Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

New Study Of Bhagavad Gita Dr. Shriniwas J. Kashalikar


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

New Study Of Bhagavad Gita Dr. Shriniwas J. Kashalikar

  3. 3. 3 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA November 4, 2009, 10:30 am GURURBRAHMA GURURVISHNUH GURURDEVO MAHESHVARAH GURUH SAKSHAT PARABRAHMA TASMAISHRI GURAVE NAMAH I salute my Guru, who is Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh called Gunamaya i.e. the penultimate truth; and the Parabrahma; i.e. the ultimate truth. What is the background of the sharing of my perceptions of Gita? Why did I study Gita? It gives me great pleasure to share these experiences and perceptions of my study of Bhagavad Gita. Obviously; this is neither a translation nor a commentary. I may not call this an interpretation also. This is simply, a sharing of my experiences and perceptions of Bhagavad Gita! For the sake of simplicity, henceforth I am going to refer her as Gita. Another interesting thing, which may appear queer, is; I prefer to refer to Gita as “she” and not it. Because Gita is much more than a “living” and “loving” mother! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  4. 4. 4 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It was in early childhood that I used to hear some chapters such as 15th; being recited by my brothers and sister. During our school days I remember to have learnt some shlokas from Gita Dhyana and some shlokas from Gita proper. But I don’t remember the details. After this brief encounter, all that I heard during my medical college days, from leftist friends was not in favor of Gita. But what I heard from many others was high acclaim for Gita. But somehow I was involved in many things other than Gita and probably kept on groping in the dark for quite some time. May be, this was because study of Gita did not seem to have application in medical profession or social development; or because study of Gita wasn’t thought very important by leaders in different fields. Most importantly, study of Gita was not promoted enough by the local, municipal, state and central governments; in India; to attract majority of people and especially young minds! Study of Gita was not associated with any apparent or tempting incentive! I must appreciate however; that there have been many voluntary groups trying to spread the study and message of Gita all over the world, even though I had not come in their contact or influenced by their activity! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  5. 5. 5 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA But after coming to Mumbai, flame of curiosity was ignited and interest in Gita was aroused, probably because I had begun to revisit Vishnusahasranam and Namasmaran, and/or I was becoming increasingly aware of my inadequacies. Apparently it was also because; I wanted to study something world famous and ultimate in every sense; so as to boost my ego! Hence I began the study of Gita. But now it appears that there was much more to it than this. Whether I studied Gita or Gita herself made me study her, is a moot question and I feel; the latter may be truer. When did I start the study? What were the early experiences? When I seriously began to study Gita; about twenty years ago, I found many contradictions in her. For example, in 4th chapter, Lord Krishna says in the same verse, (Chaturvarnayam maya srustam…) that he created four VARNAS and also; he did not create them! Also, even as Lord Krishna advocates the war (Tasmat uttishtha Kaunteya yuddhaya kruta nishchaya…2nd chapter, nirashi nirmamo bhootva yuddhaya kruta nishchaya… 3rd chapter, Yadahankarmashritya na yotsya iti…..18th chapter), he also upholds nonviolence and control of mind in most DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  6. 6. 6 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA of the chapters e.g. (Ahimsa satyamakrodham.. 16th chapter, Moodhagrahenamatnoyat …17th chapter, ) as a virtue. Similarly, Lord Krishna disapproves Arjuna’s arguments in 1st chapter about VARNA SANKAR, which means indisciplined and unrestricted marriages directed by mere attraction; in different groups, (Ashochyanaiva shochastvam prajnya vadanscha bhashase.. .2nd chapter) he uses the same argument (Yadi hyaham na varteyam …and Utside yurime lokam… 3rd chapter). In 2nd chapter his argument (Akeertin cha pi bhootani…, Bhayat ranat uparatam…, Awacchya vadanscha bahoon…. etc) about “what people would say”, appears to be too superficial and not enlightening or philosophical (Please refer; page 121). One can quote many such contradictions and uninteresting arguments as examples; but that is not the purpose of this writing, because as can be seen latter, these apparent contradictions kept getting resolved in the process of study. Hence, the purpose of this writing is; to share exciting changes in my perceptions of Gita and myself and hitherto impossible; amazing revelations; which occurred as I went on studying Gita, inspite of the contradictions and uninteresting arguments! Why did I continue my study of Gita inspite of the contradictions and uninteresting arguments (which at DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  7. 7. 7 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA that time were “real” and not “merely apparent”)? Why did I go ahead even further to byheart her? The reason why I kept on studying Gita in spite of the contradictions was; I sensed that there was something in Gita, which I was not able perceive. This sensing of something; which I was not able to perceive, kept on haunting me. I sensed that it was so precious that I could not resist myself! This was like an obsession of searching a secret treasure; inspite of difficulties and dangers! That sensation of something imperceptible in Gita kept on propelling me from within also! It was as if I was possessed by this sensation in and out! In addition, I realized that I needed to correlate the shlokas or verses in different chapters so as to extract deeper meaning. This could have been possible only if I remembered all the 700 verses from different chapters, and contemplate on them, at any given point of time. This I thought was the only way to possibly resolve the contradictions; even while traveling or walking and without having to refer a book! So I started the uphill task (as I do not have the gift of very good memory) of by hearting Gita! But frankly speaking, even as I am giving these apparently logical explanations, I had not quite understood why I kept on reciting and by hearting Gita, obsessively inspite of the contradictions! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  8. 8. 8 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It appears now, that Gita herself consumed my consciousness, without me being aware of it and kept on absorbing; my being in her! Another reason for the persistence; (inspite of pains and agonies of frequent and serious disagreements); which was beyond my desire or voluntary will, may be that; study of Gita has the roots in my previous birth. This study may be a continuation of what was left half way; in the last birth! You may believe and appreciate this or discard as a flight of imagination! I leave it to your own perceptions and experiences! But life actually encompasses the births and deaths and hence called ANUBANDHA and NITYAGA i.e. linked up and continuous! The continuity is evident in such phenomena. Why did not I write earlier? In the process of studying Gita; the thought to share my understanding used be very predominant. This may be a reaction of the excitement I derived from time to time from Gita or it may be because I thought; I have something to offer to the society! For this reason; I had tried to write on Gita about ten to twelve years back, but later I stopped halfway; as I was not quite satisfied and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  9. 9. 9 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA was not at ease; with my own interpretations, contentions and explanations, which appeared circular to me! What is the feeling while sharing the perceptions of Gita today? Not that I am sharing now, because I can claim to have understood Gita completely, but because, I am convinced that Gita enlightens us for the journey; that starts with ignorance, individuality; and timed mortal existence; and heads towards the destinations of self realization; universality and trans-temporal immortal consciousness; respectively! Or rather, it is because it is an urge to share something wonderful with the others, with whom I feel, I am united, irrespective of their caste, creed, religion, ideology, race, country and other characteristics; such as whether I know them or not! I am keen to share this great treasure, because; at this juncture I see; that Gita deals with; 1) Molecular activities 2) Individual activities including various physical, instinctual, emotional and intellectual 3) The relationship of these with the society and universe and 4) The relationship of all these with past, present and future; and 5) The all encompassing cosmic consciousness i.e. the nature of our cosmic being. I am enthusiastic to share because, though Gita does not deal with; the drudgery of enumeration and description DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  10. 10. 10 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA of irrelevant peripheral details, she deals with the intricate principles involved in the intermolecular, inter- moment, interpersonal, international interactions and also the interactions at all the levels of consciousness. This may be termed cosmic dynamics or cosmic orchestra; including the role of an individual blossoming in it! Do I understand Gita completely? I have realized that I may not understand Gita, I may understand Gita partially, or I may misunderstand Gita. In any case it is useful; because; with the study of Gita, there starts the exciting voyage of enlightenment and blossoming! Complete understanding of Gita is impossible, because it is trans-intellectual i.e. beyond the three levels of consciousness (SWPANA, SUSHUPTI and JAGRUTI, i.e. dream, sleep and wakefulness respectively) and four modes of communication (VAACHA) viz. PARA, PASHYANTI, MADHYAMA and VAIKHARI, i.e. roughly speaking; communication from the root of one’s existence without articulation(umbilical area), the primitive instincts communication (precoridal area), autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine system (throat) and communication as articulated and spoken through central nervous activity (tongue, lips, palate etc) respectively. These modes of communication seem to express different levels of genuinity and varying distance from the objective truth. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  11. 11. 11 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA What is the scope of the study of Gita in individual life? However, even if I don’t understand Gita, due to above reason; I have the freedom and opportunity to keep on studying Gita and merge with cosmic consciousness to the extent possible, and while doing so share the perceptions! I have the freedom to be empowered in the course of time; sufficient enough to relinquish at appropriate time; “my” then redundant; intellectual, instinctual, emotional and instinctual frameworks, material possessions and my body, happily and victoriously! This is akin to a blossoming flower; that emanates its pleasant fragrance (without reservations and any kind of pain or discomfort whatsoever) or a ripe fruit that drops from the tree! What is the role of NAMASMARAN in the study of Gita? Now before I go ahead, I must state here, that NAMASMARAN enabled the much necessary inner propulsion for continued study and “understanding” Gita to the extent possible; and Gita provided the paradigm shift and strong and stabilizing conceptual foundation that made it possible to adhere to apparently meaningless and unglamorous activity of NAMASMARAN! But most importantly it is the cosmic consciousness (Guru) DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  12. 12. 12 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA that has made all this; i.e. study of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN possible! Why wasn’t this published as printed book? I am glad that it has been uploaded for free download and is being shared with millions, WITHOUT the delay caused by various formalities involved in printing, publishing advertising, transportation, shipment and marketing or selling of hard copies. This delay due to several factors such as motivation, interest, commitment, capability, dynamism of the printers, publishers and the people involved in marketing and sale; of hard copies is avoided! I am also glad that this electronic publication is independent of any influence of charity, donations, sponsorship. This is what I call the grace of God or the benevolence of the cosmic consciousness! In as much as I don’t want to keep any copyrights; so that anybody in the world; could utilize these shared perceptions freely, I would also like to clarify that; just as well meaning use of these would aid in imminent universal blossoming; the plagiarism of this material in any form with vested interests and mercenary motives; would prove detrimental to the plagiarists and their readers; and hence to everyone. November 4, 2009, 4:30 pm. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  13. 13. 13 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA In what way was it a difficult proposition to study and continue to study Gita? Like any individual I was also engrossed in the cacophony of needs, wants, passions, infatuations, goals, dreams and aspirations, for myself and the society, which I was conscious of, there was; in addition; an inexplicable and subconscious undercurrent that seemed to give incomprehensible twists and turns to my life; often beyond my tolerance and forbearance and stirred me from deep within! Added to all this was; the challenge of study of Gita, in which there way no monetary benefit or any solution to day to day problems. Study of Gita had (and even today does not have any value) in medical curriculum. There was importance in medical curriculum! This apparent irrelevance and non utility of the study made it difficult and often disturbing! But even as it appeared to create turmoil within my intellectual and emotional framework; I could not get rid of it, till today, due to the possible reasons mentioned earlier! What is the bond that Gita creates? It is just in recent times that I have started appreciating that Gita has the nectar of immortality that is beyond individual consciousness. But till recently; I felt that Gita DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  14. 14. 14 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA (who kills one’s subjectivity), imparted a dying experience! This is why at earlier stages I felt it was terribly frightening to study and internalize Gita! But even then, Gita immersed me in herself! In past, I used to sometimes worship Gita and sometimes contradict her; without seriously studying! I often merely used some quotations from Gita for proving my point and to impress the audience and feel good with myself. During my study in college and medical college I used get enamored by unusual terminology and bombastic uncommon words and feel elated. Many a times quoting Gita, added to this elation! But now I know that I was merely; getting enamored or repulsed by experiencing the periphery; similar to enjoying or hating the fruit by tasting its skin! What is the significance of reciting Gita? In India, Gita is recited, chanted, by hearted by many. Earlier I thought this was stupidity or slavish mentality. At times I thought this was blind belief. But today I confess frankly that I was more immature at that time, than what I am today! Today as a student of physiology for over 30 years, I feel that Gita can especially benefit all the children in the world to develop and tone up their central nervous system (including the speech areas and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  15. 15. 15 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA speech articulation with biomedical feedback) and enhance their evolution during this life! This is true not merely for a child but for any and every person of any age in the world. This is true even if Gita is by hearted without understanding the intricacies, which one can appreciate at a later stage of development! As a student of physiology, I am also sure that; by hearting of certain facts, meaningful hymns, philosophical or scientific sutras (e.g. those from Ayurveda, Gita, and Arithmetic), without questioning; lets the child build; the edifice of knowledge and then work on it. Up to a certain age there is no capacity in us to analyze and comprehend certain aspects of life and hence insistence on clarification should not be encouraged as it can act as hindrance in the learning. In fact by hearting even if the child did not understand the meaning is as essential; as feeding the baby, even if it did not understand the nutritive principles in that food! While studying Gita I realized that questions themselves should not be discouraged, but encouraged, but it must also be clear that all questions may not be answered and if answered, the answers may not be understood. Hence insistence on clarification; as a precondition to by hearting; should not be encouraged. What is the role of patience and humility in learning Gita? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  16. 16. 16 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Another point in learning Gita is; an approach with humility and patience. They are very important. Besides, hidden meanings are not understood by casual reading and/or egocentric approach under the spell of egalitarian, utopian or any such philosophical thought. Moreover; Gita can not be appreciated if we are already prejudiced by individualistic trends or socialistic dogmas; often hidden under the guise of analytical fervor and/or scientific temper. Patience (which is born from honesty, commitment and readiness to go beyond individual subjectivity and paradigms of every kind and sometimes called SHRADDHA) opens the doors to enlightenment and blossoming at individual and global levels! What is the benefit from study of Gita? Now I realize that study of Gita can empower a serious student of Gita to live with unconditioned acceptance, love and respect for every moment and situation, and work in consonance with nature; to one’s complete fulfillment and greatest satisfaction. Gita enables one to blossom in such a way, that subjectivity gets shed off smoothly; while global unity and harmony begin to pulsate in one’s heart! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  17. 17. 17 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It is worthwhile to share with you here; that today I feel that; opportunity to study Gita is a one of the greatest treasure in my life for me. November 4, 2009 9:45 pm. How do we reconcile the socialistic and individualistic ideas with the principles of Gita? During my first few years of study of Namasmaran, Vishnusahasranama and Gita, I was instinctively or intuitively feeling, that the essence of these teachings was not at all in opposition to the idea of social justice and material abundance; explicit in socialistic and leftist way of thinking. I felt strongly; that inequality and exploitation were aberrations; and in no way; teachings of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN (as sometimes erroneously thought even by me). I sensed the essence of Gita and Vishnusahasranam and the NAMASMARAN embodied the spirit; unifying the essence of the leftists, rightists, believers, nonbelievers and all others! But it is after ongoing study that it became clear that being not equal can mean; merely being different and complementary (and not necessarily unequal in the sense of constituting antagonistic relationship of exploiter and exploited). Then I took it upon myself to further clarify DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  18. 18. 18 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA the essence to myself and share it with others. Because; I had in myself (which were in the outside society), the leftist, rightist, individualistic, socialistic and good and bad elements; such as superficiality, pettiness, prejudice and ideological adamancy! In what way was the study of Gita useful in practically realizing the ideals of life? I was possessed by only one question: How to see more clearly and then show that essence of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN; is the key to blossoming of all, irrespective of their identity viz. atheist, leftists, Hindus, non-Hindus, and others belonging to different cultural and socioeconomic groups? I had sensed, as mentioned earlier, that Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN had the best from capitalist or individualistic doctrines in terms of individual blossoming and the best of Marxist, leftist, socialist or communist doctrines in terms of global blossoming and welfare of all; and unite all streams in the society! So, from this point of view, I wrote my comments or interpretations on Gita and Vishnusahasranam and Namasmaran, so as to highlight the innate unity and bring everyone together, irrespective caste, creed, religion and even socioeconomic group! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  19. 19. 19 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA (Did I get frustrated any time; in the process of studying Gita?) But as the time passed, I started realizing that even though my efforts were honest (according to me), they were subjective and incomplete. They did not convey absolute or objective truth and hence, did not match the demands of the time! But having not understood this enigma; I was really frustrated. I didn’t quite understand the subtle difference between subjective and objective perspectives. I was unable to see how my efforts; admired by most readers; could apparently make no impact (in terms of socio cultural and politico economic conditions, to my satisfaction) on myself and the society! How does Gita (or NAMSMARAN) help in overcoming the frustration? But in spite of my frustration, I still felt quite strongly that my convictions if real; then must blossom the universe in every possible way at some point of time. So I was not too much vagrant or did not go too astray! Gradually I began to realize that, even as my conviction was correct according to me, it could be more subjective and hence it was essential to practice NAMASMARAN with greater commitment and grow more and more objective. Having realized this onus my head, it became increasingly clear that it was useless and/or DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  20. 20. 20 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA counterproductive to simply despise my own short comings! Because, self pity amounted to being suicidal, i.e. violent to myself! Having accepted the NAMASMARAN as top priority, it also became clear that it was inappropriate to hate the shortcomings of the others. Because, that is being in a subtle way, violent to others! Thus, I stopped despising what ever was happening in the society which was unpleasant to me! I realized that there was no sense in getting frustrated, feeling guilty, accepting defeat or blaming disagreeable activities and view points of others (theists, spiritualists, atheists, leftists, secular etc because I was a part all this some point in time). I also found no sense in feeling sad about the misinterpretations of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN by their worshippers and/or their detractors (because I was a party to this also!). I also realized that, what is required, is blossoming together and empowering one another; through the study and practice of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN respectively. I thought this would assist us to grow from within and actualize intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical actions; in terms of globally nurturing policy making, planning, administration and implementation and engender individual and global blossoming! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  21. 21. 21 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA November5, 2009, 10:00 am What were the first impressions of 1st chapter? Initially when I began to read Gita, I felt that I am reading a story of war. I was rather put off by the list of names and the description of conches they blew. Later I read about the repulsion of Arjuna about the idea of war and violence and his arguments about the disastrous effects of war. I felt that there was nothing intellectual and it all seemed to be too obvious to be stated. But I kept on by hearting it apparently; as a kind of exercise of memory and probably also to fill the void in me; and actually because Gita “swallowed” me as I have mentioned earlier! I did not quite understand the exact meaning MOHA for long time. Some said that Arjuna was afraid and some said that it was his love for the family members. Some felt Arjuna was right and some said he was wrong. But I never seemed to understand how this was related to the day to day problems in life of a common man and me; and why Gita was acclaimed as the greatest exposition of philosophy! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  22. 22. 22 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Some said that the description of war was symbolic and actually Gita relates to the higher self in an individual with lower self. This seemed impressive but could not explain the relevance of Arjuna’s arguments about VARNA SANKAR i.e. haphazard and lawless marriages amongst different strata and groups in society and their ill effects. How can we get clarifications to the doubts formed while studying the 1st chapter? At this juncture; it is clear; that Gita actually deals with the individual existence, universe, the time and cosmic consciousness. She also deals with different stages of human development from SADHAKA i.e. seeker and SIDDHA i.e. enlightened individual and the various ways and techniques to attain the ultimate state of liberation. Initially I used to feel that Gita relates to individual emancipation and hence felt that there was nothing in terms of solution for the welfare of world. This was because of the repeated description of STHITAPRAJNA (a person beyond the influence of painful and pleasurable influences in life) and absence of any reference to dream society! This could be because of my ego (not necessarily unjustified or condemnable, but not accurate either), which prevented me from seeing my unity with the universe and how the STHITAPRAJNA state was DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  23. 23. 23 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA related to social welfare. Hence I could not see how Gita could help in social emancipation! In addition, the obsession and yearning that “I have to change the world for better” was the stumbling block in getting satisfactory solution from Gita! Moreover; I was expecting some kind of a blue print for the universal welfare; and since I did not find it; I used to feel that Gita is individualistic and hence of no consequences for the global welfare. Naturally I was not quite in love with Gita. In fact I read and studied it with reluctance and as if because; somebody was pushing me from within to study it persistently. Due to my honest (though subjective) concern; I was obsessed by global welfare, of which I had faint sketch in mind. But I was neither finding any reflections of the sketch in reality; nor was I completely convinced by it. I was probably looking for clearer blueprint in Gita. But since Gita does not give any such blueprint, I was rather getting depressed by reading Gita. Study of Gita was thus a kind of invited trouble! However gradually; this turmoil began to subside; when I started to realize that the role of Gita is not to provide any blueprint; but to inspire the student to create a universal blueprint conducive to blossoming (in a most democratic) of everyone in the world! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  24. 24. 24 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA What were the hurdles in the process of studying Gita? Sometimes I thought Gita was produced on battlefield, sometimes I felt that it was not a creation of one individual. Sometimes I felt that many people have added different verses out of context and relevance. But these feelings did not deter me from studying Gita, because; these feelings had nothing to do with what I was looking for in Gita! I was really not concerned and bothered whether Gita was created by one or many and whether on battlefield or elsewhere! Some people said that it was not proper to read Gita at home as it leads to conflicts in home and some people said that it was inauspicious to read it because it was read after some one’s demise. Although these views sometimes disturbed me temporarily; while studying Gita; they could not deter me from studying her! I however felt that Gita was not very pleasant like a romantic poetry and did not generate elation or ecstasy. She seemed to ruthlessly remind unwanted, unnecessary and unrelated questions and problems such as those of war and death! Arguments that Gita preaches violence and the opinion that she promotes inequality and exploitation appeared too superficial and based on casual reading with DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  25. 25. 25 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA preformed notions and prejudices; though they harmed my enthusiasm to some extent. Many people in the world alleged then and do so even today; that; Hindu scriptures such as VEDAs, SMRUTIs (Compilations of rules, regulations and practical techniques for social stability, growth and harmony) advocate inequality (and hence exploitation). This was because of the labor division that continued through generations, in a structured form. It is true that various influences such as military invasions and religious persecutions tore apart the fabric of holistic Hindu philosophy and way of life, into somewhat arbitrary, coercive and at times absurd traditions and conventions, but it does not render the Hindu philosophy as such; exploitative, outdated and counterproductive. These views create doubt and suspension in one’s mind even before a Hindu like begins to study books such as Gita. Can Gita guide the world today? I began to understand that Gita philosophy (the cosmic dynamics) reveals to us our position and role in the eternal orchestra and guides us to live to our fullest satisfaction; while simultaneously aiding the blossoming of the universe. I realized that by studying Gita superficially one can not see her potential to rejuvenate, regenerate and even revive the chaotic and turbulent human civilization all DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  26. 26. 26 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA over the world. I therefore felt greater and greater need to explore the heart of Gita. I started getting as if haunted by a beautiful and barely seen blurred “melodious light” in the core of Gita. Gita begins with the description of legions of Kauravas and Pandavas on the Kurukshetra. Thus Gita directly begins with the most crucial dilemma or tricky situation one can have in life viz. the question of life and death! All conflicts in life are concentrated in this situation! This makes Gita the ultimate counselor! I now feel that; Gita deals with war of higher self with the lower self in an individual, where the lower self is attached to many likes and dislikes! This attachment is depicted in terms of attachment (like that for suicidal and destructive addiction) for the relatives even if they were social psychopaths. This attachment leads to despondent retreat to lower self and passive acceptance of and involvement in degeneration and decay of one’s own true self (and that of the universe). This is surrender of higher self to lower self, or surrender of higher self of the society to the lower self of the society, that is called MOHA of Arjuna, which I guess is common to most people in the world (which is why Gita is universal). Gita simultaneously deals with the actual war also; because she looks at the individual and society in a DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  27. 27. 27 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA holistic way. She conceives and teaches to appreciate that the condition of war within and our response to that war; naturally manifest in family and social life. If our response is of surrender due to MOHA then it is detrimental to an individual as well as the society. I think, I can appreciate this (previously thought unwanted and irrelevant and hence unpleasant) unavoidable and eternal war within and out! In fact knowledge of Gita makes it clear that presence of this war and its comprehension is a golden opportunity to live in SWADHARMA and achieve individual and global blossoming! Strange (To state the war as opportunity) though it may appear it is true that this internal and external war is a product of evolution! Animals have no choice! They neither can glorify their instincts nor can they condemn it! Neither are they endowed with the freedom to choose indulgence nor are they free to opt for abstinence! They do not have the golden opportunity to live in SWADHARMA as there is o conflict. Arjuna’s response of MOHA is a response to inner war (that invariably manifests in the society)! Such despondent response to the lower self of an individual is invariably reflected in the form of a retreat to the lower self of the society i.e. psychopathic and detrimental elements in the society! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  28. 28. 28 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Gita not only depicts the individual and global despondency; but it also depicts; an intellectual explanation and justification of such despondency in the form of apparently sublime values and concerns; as advanced by Arjuna. Thus Arjuna is dismissing the idea of killing teachers, brothers and other loved ones by forecasting the social holocaust in terms of the ruining of families and the exploitation of widows and mutilation of social discipline and harmony; leading to ill effects on the departed souls and the abyss thereof! Arjuna represents erudite but erroneous arguments! Thus Gita creates a strong case for individual and social mediocrity, individualism, pettiness, gullibility, defeatism, and despondency with intellectual explanations and justifications, which span from individual and social life; to even life after death! It is at this point that I realized that Gita is unique in NOT providing an arbitrary blue print that upholds individualism or socialism; but enlightens the root of our being and provides freedom and blossoming of individuals and the universe simultaneously. This understanding has wiped out my previous reservations about Gita (of being individualistic or addressing merely personal needs or problems) and made me far more comfortable with Gita than I used to be earlier. I now understand that Gita is more personal and more social in true sense because she takes us to the core of both! This DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  29. 29. 29 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA makes her really and absolutely accurate, just and totally democratic in true sense, which the individualistic and socialistic philosophical frameworks are not! I felt very happy for having persisted on the study of Gita and having come out of the limitations and inadequacies of individualistic and socialistic philosophies. Through depicting the individual and social despondence (represented by ARJUNA VISHADA) Gita creates a ground for an eternal discourse to shun the individual, social and universal tendencies to sink and decay! Gita enters into 2nd chapter and then offers the omnipotent and omniscient panacea to such despondence and decay that surfaces repeatedly in the human civilization throughout history; from millennia to millennia and time and again; from the very source of eternally provident and rejuvenating cosmic consciousness! November 5, 2009; 10:00 pm How is MOHA a universal problem and the resurrection from MOHA a universal solution? After creating a strong case for the despondence; like a devil’s advocate; in 1st chapter; the propounder of Gita DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  30. 30. 30 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA straight away proclaims in 2nd chapter; the aphorism that you don’t die! This aphorism can cause a massive shock for any serious reader and I was no exception. Isn’t it natural that normally our mindset cannot understand, agree, believe or realize the concept of immortality of soul? I however; kept on reading it, but without really understanding, agreeing, believing and of course realizing! In fact this discussion in 2nd chapter made me feel miserably torn in two conceptual premises! Neither could I agree with the claim of immortality, which was beyond my comprehension and even imagination; nor could I felt that I was a complete mortal with no traces of life after the death of my body! I could never imagine myself discarding my body like “old clothes” or in; living in absence of the body, but I could not dismiss the claim of immortality also; because I “knew” (though I had not personally realized) that a) nothing is destroyed b) consciousness; thoughts, feelings, time, space, energy etc do not have the same kind of “existence”, “birth” or “death” and c) ‘beginning and end’ are human concepts; derived from the limitations of physiological state, consciousness, perceptions, thinking, feelings and the information processing in the neurons and their network! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  31. 31. 31 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Now I realize that such tearing off; of my conceptual premises lead to dialectical process breaking down the sectarian ideas and promoted evolution of the holistic perspective. Arjuna has indicated his disgust for a war that involves killing of near and dear ones. He is selfless and has no interest in any gains from such a war that involves shading of blood of his teachers, brothers and other close ones. So Arjuna is NOT afraid of war like a timid creature, but his conscience has paralyzed him! Arjuna like any sensitive, honest, brave and conscientious individual despised the killing of his brothers. I am sure that any sensitive and conscientious individual would relate with the plight of Arjuna; because it results from information processing through neuroendocrine, autonomic and central nervous systems; and hence is universal! But having said that; as I went on studying Gita, it started becoming clearer, that human beings are not merely physiological; they are potentially much more than that! November 6, 08:20 pm After listening to Arjuna’s plight, Lord Krishna, who is cosmic consciousness, personified; (and hence can see; what others don’t; and can’t; and is conscious of what others are not); sees that Arjuna is not able to see the truth beyond the physiologically restricted sensory DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  32. 32. 32 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA perceptions, like most people in the world! This inability to see beyond physiological boundaries (inaccurate perception), leads to faulty feelings arrogance or despondence (as that of Arjuna), and faulty actions (refusal to participate in war by Arjuna). Lord Krishna notes that Arjuna has been paralyzed (inappropriate conation or response) due to inappropriate feelings (affect) resulting from this erroneous perception (cognition). This syndrome (actually universal) is called MOHA. Lord Krishna therefore sets out to explore and salvage the human potential of Arjuna (and mankind) that has been paralyzed and wake him to his immortal self, (and thereby rectify cognition, affect and conation) from the despondent slumber of physiological confinements. Lord Krishna does this in a step by step manner, with different explanations. As a friend, philosopher and guide; he disapproves Arjuna’s response as totally unbecoming for Arjuna. He declares it as totally inappropriate and impotent! He explains to Arjuna that love and attachment to the bodies of all the warriors representing sociopathic elements; (by virtue of dominance of lower self in us; which clouds our perceptions, vulgarizes our feelings and deteriorates our actions) is inappropriate. Such wars keep repeating in the societies (between socially benevolent DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  33. 33. 33 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA elements and sociopathic elements) and also in the individuals (between the lower self and the higher self). Lord Krishna shows that waking up and rising to one’s immortal existence engenders the appropriate actions and one should not get deterred by any considerations born out of MOHA. Lord Krishna further clarifies, that the warring factions and the war (which also goes on in the individual as well as in the universe); had beginning and end but its core (cosmic consciousness) is immortal. Arjuna (and we all) should realize it (by evolving through the various means described in scriptures such as NAMASMARAN), and express himself enthusiastically with all might, in such wars (outside and inside)! These outer and inner wars are actually considered as golden opportunity, because, animals do NOT have such a choice to fight against the forces of darkness (within and outside). This is called DHARMYA YDDHA (one which is in tune with cosmic principles and hence inevitable; and NOT religious war) because it is in tune with as well conducive to reach the cosmic consciousness. This is similar to clinically accurate surgical treatment; which can be required for the health of the whole body (and society) and is totally different from indiscriminate violence or indiscriminate nonviolence, born out of ignorant and subjective premises. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  34. 34. 34 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It has to be remembered that through out hereafter; Lord Krishna keeps describing how one can conquer (not coercively suppress) the physiological (individualistic and petty) elements in body (which mar the consciousness and cause MOHA). He further also shows that uninterrupted (conscious) union with immortal soul is called YOGA; and the actions born through it are accurate, precise and appropriate; and in tune with the infallible cosmic principles! He enlightens Arjuna (and the world) that such state of being (in union with immortal consciousness) and actions springing therefrom (SWADHARMA); is called YOGA (which in essence is not different from TYAGA and SANYASA). Lord Krishna guides Arjuna about this state and assures him that this state brings peace (for that individual and the universe) even in the face of bodily death. Since Lord Krishna talked so much about this state of union with immortality, which makes us desireless; the next question would be “Why not remain united with the immortal and be peaceful, instead of warring?” Arjuna asks this question in the 3rd chapter. How are Gita and NAMASMARAN complimentary? What do we gain from them? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  35. 35. 35 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA But before I go ahead to 3rd chapter; and share my understanding (?) about Gita, I must make it clear, that study of Gita, Vishnusahasranama and NAMSMARAN compliment each other tremendously. I have a feeling that NAMASMARAN; which I call a mega-fusion, a mega-process; or a mega-fountainhead; is sure to absorb the whole universe in itself i.e. immortal cosmic consciousness and in turn, as and when consciousness adequately blossoms in an individual through NAMASMARAN, the concepts of immortality in Gita would become tangible! The vice versa could also be true! It is this awakening to one’s immortality; that I think; Arjuna (and the people of world) could gain from Gita; and that is more precious than anything else in the world; and even the world itself! November 7, 2009; 12:10 pm How easy is it to realize and practice SWADHARMA? How is it relevant to behavior of an individual, family and society? In 2nd chapter Lord Krishna declares the aphorism of immortality of the core of universe and individual; and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  36. 36. 36 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA human potential to realize this core that embodies cosmic consciousness. But Arjuna (and student of Gita like me) cannot experience the immortality right away! Lord Krishna therefore (apart from explaining the ways to rise and conquer the obstacles in the way of reaching the cosmic consciousness) gives other supportive arguments to emphasize the importance of SWADHARMA i.e. behavior born from the state of union with cosmic consciousness. Thus Lord Krishna indicates to Arjuna that the greatest value in life is SWADHARMA (and not some so called spiritual or material achievement, so called and often hyped miracles and mere material abundance respectively) and hence any person who goes astray (due to his subjective; whether individualistic or so called religious/socialistic; paradigm) from this SWADHARMA; is bound to be ridiculed as coward (Akirtim chaapi Bhootani… and Bhayat ranat uparatam, 2nd chapter). This essence of value system is the eternal glory of Gita that has been revitalizing mankind from millennia to millennia! Further, Lord Krishna reiterates that all the efforts of human civilization e.g. VEDAs are essentially born from and culminate into cosmic consciousness; and get expressed through individuals according to their DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  37. 37. 37 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA constitutions. Those who know this; are always connected with the cosmic consciousness (YOGA); and do not get distracted by the illusive results (success or failure) and those who do not know this; get cut off from the cosmic consciousness and their perceptions, feelings and the quality, methodology and the elegance of their actions get marred. They develop the illusion that their limited existence is the doer of everything; (treating the subordinate as master); and vacillate between pride and pain from the changing results of their inappropriate actions. The 2nd and 3rd chapters begin with Arjuna’s reluctance to participate in the war, and remain contented without bothering about the gains of a bloody war! But Lord Krishna identifies the subtle nihilism, cynicism or pessimism hidden in this attitude. He identifies this darkness and drives the point; that such “ascetic” extremism is suicidal for the individual and the society and not conducive to liberation! Lord Krishna guides Arjuna in 3rd chapter, (Na hi kashchit kshanamapi…) that, it is impossible to live without action. (Isn’t it true that irrespective of whether we want or not, billions of biophysical and biochemical activities go on in our body and mind? Isn’t it true that even for the universe and universal consciousness this is true?). He clarifies that any one who tries to live in inaction, deceives DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  38. 38. 38 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA himself or herself. The only way to liberation is to practice SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna says, whether the cosmic consciousness expresses itself in actions through you, or through the actions you reach the cosmic consciousness; both are essentially not different. The first is called JNANAYOGA, where apparently consciousness is predominant and latter is called KARMAYOGA, where apparently; the actions are predominant. Thus the actions which spring from the cosmic consciousness (e.g. as a result of the practice of NAMASMARAN), are the ones which lead to realization of cosmic consciousness also, and hence are called liberating or freeing actions (SWADHARMA)! Lord Krishna then highlights the cycle of nature in which universe manifests from and again dissolves into the consciousness and suggests that when the society and the individual conform to the innate principle of nature, they blossom together. He also points out that those who don’t conform to these principles, never blossom themselves and also become obstacles in the blossoming of others. This happens because of their being overwhelmed by their own subjectivity (individualistic, religious bigotry or socialistic whims and compulsions). This can happen also because of DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  39. 39. 39 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA the superiority or inferiority complex developed about their environment, conditions and apparently (due to sick value system) unglamorous or despised nature of their SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna elaborates that since everybody is not exactly the replica of another person and the constitutions are different; the external nature of SWADHARMA varies. He reiterates; that even in such a situation; it is important not to get bogged down by the deceptive external and internal influences and persist on one’s SWADHARMA, even if one has to die in return! Initially this appeared a bit harsh. But when I keenly thought over, I realized that living devoid of SWADHARMA is itself like death! Hence SWADHARMA is preferable even in the face of death, because it is the only express highway of individual and global blossoming! November 7, 2009, 3:30 pm. How to appreciate the universal, transtemporal and relevant nature of SWADHARMA? In the 4th chapter, Lord Krishna expands this concept of SWADHARMA and informs Arjuna that this is the knowledge that has run through generations and millennia. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  40. 40. 40 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Like any physiological individual, Arjuna also doubts Lord Krishna’s statement and then Lord Krishna reveals to him His immortal and true nature and that it is He (cosmic consciousness) that keeps reincarnating and re- manifesting; as and when the universe becomes oblivious of Him. (I feel that this is true in an individual, society as well as universe!). Lord Krishna asserts; that he manifests (through rising consciousness in an individual as well as society) and annihilates the demonic and devilish forces of darkness, (inside and outside) which obstruct the blossoming of individuals, society and the whole universe. He also reiterates that one, who realizes this, (either is united or) unites with the immortal consciousness! After revealing His cosmic nature, Lord Krishna elucidates how from the consciousness; different VARNAs i.e. four salient characteristic personalities manifest (though the consciousness does not produce them; in the physical sense of that word) and how they function! This is like involvement of space (in this case it is not mere physical and nonliving space because cosmic consciousness is like living or superliving space that encompasses everything!) which is essential for world activities, but does not directly participate in them. He also states that people work according to their stage of evolution; through different yajnas, pranayamas, and humble dialogue with a guide and reach enlightenment. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  41. 41. 41 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Lord Krishna points out how the conflicts between upper and lower nature can sabotage one’s progress and assures that SWADHARMA or YOGA liberate the individual (and society and the universe) and hence appeals Arjuna; to get rid of any doubt whatsoever and tread the path of SWADHARMA single mindedly. November 8, 2009 11:30 am What is the difference between SANYASA and YOGA? How are they relevant to common man’s life? In 5th chapter the discussion begins with a doubt; about the choice between SANYASA and YOGA. I think the word KARMA SANYASA (Sanyasah karmayogah cha nih shreya sakarvibhau tayostu karmasanyasat …..) here, pertains to renunciation or asceticism; i.e. departure from all the day to day activities required for the normal family life and social life and YOGA pertains to participation in these activities; by following SWADHARMA. The meaning of SANYASA as explained in 18th chapter is renunciation of activities of personal interest. Individuals in the last years of life adopt SANYASA in India, i.e. give up activities of personal interest. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  42. 42. 42 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA But the SANYASA for a common man would mean, giving up all activities which are not embodied in the SWADHARMA. So any one; who engages himself or herself in SWADHARMA, invariably practices SANYASA by quitting everything; not included in SWADHARMA. Similarly YOGA for a common man would mean total, loving, committed and victorious involvement with all the skill and energy; in the activity included in the SWADHARMA! Gita has reconciled SANYASA and YOGA. Both are complementary (because life is inevitably associated with renunciation of something and involvement in something at every stage of life. Renunciation of something or other at different stages of life; is coupled with involvement in something or other at different stages of life. But renouncing in a swift and loving manner and not out of hatred or inertia; and doing the work without attachment to the fruit (in short vested interest or subjective considerations); constitute SANYASA and YOGA respectively. They culminate in cosmic consciousness; and the proportion of SANYASA may be more in one; and proportion of YOGA may be more in another; depending upon proportion of emotional and intelligence quotient and neuroendocrine and physical capabilities; thus constituting two ways suitable for two varieties of individuals. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  43. 43. 43 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Why should Arjuna repeat this question regarding SANYASA and YOGA; in 5th chapter again? How are they relevant? The answer is; understanding supremacy of SWADHARMA is not adequate. Because, in spite of understanding; the inertia keeps on surfacing and prompting an individual; to escape from the worldly responsibilities; giving one excuse or another. In India; there were tides of ideologies glorifying irresponsible “asceticism” from time to time. Even today, there are various breeds of “spiritualism” and “SANYASA” spreading like pandemics in the world causing masses to move into irresponsible inaction, indolence and parasitism (probably as a reaction to harrowingly and violently stressful petty pursuits intermingled with fanatic ideologies of extreme individualism, extreme religious bigotry or extreme views of socialism)! Arjuna’s repetition of the question underlines the importance, span and sway over the world; of such irresponsible “asceticism” and “petty pursuits”. Lord Krishna reiterates the vital or shall we say life saving importance of SWADHARMA; for individual, social and global growth and blossoming. He confirms that SWADHARMA is more meritorious than “asceticism” in which one may conquer one’s petty selfishness; but can DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  44. 44. 44 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA succumb to the escapist, defeatist and irresponsible indolence and inertia, which drags the individuals, society and the world into abyss of misery! Lord Krishna makes it clear that SANYASA i.e. external renunciation (due to incidental cause) is usually impulsive and not true renunciation. Such renunciation is because of repulsion for day to day activities or SWADHARMA; (due self inflicting nature, SWADHARMA appears mediocre and unattractive; to them; though actually it can serve the purpose of blossoming one and all) that engenders misery. It is true that some individuals are born more evolved than the rest and hence neither get interested nor get involved in the day to day transactions of family and society, because of enlightenment and not inertia. They like Adya Shankaracharya; renounce the world and accept SANYASA just as ripe fruit falls from the tree. Some understand and realize the true nature of the world through SANKHYA philosophy without going through the experiences a common man and may lead a life different from a common man e.g. Dnyaneshvar o Dnyaneshwar. Being aware of this, Lord Krishna clarifies that we should not get enamored or infatuated (and tempted to emulate) by the heroic nature of SANYASA and SANKHYA philosophy (due to our subtle escapist or lethargic nature) but stick to our SWADHARMA, because even as the SANYASA, SANKHYA and YOGA (SWADHARMA) DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  45. 45. 45 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA look different; ultimately culminate into the same pedestal of cosmic consciousness! Having said this; Lord Krishna elaborates the sublime characteristics of practitioner of SWADHARMA, which elevates the individual in a blissful state that is beyond physiological boundaries and beyond all petty and subjective considerations of life! November 8, 2009, 4:30 pm What are the practical expressions of SWADHARMA useful in individual blossoming? In 3rd chapter it is stated that one who cooks and eats merely for his petty pleasures (which are actually detrimental to his blossoming) is a thief. This is a very important aspect of Gita. Gita encourages individuals to be active physically, instinctually, emotionally and intellectually and according to one’s capabilities and skills, but with the goal of getting freed from the subjectivity and merging with the cosmic consciousness. Gita states that; one (e.g. an intellectual or spiritual leader) should never dissuade (BUDDHIBHEDA) any other person; from his or her skilled and productive activities of livelihood; such as crafts, arts and other. One DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  46. 46. 46 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA should in fact; encourage these and try to do oneself; all such activities in life; but with the sole aim of conforming to the absolute truth and universal blossoming! Lord Krishna reiterates this even in 5th chapter. In the 6th chapter Lord Krishna reinforces this point and describes certain ways by which man can merge with the objective reality. He therefore makes it clear; right in the beginning that any one who works without attachment to the results, is a SANYASI and also a YOGI and not the one who does not do his duties (as prescribed by the scriptures with the intention of individual and global blossoming), out of escapism and inertia. Just as He imparts the insight in SANYASA by pointing out the dangers of inaction and indolence and importance of getting rid from the results, He also espouses and elucidates the nature of YOGA, which in true sense means all activities done to merge with the absolute. This YOGA is impossible in presence of SANKALPA i.e. subjective (erroneous) projections or utopia! You can imagine that individual or subjective goals (SANKALPA); act as leakages and hinder the merger of individual consciousness with the absolute consciousness! It is exactly like leakages in the pipes through which you cannot pump DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  47. 47. 47 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA water to higher floors. So getting rid of these leakages (SANKALPA) is true SANYASA, without which YOGA is not possible! Even though these concepts pertain to individual and global blossoming, they also make sense in day to day activities. Thus if you don’t depend on results; you can avoid self destructive responses (out of excitation or depression) to the results of your activities; and live life buoyantly! But it has to be appreciated; that in everyday life action is usually associated with results. Thus some understanding and anticipation of results is bound to be and has to be there, so that you can perform the action elegantly and diligently. Gita upholds such continued improvement in technique by anticipation of results; from which your feelings and responses are not marred. This is emphasized in (Buddhiyukto jahateeha …yogah karmasu kaushalam) 2nd chapter! November 8, 2009 7:pm There are many postures, mudras, pranayamas etc apart from proper nutrition, sleep etc. which are important aspects of life, which ought to be cultivated right from childhood, so that YOGA becomes possible. Lord Krishna does not elaborate in details on this, but suffice it to say that once the goal viz. self realization is identified and given topmost priority and importance, DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  48. 48. 48 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA then one can adopt suitable techniques; according to one’s physical and social environment, conducive to reach the goal! This is very important because during development to save us from dangerous infatuations born from some aphorisms (e.g. Aham Brahmasmi, Brham Satyam Jagat Mithya), which tend to make an individual totally unrealistic and schizoid! Of course, this not the fault of the aphorisms! Lord Krishna reassures Arjuna (and everyone) that dedication and consistent study and practice make YOGA (the correct process and progress to self realization) possible. Lord Krishna also maintains that even if an individual loses his body before reaching the goal, his efforts are never wasted and realizes the YOGA i.e. progress towards self realization in the next birth, (he/she is adorned with the necessary qualities). What are the pragmatic implications of YOGA in social life? Lord Krishna also clarifies the importance of YOGA in terms of actual practice (which seems to beneficially evolve the physiology) rather than mere reading and understanding and further emphasizes the importance the focus on the goal viz. self realization i.e. complete submission of the subjectivity to Lord Krishna i.e. objective or cosmic consciousness. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  49. 49. 49 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA 6th chapter; (like the 16th,17th and 18th chapters) is important for any educationist, education policy maker, educational administrator, teacher or trainer in the world, so as to work holistically; because it outlines the actual factors which contribute to the process of blossoming, including diet and nutrition in brief! It is easy to understand how this would have far reaching and beneficial impact on the world in terms of perspective, policies, plans and implementation; for individual and global blossoming, which is imperative today, because; no individual nation can grow or perish in isolation, without beneficial or adverse impact on the other nations; for long period. The practical relevance of this is on policy making. For example, global reduction in the production of two wheelers and small cars; in preference to mass transport vehicles such as buses, has impact on global environment, fuel consumption, traffic jams, accidents, pollution, wearing out of roads, crowding of local trains (in metros) and so on. If principles of Gita (the essential nutrients for individual and global blossoming) are imbibed and digested by decision makers of the world, then such globally beneficial policies can emerge in all the fields of life. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  50. 50. 50 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA How does the description of cosmic nature (in 7th chapter) of the Lord help one to blossom? In 7th chapter Lord Krishna narrates his omnipresent nature to Arjuna and indicates how only few realize this nature and how others do not realize this! He explains that he is the light beyond the physical light and remains unseen by eyes!! November 9, 2009 11:30 am In 1st chapter, there is depiction of subjective; and hence (inspite of being very conscientious); erroneous perception, feelings and response of Arjuna. In 2nd chapter there is elaborate explanation of cosmic consciousness and contingent nature of physical existence of the nonliving and living world! There is also a detailed account of the characteristics of the individual who realizes this immortality and expresses accurate cognition, affect and conation. It is obvious that; even as reading per se; is not enough to bring about the transformation in an individual and the world; the role of reading and understanding the “road map of blossoming” in the process of conscious evolutionary transformation of an individual and thereby the world; can not be denied. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  51. 51. 51 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA The 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th chapters describe the concept SWADHARMA and some of the relevant techniques in brief; but which can vary according to geographical, historical, social, religious and other circumstances. 7th chapter is meant for reinforcing these ideas by pointing out how people in, crisis, need, greed or intellectual and emotional yearning may get attracted to the absolute truth. In 7th chapter Lord Krishna reveals His omnipresent nature and indicates how He i.e. cosmic consciousness; is present in every visible and invisible aspect of the universe (including human hearts) and how only few realize this nature and how rest others; do not realize this! This can become clear to a discerning student; when he would appreciate the stanza elucidating how Lord Krishna is a light beyond the physical light and remains inaccessible to most! Throughout 6 chapters; one finds the common idea of the rising of consciousness in an individual and the world; and thereby getting freedom from petty, mean and trivial but strong bondages. In 7th chapter there is endorsement of this and also further buttressing of this point by indicating how the cosmic consciousness encompasses every living and nonliving matter, energy, space and time; and how awareness of this enables one to reunite with this immortal self. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  52. 52. 52 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Naturally Arjuna would ask about the nature of the universe and relevance of it to human life. Thus cosmic dynamics is described by Lord Krishna in 8th chapter. Lord Krishna assures Arjuna that a person blossoms to get freed from the shackles of subjectivity and reunites with one’s true self, through the knowledge of inseparable bond between the cosmic panorama and the individual and their relationship! But before we discuss this further, isn’t it important to clarify AHIMSA, which is indirectly discussed right from 2nd chapter? AHIMSA i.e. nonviolence; appears in chapters many chapters apart from 16th. In my view this AHIMSA refers to negation or disapproval of indiscriminate violence committed under the influence of utter darkness of ignorance (a variety of subjective activities destructive to self, society and the universe) and also strong protagnosim of surgical violence committed to destroy everything that opposes the union with cosmic consciousness i.e. individual and global blossoming. Unqualified and indiscriminate nonviolence is NOT advocated in Gita, which is clear from the repeated appeal by Lord Krishna to Arjuna (and every one) to participate tin the war against darkness and destruction (outside and inside). DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  53. 53. 53 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It is important to realize this; to avoid; perennial; schizophrenic state; of upholding indiscriminate nonviolence, (without being completely convinced) and practicing violence with petty selfish motives (again without being fully convinced). In our society often indiscriminate violence is legitimately practiced by killing animals to eat (not for survival, but for the petty pleasure of gustatory pleasure (taste), killing people of other countries for the so called out religious or ideological fanaticism, causing mass violence through adulteration, selling addictive, policies to promote alcohol consumption, use force to suppress peaceful demonstrations and protests, and most importantly unleashing many policies (in all the fields) detrimental to the blossoming of individuals and the universe. If we understand that AHIMSA means NOT indiscriminate nonviolence; but; protection and promotion of everything conducive to individual and global blossoming and destruction of everything that jeopardizes the blossoming of individuals and universe, then it would resolve the conflicts in the minds of all young and old and everywhere in the world and promote practice of SWADHARMA and blossoming of individuals and universe. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  54. 54. 54 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA If we keep on trying to uphold AHINSA as indiscriminate nonviolence, then it creates value crisis and semblance of schizophrenia (contrasting, conflicting and contradictory thoughts/feelings and actions); in everyone and everywhere. What are the obstacles in the way of SWADHARMA? I found that the prescription of blossoming and merging with the absolute consciousness through various techniques and through comprehension of the nature and interactions between the cosmos and the individual in 7 chapters; and practicing SWADHARMA;; are not as simple as they appear! In daily routine we tend to get overwhelmed and confused or bewildered (and cut off from our true self) by the deceptive influences coming from our body, family, society, world and the products of all these in terms of literature, art, media, education etc. This makes the self realization (dissolving the subjectivity in objective truth) and self expression (i.e. SWADHARMA), which are mutually nurturing and promoting; very difficult. The inappropriate perception generates agony and urgency to respond. But since the response is usually ineffective (because of not being in conformity or DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  55. 55. 55 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA harmony with the nature) one becomes agitated and/depressed. But one can not “see” how and what would rectify the “perceived” pathos in personal or global life; and hence tends to enter in a vicious cycle of increasing distress. No one seems to see (because of not practicing NAMSMARAN and grow beyond the restrictive frame of subjectivity); how this holistic perspective can create the difference in different fields and hence become nervous, not realizing the agonizing plight of people in the world is due essentially to lack of holistic perspective and spirit of Gita, amongst the policy makers! Hence in such a situation the prescriptions in Gita, or the simplest means such as NAMASMARAN advocated by saints and seers from all over the world, must be practiced with greater conviction so that the perception, feelings and actins get increasingly accurate! It is at this point that your SHRADDHA (which means unconditioned and totally selfless commitment, sincerity, devotion and dedication without any petty motive, because of accurate perception, feelings and actions) can rescue you from the vicious cycle of distress and help you to enter in the wellness cycle. This is not easy! But I keep convincing myself that the SADHANA of any suitable nature; or NAMASMARAN according to one’s tradition; must never be stopped. To convey this DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  56. 56. 56 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA strongly; Lord Krishna has assured in 6th and 7th chapters and latter in 9th and 16th and 18th chapters; that one would never fail if marches on this path of SWADHARMA! I have begun to realize; which I did not realize before; that all activities (especially NAMASMARAN) to reach the truth, have their impact, though it may not be perceived immediately due to one’s subjectivity. The lesson from the 7 chapters therefore is to keep trying to reach the absolute and keep working in its light to the extent it is possible at any given time and in a victorious manner; and sharing the spirit and insights with others! That is exactly the reason why; I am writing this (as a form humble prayer, as a participation in eternal struggle of dark forces of lower consciousness and bright forces of consciousness DHARMYA YUDDHA); and making available for free download for sharing with any one and everyone in the world without any precondition! Trying to keep yourself connected with cosmic consciousness; keeps you reassured on the one hand and active participation in buoyantly charged and appropriate manner (SWADHARMA); on the other. What is the opinion of Gita on arbitrary suppression? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  57. 57. 57 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA The idea of arbitrary suppression or unabated indulgence do not find place in Gita. Similarly regimentalized stereotyped procedures also do not find place in Gita. That makes Gita somewhat ambiguous initially, but as you go on internalizing her you find that she is basically universal in nature. In 3rd, 4th and also 6th chapters this is evident. Gita is universal because she shows the light to any one and every one; irrespective of the state of evolution, region in the world, his/her tradition; and without being judgmental about anyone’s life style; in any way! What are the influences of inner and outer environment on our blossoming? In 8th chapter Lord Krishna clarifies that a person engaged in SWADHARMA through intellectual, emotional, instinctual activities (through practice of NAMASMARAN throughout and hence while quitting the body; Antakale cha mameva smaran tyaktwa kalevaram…) actually is connected with the absolute and objective reality and hence does not get entangled and shackled in the repetitive basal cycles of distress through different births. There is also a declaration applicable to bright and dark external and internal environments, which lead to the fate of an individual. Thus individual is influenced by DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  58. 58. 58 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA adverse external physical, chemical and psychological activities and inner hormonal, autonomic and central nervous activities. But it is also assured that any one who keeps trying; on the path of NAMASMARAN; reaches the summit of union with cosmic consciousness. Nov 10, 2009, 11:15 am Why has not this been written sequentially translating verse by verse? I decided to write on day to day basis; rather than sticking serially and sequentially to chapters and verses. This has the advantages of being natural in expression rather than formal. It is also beneficial because of repetition and/additional emphasis on more important points; which reverberate in my mind with reference to some verses. Sometimes it also happens; that I skip many verses, at a given point in time because I have nothing to say about them at that time, but latter additional perspective and insights develop in the flow of writing; and deserve expression latter; even if it appears out of context. Moreover the Gita and her translations are available world over. Anyone interested can refer the original text of Gita as and when he or she wishes. Is it true that acquiring skill is the same as YOGA? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  59. 59. 59 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA In the 2nd chapter YOGA is defined (….Yogah karmasu kaushalam) as (ultimate) elegance or perfection in skill; but other way round; it also implies that the greatest skill or perfection in life is to realize YOGA! In my opinion, the latter is true. Because, the skill of an individual per se; does not impart global dimension to the individual’s consciousness, which is inevitable and inseparable aspect of YOGA. In fact, the word kaushala, refers not merely to the physical skill of an action, but more importantly it refers to the perspective, plans, intentions, involvement and feelings embodied in that action. What is the perspective in Gita with respect to suppression and indulgence? There is elaborate discussion in 2nd chapter; on how physical senses should be controlled. But if one takes into account the reference in 3rd chapter, then it becomes clear that the human life and experiences there in; have (and must be appreciated by us that they have) one goal or destination; and that is SELF REALIZATION and there is one way to achieve it i.e. SWADHARMA, rather than getting trapped in arbitrary suppression or unabated, mindless indulgence. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  60. 60. 60 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Gita is unique in the sense that she shows your ultimate goal, shows you the path and guides you in the method to tread it. Gita therefore does not advocate suppression or indulgence in an arbitrary manner, but inspires SWADHARMA; in which while enjoying the core or essence of all material pleasures you channellize them to blossoming of yourself and others! This is really universal thought; in view of the difference in the physiological and other needs of people in the world from different regions and cultures. Once the goal of individual and global blossoming and the way of SWADHARMA is identified and adhered to; rest of the dos and don’ts (which need not be regimentalized) follow the suit, in appropriate manner. In this context, one can appreciate the perspective born out of studying Gita about sex education. In light of Gita; we should learn and teach the father and mother principles and parental care; so that we don’t develop disgust for sex and succumb to sexual aberrations or perversions through arbitrary suppression on the one hand; and don’t commit crimes, don’t get diseased through getting trapped in carnal sexual obsession and unending, unsatisfactory and obnoxious indulgence in sex. Such holistic corrections can be made in all walks education. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  61. 61. 61 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA How do the experiences of the study of Gita differ from the experiences of the study of other books? It is nice to share here that I found the study of Gita different from the study of many other books. The study of Gita coupled with NAMASMARAN elevates you from subjectivity to objectivity, i.e. getting in alignment with the nature. Gita gradually but surely changes your status of being effectual to being causative! What I mean is; you rise from being helplessly vulnerable victim or play in the hands of the inner and outer environments, but assume the status of governing them. This is certainly difficult to agree intellectually, but can only be experienced. Hence one can verify if one wishes. Another point that struck me is: Gita teaches and trains us to enter the center of universe! Thus; from being part of the world of visible appearances and interactions thereof; Gita trains us to see and merge with the core. She enables us to penetrate the shackling traps of indulgence, aversion, escapism, suppression or perversions, in the superficial and aspects of our life. Thus Gita does not advocate renunciation of the world on the one hand and does not justify or glorify the unending and unsatisfactory retrogressive shackling in petty pursuits on the other! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  62. 62. 62 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA This is very useful in day to day life. If you experience the core of your spouse’s heart, then the fear of loss of your spouse (or any loved one) gradually disappears to a large extent and the romance becomes super romance and love becomes super love! Thus Gita trains you in super romance and super love. You learn to live every moment in super romance and super love; rather than getting worried about past and future and subjective considerations. How to reconcile the statements endorsing; “freedom from cycle of birth and rebirth” and “the phenomenon of reincarnation”? Aren’t they contradictory? In 5th chapter; Lord Krishna assures that you would not be born again (Abrahma bhuvana loka punravartino janah Mamupetya tu kaunteya punarjanma na vidyate) if you realize the self. But in 4th chapter; he also assures that he would manifest or reincarnate as and when appropriate/necessary (Paritranaya sadhunam vinashaya cha….) The explanations to these contradictory statements are: 1. Lord Krishna’s reincarnation is represented by the awakening of consciousness in every individual from time to time. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  63. 63. 63 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA 2. The reincarnation is progressive sojourn of life of an individual (who is either already enlightened or gets enlightened) and is different from rebirth, which is full of shackles of ignorance. Hence reincarnation and freedom from rebirth are not incompatible! What is the necessity to read Gita repeatedly? Gita enables us to develop the conceptual framework of our life i.e. road map to cosmic consciousness and NAMSMARAN rejuvenates us from moment to moment to proceed. The other way round also may be true! It is like anatomy and physiology. Anatomical structure is essential and complementary to physiological function and vice versa. But when you go deeper; both seem to be indistinguishable! One of the most important things I learnt; probably as a by product of studying Gita; is; practice of the essence of Gita is immensely important. Repeated reading or recitation of Gita consolidates the convictions about the essence of Gita and thereby rejuvenates the enthusiasm to practice that essence (NAMASMARAN). The practice of NAMASMARAN in turn; endorses and reinforces the conviction about the essence of Gita and makes the repeated recitation of Gita a sublimely empowering experience! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  64. 64. 64 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It is like reading about bath, which develops conviction about the advantages of bath and actual practice of bath that endorses the convictions about bath. Thus both are perfectly complementary. One can compare it also; with the reading about the advantages of exercise and actual practice of exercise. I also learnt in the course of time that we come across a number of situations in life, (due to internal and external environment) which shroud our consciousness, from time to time; and we tend to forget our true self i.e. the essence of Gita and this is really a shattering and weakening experience. In such situation, recitation as repeatedly as possible or plausible; of Gita and NAMASMARAN helps tremendously. Gita is a window to sky of cosmic consciousness and hence this window to the cosmic consciousness if closed, we get cut off from that sky of cosmic consciousness. Or repeatedly reading Gita is like breathing repeatedly, which is essential for life. Repeated reading or reciting of Gita is like lighting (to dispel the darkness of ignorance, illusion and slumber) the lamps every night, which are essential to dispel the darkness. Repeated recitation of Gita is essential for purification of mind, which tends to get clouded from time to time; like taking bath every day repeatedly for rejuvenation and cleaning. Gita recitation is like taking the DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  65. 65. 65 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA hypoglycemic drugs by a diabetic patient, in the sipping of which there is risk of increase in blood sugar to toxic levels. Gita is like oxygen of our soul. Jut as continuous supply of oxygen is essential for the life, maintenance of the supply of Gita through recitation is essential for sustenance of and blossoming of consciousness! Hence in 6th chapter; the importance of consistent practice is emphasized. In my view, even somewhat arbitrary and formal recitation, reading or chanting of Gita; proves very useful (by acting at subconscious and conscious levels); in strengthening and expediting the process of blossoming. The repetition is important for another reason also, which has physiological basis. Thus repetition of Gita or NAMASMARAN is a central nervous system activity and probably leads to development of stronger connections between cerebral cortex and the limbic system, (which are otherwise very weak). This underlines the difference between a well read individual and an individual involved in practice of NAMASMARAN and/or self realized individual. Gita recitation leads to paradigm shift. Individual becomes cosmic. Reading of Gita casually once in a while may at best serve to feel the elation of having read her or quote references and criticizing or praising. But DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  66. 66. 66 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA for getting the sublime experience of going beyond subjectivity, the essence that has to be imbibed and assimilated, which is impossible by reading it once. (This is my experience and hence I don’t rule out the possibility of someone exceptional getting the sublime experience in one reading or even without reading!) There is one more reason why repetition of Gita makes sense. Ordinarily one’s happiness or sadness depends on the involuntary interactions amongst the cerebral cortical, limbic, autonomic, neuroendocrine, endocrine and other systems of the body. The perceptions, feelings and actions are usually impulsive (and hence chaotic, conflicting and counter posed) because of weak input to; and weak output from cerebral cortex to the remaining systems. Repeated study and practice of Gita and NAMASMARAN probably enhance the integration of all systems, bringing them under higher controls such as cerebral cortex, conscience and cosmic consciousness and effectively lead to harmonious behavior; blossoming; one and all. One can study the changes in the brain from this point of view, in a control group; and a group involved in NAMASMARAN; to verify; the anatomical and physiological substrates; of the essence of global culture which may not be accessible to crude technology. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  67. 67. 67 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA One of the greatest lessons (one appreciates after repetition of Gita over a period of time is) of Gita to the world is; whatever we eat, drink, see, listen, talk, write, learn, perform, use, relish and so on; should get culminated into the goal of individual and global blossoming. This makes our life itself the most meritorious activity i.e. YAJNA! This is a true and qualitative revolution in individual and global life. It is imperative to state that for a person who does not have the capacity to learn Gita for one reason or another; the doors to cosmic consciousness are opened by NAMASMARAN. NAMASMARAN is a express highway to cosmic consciusness. Nov 11, 2009, 10:00 am Can the study of Gita allay various anxieties? One of the most interesting things I learnt from Gita; and also got thoroughly convinced in the course of time from the practice of NAMASMARAN; is the fact that everyone is moving towards the same goal and the same destination. This fact usually remains concealed and one gets impatient to “teach others”, “for their welfare”! Alternatively one may desperate to learn from someone! This impatience though natural can create condescending attitude and develop subtle expectations such as publicity and growth of your (otherwise selfless) mission! The desperation to learn can lead to slavishness and/or deception. This can DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  68. 68. 68 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA take away your peace and mar the quality of your behavior. When we appreciate this fact; that we all are going in the same direction and towards the same goal, then true love (probably more than that evident amongst the pilgrims) emerges and blossoms. That is the greatest hallmark of world culture. Once I get convinced and clear about this fact, then the acts of impatience and ignorance (whether committed by me or others) do not disturb me any more to a significant extent. It is matter of great privilege for us to realize (deep experience) this love especially amongst family members, relatives, colleagues, coworkers, people of our country, people from world and latter; even the enemies! Even as this revelation of love is magnificent; it may not manifest in the mind of the student of Gita at all times and in all persons. It is natural therefore (and hence need not be despised) that; at various stages of development even the students of Gita can be seen frantically advising, admonishing, preaching and also expect the results; from themselves and from others. But Gita surely frees the students Gita from this in the course of time and lets us enjoy the sublime love hitherto hidden or masked by superficiality! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  69. 69. 69 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA One of the difficulties in the study of Gita is that; it can develop a doubt; “Why truth has to be shown by some one else?” or “Why should I follow the ancestors?” As the study proceeds, however; you gradually realize that the thought that “somebody else showing the truth”, is because of erroneous image of “self” and the “other”. It is also because of the faulty images of “following” and “ancestors”. The learning or accepting knowledge should never depend on who gives it and whether it comes from your ancestors or contemporary peers. The knowledge or enlightenment or revelation or objective truth is like Sun. Sun does not belong to the window through which His rays enter! The “truth”, which is omniscient and omnipotent and omnipresent, does not “belong” to any one! So it is illusory to think that it belongs to some one else who “shows” you and you follow! From another angle, the idea “somebody else” is a relative idea. If we look at ourselves objectively, then we learn to look “me” and “somebody else” as two individuals with no specific preference. There is no good or bad feeling irrespective of about who is learning from whom! This is because the ego of petty self dissolves; as one studies Gita with persistence. So no one is superior or inferior DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  70. 70. 70 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA irrespective of whether he/she learns or teaches. These are only roles the individuals play! From yet another point of view, even the idea; of ancestors and decedents is relative; if we could look at it by going beyond the framework of time. Just as right and left depend on how we stand, similarly past and present lose meaning if we stand beyond the framework of time. Hence the hollow superiority or false inferiority disappears; when; through the study of Gita we learn to see more objectively! Hence, it is also erroneous to think that it “belongs” to your ancestors and you are an inferior descendent to “receive” it from them or other way round that you great because you are teaching it to your descendent. ! “Truth” or “self” is beyond time and it is absurd and baseless to be captive of superiority or inferiority complexes (developed because of petty identity), which come in he way realization of truth! Isn’t it possible to develop pride about our learning blow our trumpet? It is quite likely to be proud in the early stages. But as we come to know that there were, there are and there will be millions of students of Gita learning her! Also, gradually during study we realize that if “I” learn Gita; it is neither a matter of pride (if acclaimed by DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  71. 71. 71 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA people respecting Gita); nor a matter of pity (if ridiculed by people, who look down upon Gita). This is because, from philosophical and therefore realistic point of view, I am not the owner of what all capabilities, which I have; as I have not created them! It is simply a matter of being happy to blossom together! What is the relevance of virtues; described in Gita; today? In Gita, there is a reference to virtues in many places; including 16th and 18th chapters. One of them is “truth”. In everyday practice, there is always a conflict between loyal description of facts (which can either prove stupid and invite difficulties; or wise at produce profits) and concealing or misrepresenting the facts, (which also can engender punishment or yield gains). Hence there is ongoing conflict in every mind about the virtue viz. truth and Gita provides the answer to it. I began to appreciate the ‘true’ meaning of ‘truth’ gradually and distinguish it from “mere narration of apparent facts; even if done with 100%; loyalty and fidelity”. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  72. 72. 72 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA I began to understand that realization of “truth”; is a process and it leads to expression of appropriate behavior, conducive to blossoming of everyone and realization of truth! For this (rising above the criminal lies and gullible truths and living effectively to reach the truth) to happen; there are many precepts which ought to be followed from childhood, but the most important and universally practicable in every condition and situation is NAMASMARAN. What is the meaning of the verse in 6th chapter; (UDDHARET ATMANATMANAM NATMANAM AVASADAYET ATMAIVA HYATMANO BANDHUH ATMAIVA RIPURATMANA) which is very famous? How one is enemy of oneself? I began to understand this; by correlating it with the previous reference to the self. Lord Krishna elucidates the nature of real self to Arjuna in the 2nd and 3rd chapters. He then advises Arjuna in 6th chapter, in this verse; to rescue and uplift the other part of his consciousness (we can call it lower or actually physical or physiological consciousness; without being derogatory) that has been trapped in body systems; feelings and intellectual framework; and obviously; prevent its further bondage. He further states that if you do this; then you would find that that your lower DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  73. 73. 73 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA consciousness is friend of your higher consciousness (you) and if you don’t, then you would find that your lower consciousness is verily the enemy of your higher consciousness (you). The consciousness trapped in body, mind, ego and/or subjectivity is the enemy if not properly negotiated with and mastered or conquered. This consciousness becomes our friend, close friend once negotiated with and conquered, or shall we say brought in harmony with ourselves. This activity of winning part of our own consciousness, without being repulsive or escapist is YOGA. It is said (by those who have achieved this MAHAYOGA), that NAMASMARAN makes this possible. How to accept a bloody war as an opportunity? When I began the study, it used to appear strange that in 2nd chapter Lord Krishna has referred the war as great opportunity. I used to find this strange and not acceptable, because of my erroneous concepts and feelings about the violence. I used to think that war is devilish, vicious, and avoidable and hence should be avoided. Later, I used to partly agree that “this war as opportunity” DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  74. 74. 74 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA but rather reluctantly, because I used to think that Lord Krishna justified this war because it was imposed on them even as he had tried to avert the war through maximum possible negotiations! But now I realize that the upholding of war as an opportunity; refers to the option (which no other living being has) to emancipate the lower consciousness by participating in the war to conquer all physiological conflicts inside and social contradictions; outside! In my view this war of rescuing and emancipating the consciousness trapped in senses is described in HATHAYOGA texts as KUDALINI JAGRUTI. Hence HATHAYOGA practices (described in 6th chapter of Gita and Dnyaneshavari or Jnaneshvari) and intellectual exploration as through the SANKHY YOGA (also described in 2nd chapter of Gita and Jnaneshvari) are perfectly complementary and reach you to the same destination, viz. individual and global blossoming! The heavenly beauty and bounty of Gita is that she takes you beyond petty “love and hate” relationships. She reveals to you; how the love and hatred; in as much as the sense of fear and animosity; are born in your consciousness trapped in your senses and how rescuing the same would free you from all subjectivity and all pettiness. I seem to understand now, that this; if realized by us; can make our personal relationships far more pleasant than one can ever imagine! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR