Vaccine as immunotheraputic agent


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Vaccine as immunotheraputic agent

  1. 1. Oral presentation on Microbiology department Benha faculty of medicine
  2. 2. We will talk about :  Definitions:  History of vaccine discovery :  Properties of ideal vaccines :  Types of vaccines : 1- Character 2- Preparation 3- Exampels  Combined immunization
  3. 3. Active Immunization Stimulates the host’s immune system to produce specific antibodies or cellular immune responses or both which would protect against or eliminate a disease. Passive Immunization preparation of antibodies that neutralizes a pathogen and is administered before or around the time of known or potential exposure
  4. 4. Vaccines Provide an antigenic stimulus that does not cause disease but can produce long lasting, protective immunity.
  5. 5. HISTORY  The word vaccine derived from the word vaca, meaning a cow in Spanish.  Edward Jenner discovered a vaccination for smallpox disease in 1796.  Jenner scratched some pus from a Cowpox sore into the arm of a boy James Phipps to see whether exposure to the virus protect the child from the smallpox virus.
  6. 6.  Louis Pasteur performed first experiment in immunology in July 6,1885.  Louis Pasteur treated a boy against rabies by injecting spinal cord fluid of a rabid dog. The spinal cord fluid stimulated the production of antibodies against the rabies virus
  7. 7.  Golden age of vaccine technology from 1950- 1970.  During this period, vaccines for polio, measles, mumps and rubella was developed.
  8. 8. Properties of an ideal vaccine  Should provide long lasting immunity.  Should induce both humoral and cell mediated immunity.  Should not induce autoimmunity or hypersensitivity reactions.  Should be inexpensive to produce, easy to store and administer.  Should be safe and effective
  9. 9. Types of vaccines 1- Killed vaccine : Virulent bacteria or viruss used to prepare these vaccines may be killed by heat (60 °C) or by chemicals (formalin, phenol or merthiolate).
  10. 10. Characters :  Do not stimulate local immunity  Short lasting  Do not stimulate cytotoxic T cell response in contrast to live attenuated vaccines  safe can be given to pregnant woman and immunocompromised host  It is heat stable examples: a-TAB vaccine against entric fever (heat) b-Salk vaccine against poliomylitis (formaline) c-Semples vaccine against rabies (phenol) d-pertussis vaccine against whooping cough (merthiolate)
  11. 11. 2-live attenuated vaccines: - living m.o lost its virulence so do not produce disease but produce immunity. It is prepared by: a-repeated subculture in unsuitabl condition e.g BCG vaccine against T.B. b-growing at high temp. (above optimum temp) e.g Pasteur anthrax vaccine c-selection of mutant strains of low virulence e.g Sabin vaccine against poliomylitis.
  12. 12. Characters :  stimulate both humoral and cell mediated immunity, local and systemic.  not given to pregnant women and immunocompromised hosts (may cause diseases)  heat unstable
  13. 13. 3- Toxoids  It is prepared by detoxifying bacterial toxins.  bacterial exotoxins treated by formalin to destroy toxicity and retain antigenicity  e.g.diphtheria and tetanus toxoid.
  14. 14. 4- Subunit vaccines use only those antigenic fragments of a microorganism that best stimulate an immune response. 5-recombinant vaccines Subunit vaccines that are produced by genetic modification techniques, meaning that other microbes are programmed to produce the desired antigenic fraction. Example: the vaccine against the hepatitis B virus consists of a portion of the viral protein coat that is produced by a genetically modified yeast.
  15. 15. Example: the vaccine against the hepatitis B virus consists of a portion of the viral protein coat that is produced by a genetically modified yeast.
  16. 16. 6-Conjugated vaccines have been developed in recent years to deal with the poor immune response of children to vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides.
  17. 17. Combined immunization (Vaccination) Immunization against diseases is recommended in combination (for young children) as :  diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough), given together (DTP).  measles, mumps, and rubella, give together as MMR  Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) with DTP  influenzae b (Hib) with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV)  influenza; and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal meningitis).