LEADERSHIPgenerally define as… “the ability to INFLUENCE a group toward the achievement of goals.” INTERPERSONAL “Is a special case of INFLUENCE that gets an individual or group to do what the leader wants done.”
MANAGERS & LEADERS CONTINUUM MANAGERS WHO LEADERS WHO AREARE NOT LEADERS NOT MANAGERS MANAGERS LEADERS Do things right INDIVIDUALS Do the right thing Status quo WHO ARE Change Short-term BOTH Long-term Means LEADERS AND Ends Builders MANAGERS Architects Problem solving Inspiring & motivating
Desire to Honesty & lead Integrity SelfDrive Confidence LEADERSHIP TRAITSKnowledge Emotionalof Business Stability Cognitive Ability
LEADERSHIP THEORYPROGRESSION time can be confusing There are many and at Biological factors Situational (transactional) • Fiedler Contingency Theory Personality traits • House Path-Goal Theory • Hersey & Blanchard Situational Theory • Kerr & Jermier Substitution Theory Behavioural styles Charismatic • House Charismatic Theory • Conger & Kanungo Charismatic Theory Transformational ability • Bass Transformational Approach • Work Related – Vision & Change
CONTEMPORARY APPROACHESTO LEADERSHIP • ATTRIBUTION Theory g leadership is in the eye of the follower • CHARISMATIC Leaders g followers attribute many leadership abilities to people perceived as exhibiting some leadership qualities • TRANSACTIONAL Leaders g guide followers toward established goals • TRANSFORMATIONAL leaders g provide stimulation toward new development and reinvention of the group
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPleaders are able to create an exceptionally strong relationship between leaders andfollowers 1. An individual needs to develop the aura of charisma by maintaining an OPTIMISTIC VIEW; using passion as a catalyst for generating ENTHUSIASM; and COMMUNICATING with the WHOLE BODY, not just with words. 2. An individual draws others in by creating a BOND that INSPIRES others to follow. 3. The individual brings out the potential in followers by tapping into their EMOTIONS. Charismatic appears to be most appropriate when the follower’s task has an IDEOLOGICAL component or when the environment involves a HIGH DEGREE OF STRESS and UNCERTAINTY.
TRANSFORMATIONALLEADERSHIP leaders are able to inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organisation. They change followers’ AWARENESS of issues by helping them to look at old problems in new ways; and they are able to EXCITE, AROUSE, and INSPIRE followers to put out extra effort to achieve ORGANISATIONAL GOALS. leadership is built on top of transactional leadership—it produces levels of follower EFFORT AND PERFORMANCE that go beyond what would occur with a transactional approach alone.
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPMAY NOT SERVE ORGANISATIONAL GOALS; BUT PERSONAL GOALS,INTENTIONS, GOOD OR BADTRANSFORMATIONALLEADERSHIPCOMMONLY SERVE ORGANISATIONAL GOALS FOR THE BETTERMENT
IDEALISED INFLUENCE – INSPIRATIONAL engender respect MOTIVATION –and trust that gives inspire people topower and influence give their best over people Transformational leadership DIMENSIONS INTELLECTUALINDIVIDUALISED STIMULATION - CONSIDERATION concerned with - pay attention to helping people toindividual employees think through new ways
LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT • SELF-AWARENESS: Exhibited by self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humour • SELF-MANAGEMENT: Exhibited by trustworthiness and integrity, comfort with ambiguity, and openness to change • SELF-MOTIVATION: Exhibited by a strong drive to achieve, optimism, and high organisational commitment • EMPATHY: Exhibited by expertise in building and retaining talent, cross-cultural sensitivity, and service to clients and customers • SOCIAL SKILLS: Exhibited by the ability to lead change, persuasiveness, and expertise in building and leading teams
• MODEL SELF-LEADERSHIP. Practice self- observation, set challenging personal goals, self-direction, and self- reinforcement. Then display these behaviours and encourage others to rehearse and then produce them. • CREATE SELF-SET GOALS. Having quantitative, specific goals is the most important part of self-leadership. • SELF-REWARDS to strengthen and increase desirable behaviours. In contrast, SELF-PUNISHMENT shouldSELF be limited only to occasions when self have been dishonest or destructive.LEADERSHIP • POSITIVE THOUGHT PATTERNS use mental imagery and self-talk to further stimulate self-motivation. • CLIMATE FOR SELF-LEADERSHIP Redesign the work to increase the natural rewards of a job and focus on these naturally rewarding features of work to increase motivation. • SELF-CRITICISM be critical of own performance. • THINK CRITICALLY see things through various lenses and reading between the lines.
ETHICAL LEADERS • provide developmental opportunities • open to positive and negative feedback • recognise others’ contributions • share information • concerned with the interests of the groupETHICS ANDLEADERSHIP UNETHICAL LEADERS • control and manipulate followers • do what is best for themselves • only want positive feedback • motivated by self-interest
ETHICAL LEADERSHIPBEHAVIOURSExercising Power Power is used to serve othersCreating the vision Followers help develop the visionCommunicating with Two-way communicationfollowersAccepting feedback Open to feedbackStimulating followers Want followers to think and to questions the status quoDeveloping followers Focus on developing followersLiving by moral Three virtues: courage, sense of fairness,standards integrity
UNETHICAL LEADERSHIPBEHAVIOURS Exercising Power Power is used to dominate others Power is used to serve others Creating the vision Followers help solely from the leader Vision comes develop the vision Communicating with Two-way communication not open to input One-way communication, followers from others Accepting feedback Open to feedbackpunish candid feedback Prefer yes-men, Stimulating followers Want followers to think and to prefer Don’t want followers to think, questions the status quoacceptance of own ideas uncritical Developing followers Insensitive to followers’ needs Focus on developing followers Living by moral Three virtues: courage, sensesatisfy Follow standards only if they of fairness, standards immediate self interests integrity
GREAT people talks about IDEAS AVERAGE People talks about THINGSSMALL people talks about OTHER PEOPLE