  91. 91. Gain weight more easily and lose it more slowly.
  92. 92. Placid and calm disposition.
  93. 93. Sleep very deeply.
  94. 94. Calm by nature and not easily angered.
  95. 95. Have excellent retention and a long memory.
  96. 96. Hair is thick, dark and wavy.
  97. 97. Smooth, soft skin.
  98. 98. Large, solid body build.
  99. 99. Slow digestion
  100. 100. Good stamina, endurance and a steady level of energy.
  101. 101. Slow measured gait.
  102. 102. Tendency towards oversleeping and slow to get going in the morning.
  103. 103. Slow eater
  104. 104. Slow and methodical in actions. </li></li></ul><li>Psychological Prakruti<br />Behavioral Pattern of Individual is based on the Psychological Prakriti, these are changeable with time and counseling<br /><ul><li>Satva – Intelligent, Balanced, Loving
  105. 105. Rajas – Short tempered, Intelligent
  106. 106. Tamas – Lazy, Pessimistic</li></li></ul><li>Health<br />SAMA DOSHA SAMA AGNISCHA SAMA DHATU MALA KRIYAH<br />PRASANNA ATMA INDRIYA MANAH SWASTHA ITI ABHIDEYATE<br />Health is not merely a freedom from diseases A person is healthy only when his mind, body, sense organs & soul are in the state of perfect equilibrium<br />(Definition of Health by WHO)<br />
  107. 107. Clinical Application of Tridosha<br /><ul><li>Equilibrium of VPK in the human body is health and imbalance is Disease
  108. 108. Maintenance of Equilibrium is the primary objective of recommended lifestyle for prevention and treatment for cure</li></li></ul><li>Vridhi & Kshaya of Tridosha (Imbalance of Doshas)<br /><ul><li>The imbalance of Doshas can happen when there is an increase or decrease of the doshas due to various etiological factors, which can be physiological (seasonal) and pathological (lifestyle, diet, accidental)</li></li></ul><li>Physiological Causes for Vitiation<br />2AM – 6AM<br />2 PM – 6 PM<br />VATA<br />10PM – 2AM<br />10AM – 2PM<br />PITTA<br />6PM – 10PM<br />6AM – 10AM<br />KAPHA<br />
  109. 109. Physiological Causes for Vitiation<br />After completion of digestion<br />50 YEARS AND ABOVE<br />VATA<br />During digestion<br />16 YEARS TO 50 YEARS<br />PITTA<br />Before beginning of digestion<br />BIRTH TO 16 YEARS<br />KAPHA<br />
  110. 110. Physiological Causes for Vitiation<br />PACIFICATION<br />VITIATION<br />ACCUMULATION<br />DOSHA<br />AUTUMN<br />RAINY<br />SUMMER<br />VATA<br />SPRING<br />AUTUMN<br />RAINY<br />PITTA<br />SUMMER<br />SPRING<br />WINTER<br />KAPHA<br />
  111. 111. Causes for Pathological VitiationVATA<br /><ul><li>Excessive Intake of Dry, Cold, Light Food Items
  112. 112. Improper sleep during Night
  113. 113. Trauma
  114. 114. Over Exercise & Traveling
  115. 115. Ignoring Nature Calls
  116. 116. Excessive Coitus
  117. 117. Erratic Diet habits
  118. 118. Fear & Anxiety</li></li></ul><li>Causes for Pathological VitiationPITTA<br /><ul><li>Excessive intake of Hot, Spicy, Oily, Salty and Sour food items & Alcohol
  119. 119. Over Exercise
  120. 120. Anger, Fear
  121. 121. Exposure to Sun</li></li></ul><li>Causes for Pathological VitiationKAPHA<br /><ul><li>Excessive intake of Cold, Heavy, Salt, Sweet & Oily food Items
  122. 122. Intake of Milk & Its products
  123. 123. Day Sleep
  124. 124. Lack of Physical Exercise
  125. 125. Over Eating
  126. 126. Free from Essential Stress</li></li></ul><li>Common Symptoms of Vata Vitiation<br /><ul><li>Restlessness
  127. 127. Weakness
  128. 128. Loss of Weight
  129. 129. Hoarseness of Voice
  130. 130. Pains
  131. 131. Insomnia
  132. 132. Constipation
  133. 133. Hyper pigmentation</li></li></ul><li>Common Symptoms of Pitta Vitiation<br /><ul><li>Yellowish Discoloration
  134. 134. Feeling of Anger
  135. 135. Increase of Body Temperature
  136. 136. Desire of Cold Substance
  137. 137. Delirium
  138. 138. Burning Sensation
  139. 139. Loss of Strength
  140. 140. Insomnia
  141. 141. Increased Thirst</li></li></ul><li>Common Symptoms of Kapha Vitiation<br /><ul><li>Obesity
  142. 142. Heaviness & Rigidity
  143. 143. Swelling/Edema
  144. 144. Less Physical Activity
  145. 145. Increased Sleep
  146. 146. Decreased Body Temperature
  147. 147. Decreased Appetite
  148. 148. Itching
  149. 149. Breathlessness</li></li></ul><li>Concept of SHAD RASA – 6 Tastes<br />Ayurveda recognizes 6 tastes, viz<br />Madhura – Sweet - Sugar<br />Amla – Sour - Tamarind<br />Lavana – Salt - Salt<br />Katu – Pungent (Spicy) - Pepper<br />Tikta – Bitter – Bitter gourd<br />Kashaya – Astringent – Beetle Nut<br />
  150. 150. Application of SHAD RASA – 6 Tastes<br />Suppressed By<br />Aggravated By<br />Dosha<br />Madhura, Amla, Lavana<br />Katu, Tikta, Kashaya<br />VATA<br />Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya<br />Amla, Lavana, Katu<br />PITTA<br />Katu, Tikta, Kashaya<br />Madhura, Amla, Lavana<br />KAPHA<br />
  151. 151. Restoration of Equilibrium of Vata Dosha<br /><ul><li>Intake of Oils, Ghee, Hot, Heavy, Soft food items
  152. 152. Oil Massage, Fomentation, Oil Enema
  153. 153. Appetizers & Digestives
  154. 154. Day Sleep
  155. 155. Avoid physical and mental stress</li></li></ul><li>Restoration of Equilibrium of Pitta Dosha<br /><ul><li>Intake of cold and soft food items
  156. 156. Intake of Ghee, Milk, Sweets
  157. 157. Medicated Purgation (Virechan)
  158. 158. Avoid physical and mental stress
  159. 159. Day Sleep
  160. 160. Shift to Cooler Environment</li></li></ul><li>Restoration of Equilibrium of Kapha Dosha<br /><ul><li>Intake of Light, Hot, and Dry food items & honey.
  161. 161. Therapeutic Emesis (Vamana)
  162. 162. Fasting
  163. 163. Lesser Sleep
  164. 164. Increased Physical & Mental Excersise
  165. 165. Hot water Bath & Intake</li></li></ul><li>Concept of Ama<br /><ul><li>Ama is a peculiar concept in Ayurveda (for which modern chemistry has no correlate). It is an important factor in a cause of disease and in modification of disease process.
  166. 166. Causes- agnimandya(all the 13 types), mala sanchaya, krimi </li></li></ul><li>The ama effects<br /><ul><li>Obstructs channels causes debility
  167. 167. Heaviness at all levels vitiates vata
  168. 168. Indigestion obstructs urges
  169. 169. Mandagni-a vicious cycle tiredness</li></li></ul><li>Agni – Metabolic Fire<br /><ul><li>Jatharagni - performs digestion,considered to govern other 'Agni, active in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, digests food and separates the nutrient factor from the residue factor.
  170. 170. Dhatvagni - responsible for that particular tissue metabolism. These are seven in number.
  171. 171. Bhutagni - responsible for molecular metabolism</li></li></ul><li>Dr.R.PRASANNA VENKATESAN,<br />Ayurvedic Physician,<br />Flat – O, Divya Complex, Block -1,<br />56/13, Nerkundram Road, Vadapalani,<br />Chennai – India<br />www.prana-retreat.com<br />info@prana-retreat.com<br />+91-44-23620559<br />+91-9043911384<br />

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