Qualitative Research

3,064 views

Published on

Talk on Qualitative Research MAR 2012

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
1 Comment
18 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Thanks for sharing...enjoyed your ppt presentation
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,064
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
18
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Qualitative Research

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHOD Qualitative Research Dr Ahmad Faisal
  2. 2. RESEARCH METHOD Qualitative Research Expected Learning OutcomeAble to conduct further research on qualitative research
  3. 3. re-search / rē, sərCH/Noun: The systematic investigation into and study ofmaterials and sources in order to establish facts and reachnew conclusions.Verb: Investigate systematically.Synonyms:noun. investigation - exploration - search - study – inquiryverb. explore - investigate - search - study - inquire
  4. 4. Research METHOD"Research methods are the particular strategiesresearchers use to collect the evidence necessary forbuilding and testing theories" Frey, Botan, Friedman, & Kreps (1991)
  5. 5. Precise quantitative data and value rigorous, exact measures, statistical analysis and verifiable truth. QUANTITATIVE Hypothesis are tested by carefully analysing the data using statistics. Usually deductive logical reasoning.Approaches Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001to Research Method of inquiry appropriated in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences QUALITATIVE studies and market research. The aim is to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour.
  6. 6. why we go through this?want to make sense of a particular situation
  7. 7. Theory Hypothesis Deductive Observations Confirmationmaking sense Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999 Theory Tentative Hypothesis Inductive Patterns Observations
  8. 8. Qualitative ResearchQualitative research is about exploring issues, understanding phenomenaand answering questions. Qualitative research happens almost everyday,every time in workplace and at personal levelQualitative research seeks out the ‘why’, not the ‘how’ of its topic throughthe analysis of unstructured information – things like interview transcripts,open ended survey responses, emails, notes, feedback forms, photos andvideos. It doesn’t just rely on statistics or numbers, which are the domain ofquantitative researchers.
  9. 9. gain insight into peoples attitudes,behaviours, value systems, concerns,motivations, aspirations, culture orlifestyles. WHAT PEOPLE SAY WHAT Qualitative Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999 CULTURE PEOPLE MEAN, Research NEED, DESIRE WHAT PEOPLE DO used to make informed business decisions, policy formation, communication and future research effort
  10. 10. Qualitative research Characteristics Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999
  11. 11. Insider - Reality is what people perceive it to be. Value bound - Values will have an Dynamic - Reality changes with changes in people’s VIEWPOINTS impact and should be understood and taken into account when conducting perceptions. and reporting research. REALITY VALUESUnderstanding - Seeks tounderstand people’s Holistic - A total orinterpretations. complete picture is sought. 10 PURPOSE FOCUS RESULTS ORIENTATIONValid - The focus is on design Discovery - Theories andand procedures to gain "real," hypotheses are evolved from"rich," and "deep" data. data as collected. CONDITIONS DATA Naturalistic - Investigations Subjective - Data are perceptions are conducted under natural of the people in the environment. conditions. INSTRUMENTATIONS Human - The human person is the primary collection instrument.
  12. 12. • Produces more in-depth, comprehensive information. • gain a total or complete picture in natural setting GoodCavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999 MITIGATE Bad Case Studies & Triangulations • Subjectivity – difficult to establish validity & reliability. • Induced biasness – researchers vs respondents • Limited Scope – in-depth study
  13. 13. CASE & CASE STUDIES Research Context
  14. 14. Case: the term given in SPSS to a particularrespondent to a questionnaire or interview. (Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001)A Case: is a description of an actual situation,commonly involving a decision, a challenge, anopportunity, a problem or an issue faced by a personor persons in an organisation. (Leenders, Muaffette-Leenders & Erskine, 2001; Ellet, 2007)
  15. 15. Case Study: a comprehensive description and analysisof a single situation or case – e.g. a detailed study ofan individual, group or organisation. (Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001)The term Case study pertains to the fact that alimited number of units of analysis (often only one),such as individual, a group or an organisation, arestudied intensively. (Wellman & Kruger, 1999)
  16. 16. When to use case studiesCavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999Case studies, are directed towards understanding theuniqueness and the idiosyncrasy of a particular casein all its complexityObjective: to investigate the dynamics of some singlebounded system, such as social system of a family, anorganisation, a community, a group or participants ina project.
  17. 17. triangulation
  18. 18. triangulation an approach to research that uses a combination of more than one research strategy in a single investigation.choosing different strategies in the same study is to balance them so each counterbalances the margin of error in the other.ensure completeness confirm findings
  19. 19. Data Triangulation – Space, Time, Person Method Triangulation – Design, Data Collection Investigator Triangulationtriangulation Theory Triangulation Multiple Triangulation – using multiple techniques
  20. 20. Data Triangulationtime triangulation, researchers collect dataabout a phenomenon at different points in time.
  21. 21. Data Triangulationspace triangulation consists of collecting data at more than one site.
  22. 22. Data Triangulationperson triangulation collect data from more than one level of person, that is, a set of individuals, groups, or collectives.
  23. 23. Data Triangulation – Space, Time, Person Method Triangulation – Design, Data Collection Investigator Triangulationtriangulation Theory Triangulation Multiple Triangulation – using multiple techniques
  24. 24. Between method triangulation using combination of quantitative and qualitative design; NOT at data collection, Design generation and analysis BUT at Interpretation Level merging findings is an informed thought process, involving judgment, wisdom, creativity, and insight and includes the privilege of creating or modifying theory. MethodTriangulation often more time consuming and expensive to complete a study using methods triangulation. Combination is to provide a more holistic and better understanding of the phenomenon under study. Data Collection two different techniques of data collection, but each technique is within the same research tradition. within method triangulation
  25. 25. Data Triangulation – Space, Time, Person Method Triangulation – Design, Data Collection Investigator Triangulationtriangulation Theory Triangulation Multiple Triangulation – using multiple techniques
  26. 26. researchers with divergent backgrounds and expertise work together on the same study investigators each must have prominent roles in the studyInvestigatorTriangulation and their areas of expertise must be complementary.
  27. 27. Data Triangulation – Space, Time, Person Method Triangulation – Design, Data Collection Investigator Triangulationtriangulation Theory Triangulation Multiple Triangulation – using multiple techniques
  28. 28. use of more than one lens more than one theoretical or theory to analyse the explanation emerges from same data set. the data.Triangulation Emerging theories Theory Data Data Generatio Analysis n conclusio n
  29. 29. why do we go through case studies and triangulation
  30. 30. ensure confirmcompleteness findings trustworthiness  criteria
  31. 31. Assessment of TrustworthinessCavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999models must ensure rigor without sacrificing the relevanceof the research. Qualitative Quantitative Criterion Approach Approach Truth value Credibility Internal Validity Applicability Transferability External Validity Consistency Dependability Reliability Neutrality Conformability Objectivity
  32. 32. CRITERIACavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999 truth value Prolonged and varied field experience Time sampling Reflexivity (field journal) Triangulation creditability Member checking Peer examination Interview technique Establishing authority of researcher Structural coherence Referential adequacy
  33. 33. CRITERIACavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999 applicability Nominated sample Comparison of sample to demographic transferability data Time sample Dense description
  34. 34. CRITERIACavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999 consistency Dependability audit Dense description of research methods Stepwise replication dependability Triangulation Peer examination Code-recode procedure
  35. 35. CRITERIACavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999 neutrality Conformability audit conformability Triangulation Reflexivity
  36. 36. summing upqualitative research • Another approach to research. • Trying to make sense of things – idiosyncrasy within bounded system • The aim is to gather an in-depth understanding of behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour. • Using case studies and triangulation to confirm findings and ensure completeness
  37. 37. RESEARCH METHOD Qualitative Research Thank You

×