Reproduction

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Reproduction

  1. 1. Reproductive System <ul><li>Reproductive system functions in gamete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fertilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Male Reproductive System <ul><li>Pathway of spermatozoa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductus deferens (Vas deferens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculatory duct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessory organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminal vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotal sac encloses testes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Figure 28.1 The Male Reproductive System Figure 28.1
  4. 4. Figure 28.3 The Male Reproductive System in Anterior View Figure 28.3
  5. 5. Figure 28.4 The Structure of the Testes Figure 28.4
  6. 6. <ul><li>Seminiferous tubules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain spermatogonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stem cells involved in spermatogenesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain sustentacular cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustain and promote development of sperm </li></ul></ul></ul>Spermatogenesis
  7. 7. Figure 28.5 The Seminiferous Tubules Figure 28.5a, b
  8. 8. Figure 28.5 The Seminiferous Tubules Figure 28.5c
  9. 9. Figure 28.7 Spermatogenesis Figure 28.7
  10. 10. Figure 28.8 Spermiogenesis and Spermatozoon Structure Figure 28.8
  11. 11. <ul><li>Testes produce mature spermatozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm enter epididymus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elongated tubule with head, body and tail regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors and adjusts fluid in seminiferous tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores and protects spermatozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates functional maturation of spermatozoa </li></ul></ul>Male reproductive tract
  12. 12. Figure 28.9 The Epididymus Figure 28.9
  13. 13. <ul><li>Seminal vesicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active secretory gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes ~60% total volume of semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretions contain fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen </li></ul></ul>Accessory glands
  14. 14. <ul><li>Prostate gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes slightly acidic prostate fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete alkaline mucus with lubricating properties </li></ul></ul>Accessory glands
  15. 15. Figure 28.10 The Ductus Deferens and Accessory Glands Figure 28.10a-e
  16. 16. <ul><li>Typical ejaculate = 2-5 ml fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains between 20 – 100 million spermatozoa per ml </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seminal fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A distinct ionic and nutritive glandular secretion </li></ul></ul>Contents of Semen
  17. 17. Figure 28.11 The Penis Figure 28.11
  18. 18. <ul><li>FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets sustentacular cells to promote spermatogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LH (leutinizing hormone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes secretion of testosterone and other androgens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important androgen </li></ul></ul>Hormones and male reproductive function
  19. 19. Figure 28.12 Hormonal Feedback and the Regulation of the Male Reproductive Function Figure 28.12
  20. 20. SECTION 28-3 The Reproductive System of the Female
  21. 21. Principle organs of the female reproductive system <ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 28.13 The Female Reproductive System Figure 28.13
  23. 23. Figure 28.14 The Ovaries and Their Relationships to the Uterine Tube and Uterus Figure 28.14a, b
  24. 24. <ul><li>Ovum production </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs monthly in ovarian follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Part of ovarian cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicular phase (preovulatory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luteal phase (postovulatory) </li></ul></ul>Oogenesis
  25. 25. Figure 28.15 Oogenesis Figure 28.15
  26. 26. Figure 28.16 The Ovarian Cycle Figure 28.16
  27. 27. Figure 28.16 The Ovarian Cycle Figure 28.16
  28. 28. Figure 28.17 The Uterine Tubes Figure 28.17a-c
  29. 29. <ul><li>Muscular organ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste removal for the developing embryo and fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supported by the broad ligament and 3 pairs of suspensory ligaments </li></ul>The uterus
  30. 30. <ul><li>Myometrium – outer muscular layer </li></ul><ul><li>Endometrium – a thin, inner, glandular mucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Perimetrium – an incomplete serosa continuous with the peritoneum </li></ul>Uterine wall consists of three layers:
  31. 31. Figure 28.18 The Uterus Figure 28.18a, b
  32. 32. Figure 28.18 The Uterus Figure 28.18c
  33. 33. Figure 28.19 The Uterine Wall Figure 28.19a
  34. 34. Figure 28.19 The Uterine Wall Figure 28.19b
  35. 35. <ul><li>Repeating series of changes in the endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Continues from menarche to menopause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Menses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degeneration of the endometrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menstruation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferative phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration of the endometrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretory phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endometrial glands enlarge and accelerate their rates of secretion </li></ul></ul></ul>Uterine cycle
  36. 36. Figure 28.20 The Uterine Cycle Figure 28.20
  37. 37. <ul><li>Vulva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labia minora and majora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraurethral glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clitoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesser and greater vestibular glands </li></ul></ul>External genitalia
  38. 38. Figure 28.22 The Female External Genitalia Figure 28.22
  39. 39. Figure 28.23 The Mammary Glands Figure 28.23a-c
  40. 40. <ul><li>Control the reproductive cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate the ovarian and uterine cycles </li></ul>Hormones of the female reproductive cycle
  41. 41. <ul><li>Key hormones include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates follicular development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains structure and secretory function of corpus luteum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have multiple functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progesterones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate endometrial growth and secretion </li></ul></ul></ul>Hormones of the female reproductive cycle
  42. 42. Figure 28.25 The Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian Activity Figure 28.25
  43. 43. Figure 28.26 The Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive Cycle Figure 28.26a-c
  44. 44. Figure 28.26 The Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive Cycle Figure 28.26d-f

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