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  1. 1. Presentation By: Urooj Ilyas Iqra Zulfiqar, Samia Yaqoob & S.M. Hasnain Ali Naqvi
  2. 2. • Introduction by Samia Yaqoob • Broad types of Epidemiology by Urooj Ilyas & Iqra Zulfiqar • Role & Importance of Epidemiology by S.M. Hasnain Ali Naqvi • Question Session
  3. 3. Epidemic, Epidemiology & Basic terminologies
  4. 4. • (epi), meaning "upon or above" and • (demos), meaning "people“ • Generally occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period. • Epidemiologists often consider the term outbreak to be synonymous to epidemic. Types: • Common source outbreak • Propagated outbreak
  5. 5. Spread of disease and increase no. of infected people by increase of days
  6. 6. • CLASSICALLY SPEAKING: Combination of three Greek words • Epi = upon • Demos = people • Ology = science • Epidemiology = the science which deals with what falls upon people….. • Bridge between biomedical, social and behavioral sciences • SIMPLE OLD DEFINITIONS: • Oxford English Dictionary THE BRANCH OF MEDICAL SCIENCE WHICH TREATS EPIDEMICS • Kuller LH: American J of Epidemiology 1991;134:1051 EPIDEMIOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF "EPIDEMICS" AND THEIR PREVENTION • Anderson G. In: Rothman KJ: Modern Epidemiology THE STUDY OF THE OCCURRENCE OF ILLNESS
  7. 7. • Now a days it is defined as: Science concerned with the study of the factors, determining and influencing the frequency of distribution of disease, injury or other health related events and their causes in a defined human population for the purpose of establishing programs to prevent and control their development and spread. Types of Epidemiolo gy according to their study zone  Veterinary Epidemiology/Epizoology  Botanical Epidemiology  Microbial Epidemiology
  8. 8. Source of epidemics
  9. 9. • Close association between the triangle of epidemiology and the chain of transmission • Disease transmission occurs when the pathogen or agent leaves the reservoir through a portal or exit and is spread by one of several modes of transmission. • Breaks in the chain of transmission will stop the spread of disease Etiological agent/pathway Source / Reservoir Mode of transmission Host
  10. 10. Types & their triads
  11. 11. DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY • Examining the distribution of a disease in a population, and observing the basic features of its distribution in terms of time, place, and person. We try to formulate hypothesis, look into associations • Typical study design: community health survey (synonyms: cross-sectional study, descriptive study) ANALYTICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY • Testing a specific hypothesis about the relationship of a disease to a specific cause, by conducting an epidemiologic study that relates the exposure of interest to the outcome of interest (Cause-effect relationship) • Typical study designs: cohort, case-control, experimental design
  12. 12. To undertake an analytic epidemiologic study we must first: • Know where to look • Know what to control for • Be able to formulate / test hypotheses compatible with a field evidence • Outbreaks in a population often involves several factor and entities • Many people, objects, avenues of transmission, and organisms can be involved in the spread of disease • Epidemiologist have created a model to help explain the multifaceted phenomena of disease transmission: the epidemiology triangle
  13. 13. • The three essential characteristics of disease we look for in descriptive epidemiology are:
  14. 14.  Age  Gender  Socio-economic status (education, occupation, income)  Marital status  Ethnicity/race/genetic profile  Behavior / habits 1. PERSON (WHOM)
  15. 15.  Geographically restricted or widespread (outbreak, epidemic, pandemic) Off- shore (tsunami…)  Climate effects (temperature, humidity, combined effects..)  Urban / sub-urban-squatter / rural  Relation to environmental exposure (water, food supply, etc)  Multiple clusters or one 2. PLACE (WHERE)
  16. 16. Year Season Month Week Hour of onset Duration 3. TIME (WHEN)
  17. 17. • The three essential phenomena of disease we look for in analytical epidemiology are:
  18. 18.  Biological agents  Nutritive agents  Physical agents  Chemical agents  Mechanical agents &  Social agents 1. AGENT
  19. 19.  Demographic factors  Biological factors  Socio-economic factors  Life style 2. HOST
  20. 20.  Physical environment  Biological environment  Psychological environment 3. ENVIRON- MENT
  21. 21. • host, agent and environmental factors are not in balance • due to new agent • due to change in existing agent (infectivity, pathogenicity, virulence) • due to change in number of susceptibles in the population • due to environmental changes that affect transmission of the agent of growth of the agent
  22. 22. • The mission of the epidemiologist is to break one of the legs of the triangle, which disrupts the connection between environment, host, and agent, and interfered with, altered, changed or removed from existence stopping the continuation of an outbreak. • The goals of public health are the control and prevention of disease. • By breaking one of the legs of the triangle, public health intervention can partially realize these goals and stop epidemics.
  23. 23. Pharmaco-epidemiology
  24. 24. Community diagnosis Determination of health status of population Identifying risk factors for disease prevention Identification of syndromes Evaluation of a community program Completing the clinical picture
  25. 25. COMMUNITY PHARMACIST  Interact with patients on daily basis  Collaborate with health department or Health planning agencies in order to give updated knowledge to patients and society about epidemics.  Study about the pharmacoepidemiology i.e., gathering information about the new drugs their effects and risks and assessments with its early uses regarding epidemic diseases. Outcom e Through the active part of pharmacist a checking system is designed, researches and new studies regarding treatments ease the patient and helpful in healthcare system.