Shiny or dull?
Some minerals, like pyrite, are shiny.
Others, like chalk, are dull.
Hard or soft?
Diamond is the hardest mineral.
Gypsum is the softest.
2. Minerals are useful
We use minerals like gypsum to build buildings.
We use minerals like diamonds to make jewellery.
Rocks are natural materials
Rocks are materials made up of minerals.
We dig mines to obtain rocks that are underground.
We dig quarries to obtain rocks that are on the surface.
2. Rocks are useful.
Slate, marble and granite are used for building.
Coal is used for fuel. We burn it to obtain heat.
Granite is made up of three different minerals:
quartz, feldspar and mica.
We obtain granite in quarries
Granite is hard and resistant.
The ancient Egyptians used granite
to make sculptures.
Soil and underground water
1. Types of soil
The ground is made up of rocks, sand, soil, air, water
Humus is the remains of living things.
• Fertile ground has a lot of water, air and humus.
It is good for plants.
Poor ground: only resistant plants, like olive trees can
grow in poor ground.
Very poor ground, for example, in the desert.
Very few plants can grow there.
2. Underground water
Some water from rain filters through the ground and
reaches the bottom rocks. It stops and becomes
In deserts, this underground
water creates an oasis.