Part of Message is medium. Rest is effort to open dialogue on moving beyond the podcast entitled “progress report” to a contract to co-fund three Leader Development Seminars suitable for use in AirForce ROTC programs.
Jeanne M. Holm Officer Accession and Citizen Development Center A Proposal to Three Leader Development Seminars (LDS) Using the Technology and Techniques of GCMF’s Virtual Staff Rides (VSR) for
Proposal Proposal Contract between GCMF & Holm Center : For three LDS tracing evolution of air-ground cooperation: (1)AEF 1918; (2) Mons Pocket 1944; (3) ANACONDA 2002 Each: 2 historians/authors (one air, one ground) 4 qualified authors hired (3 new, @$60k, co-funding) AETC furnishes 2 active duty authors Thereafter: AETC accesses LDS via Beyond Campus (GCMF copyright, fully leased gratis to Holm Center)
The Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation: I The U.S. Army Air Service in the AEF, 1918 Gen. J.J. Pershing and Brig. Gen. W.L. “Billy” Mitchell Cantigny, May 1918 Early Air-Ground Cooperation Battle for Air Space Control, 1918 GCMF Mentoring files.ppt by Tom Bowers Authors: USAFA historian and Tom Bowers
Problem: Artillery Target Acquisition French Spad VII French 75 mm Artillery Battery in Action in 1914 Aerial Photographer sample cadet read-ahead
Problem: Artillery Target Acquisition French 75 mm Artillery Battery in Action in 1914 Aerial Photographer sample cadet read-ahead One major problem for the artillery was to develop a better means of target acquisition than that in the print lower left. Shown is the famous French 75mm gun, probably the best weapon of that caliber used during the war, designed to support infantry attacks in a war of maneuver. But the method depicted for identifying targets and adjusting fire --an observer standing on a platform next to the guns-- proved irrelevant for trench warfare. One solution was aviation. Airborne observers were more efficient, and aerial photography provided excellent means for targeting fixed trench systems.
Aerial Observation CLICK sample read-ahead chart 9 Lighter than air vehicles also proved to be valuable. The photo upper left shows a German aerostat, or tethered balloon. Both sides used these to elevate artillery observers above the battlefield so that they could locate targets and adjust fire. Communications were essential between the observer and the firing unit. At lower left is a simulator devised by the Germans to teach telegraphic communications between the observer (on the ladder) and a fire plotter at the battery (at the table), Above is a French aerostat observer equipped with a telephone. The cables holding the balloon in place also served to provide a telephone line.
Back to the Future <ul><li>Although Europeans had led development of lighter-than-air aviation, U.S. use 1862-65 of mobile hydrogen generators and airborne telegraph apparatus proved the military worth of aerial reconnaissance </li></ul><ul><li>In WWI, as the opposing armies disappeared into trenches, the need for persistent aerial observation fostered the deployment of aerostats on both sides, and accelerated the evolution of airplanes. </li></ul><ul><li>But it was the arrival of the AEF that provided the major stimulus to aviation as a major component of field armies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the end of the war, the Americans had twice as many aerostats aloft as all the other belligerents combined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The AEF then had nearly as many fixed-wing observation squadrons (18) as it had pursuit (fighter) squadrons (20) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only American-manufactured combat airplane fielded in large numbers was the DeHaviland-4 observation/day-bomber. </li></ul></ul>T.S.C. Lowe’s Ballon 1862
AEF Air Observers Training to Adjust Artillery Fire CLICK sample cadet read-ahead 10 Like the Germans, U.S.Army observers were trained with simulation to adjust fire from an aerial observation post. Each seat in the gallery represents an observer’s cockpit. The height above the “battlefield” below is scaled to present each learner the view from 2000 meters (6500 feet). The instructor designates a target, and then manipulates an apparatus that marks the “explosion” of artillery rounds on the terrain. The observer must locate these precisely on his map, then enter the map coordinates into a radio telegram to the fire direction center on the ground, together with corrections of range and azimuth to bring a subsequent volley onto the target. These data are then transmitted wirelessly in Morse code to the fire direction center. But countermeasures against airborne artillery adjusters were inevitable, and led to intensified air to air combat.
BALLOON SHOOT Observer Jumps From Flaming Balloon Nieuport Fighter World War I Combat Aircraft 1914 1918 Prod. Fr 138 4,500 67,987 Br 113 3,300 58,144 US 55 740 15,000 Ger 232 2,390 48,537 11 While artillery could counter aerostat-borne observers by attacking ground handlers, the primary means to destroy observation balloons was the fighter airplane, which became more effective when nose-mounted machine guns were synchronized with the propeller blade. The table shows the number of combat aircraft in operation in 1914 and 1918 and the total produced during the war. The AEF used mainly European-produced fighters. With the development of air vehicles, additional specialized roles were emerged, such as strategic bombing; London, Paris, and Berlin were struck during the war, but the technology of the era limited range and capacity, so such raids produced only meager results.
Suggestion Lt Col, USAF Asst Prof ,USAFA Marshall Library’s Holdings G.C. Marshall papers 900 aerial photos of Meuse-Argonne WWI French & US topo maps 5000 SC photos An Eminent USAF Author Suggestion:
The Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation: II The Battle of the Mons Pocket, Sep 3—5, 1944 VII Corps and IX TAC MG “Lightening Joe” Collins and MG “Pete” Quesada Early AirGround Cooperation Photos from Belgian inhabitants during battle (914 snapshots on hand) ~25,000 POW, unk German KIA — remnants of 20 German divisions 851 motor vehicles, 50 armored vehicles, 652 horse drawn vehicles* * Blumenson, M. Breakout and Pursuit . OCMH, 1960. P. 684. Authors: Jacob Neufeld and Dr. Stephen Bowman
33rd Photo Recon Squadron IX TAC F-5 Photo Lightning
The Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation III Operation ANACONDA, OEF 2002 Early Air-Ground Cooperation Authors: AWC expert and Tom Donnelly
VSR Prepared from Open Sources <ul><li>Operation Anaconda: An Air Power Perspective . Hq, USAF, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>MacPherson, M. Roberts Ridge . Dell, New York. 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Naylor, S. Not a Good Day To Die . Berkley, New York, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Inside the Pentagon , article on air support for Operation Anaconda, Oct 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Interview with Major General Franklin L. Hagenbeck , Commanding General, 10th Mountain Division (Light), Fort Drum, New York, and Commanding General, Coalition Joint Task Force Mountain in Afghanistan.” Field Artillery , Sep-Oct 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Inside Operation ANACONDA”, PowerPoint presentation by MGen Hagenbeck to AUSA, Feb 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Davis, M. G. (Maj, USA) Operation Anaconda: Command and Confusion in Joint Warfare . Masters Thesis, Air War College, 2006. </li></ul>
Shaded relief Shaded Relief by GCMF Image generated with MICRODEM™ from UTM.asc in GridASCII format and UTM coordinates (Grid Zone 42 North). 30 meter spacing post-to-post DEM derived from Russian 1:50,000 scale topographic line maps by Eastview Cartographic, supplied without copyright restriction . AO ANACONDA Takur Ghar Finger Whale Guppy Shah I Kot