Staff Rides are among the oldest teaching techniques employed by the armed services, Properly conducted, a Staff Ride is a Leadership Development seminar, collaborative learning on decision making under the stress of battle. The curriculum for Army ROTC calls for at least one SR per year., but more often than not there is no battlefield and no mentor available.
1-Traditional Staff Rides The Staff Ride A Leadership Development Seminar Beaver Dam Creek Battlefield Learners Staff Ride Leader or Mentor Take Cadets to a battlefield
Virtual Staff Ride Virtual Staff Ride Mentor Mentor Internet Connectivity for Virtual Collaboration PoP Duke U. Mar 2008: Take battlefield to Cadets Virtual Battlefield Maps & photos Gun camera film Digital Elev. Models Animated.ppt Participants Participants Participants cyberspace
3-ROTC Support VSR&LDS ROTC SUPPORT In Progress World War I (final draft): Cantigny & Soissons World War II (prelim draft) El Guettar& Beja-Mateur Evolution of Air-Ground Opn 1918: Fall 1918 1944: Sep 1944 2002: Mar 2002 George C. Marshall Foundation and Cantigny First Division Foundation VSR and LDS Operation Anaconda
4--VSR Authoring Concepts Authoring Concepts <ul><li>Research (with annotation) </li></ul><ul><li>recorded in .ppt </li></ul>2. Mentor notes for each slide emphasize leader decisions for discussion 3. GCMF provides supplemental media (e.g, movies, terrain depiction) 4. GCMF posts Multi-media preparatory materials selected for cadets on Beyond Campus 5. Each VSR can be tailored to fit PMS learning objectives and schedule for specific audience Guided Experiential Learning Mentored: From remote location OR On-site Duke cadets 27 Mar 2008
5--Decisions re tanks 1 st Division Final Attack Plan Cemetery = Strongpoint Tanks ? Capitaine Noscereau E-18 A 1 st Bn 26 th Inf 82 Res. XX 25 Res. 4 83 R.I. 2 3 272 R.I lll 271 R.I. 2-28 ll 1-28 B D C G H E F 3-28 ll 2-28 M L K L- 18 I Fr 152 XX Am 1 IX XXX X Fr 152 XX Am 1 IX XXX X 3 2 1 270 R.I lll 272 R.I. 10 9 12 3 2 1 Decision: Tank Employment
7-Decisions re Terrain & Maneuver Cemetery E-18 A-28 B-28 D-28 1 st Bn 26 Inf H-28 E-28 F-28 G-28 C-28 M-28 L-28 K-28 I-28 L-18 Outpost Line Main Line of Resistance Old Front Line 82 Res XX 25 Res 270 R.I. lll 272 R.I. 272 R.I. lll 271 R.I. 28 Inf PC 3-28 PC 1-28 PC 2-28 PC 83 R.I. German Front Line 2-28 ll 1-28 3-28 ll 2-28 Brick Ruins Situation About 0730 Contour Interval 5 meters Bois de Lalval Bois de Framicourt M - 28 100 100 80 80 80 100 100 100 10 1 12 (-) 1 (-) 4 3 2 4 2 9 3-272 1-271
8-Decisions re Control and Fires <ul><li>L Company </li></ul><ul><li>- Not in sight </li></ul><ul><li>Runners unable </li></ul><ul><li>to contact ** </li></ul>F Company - Runners reported all officers killed ** Sgt Schnecke M Company Lt Scott Outpost Line Main Line of Resistance 150 meters 200 meters F **American Battle Monuments Commission Decision: Control and Fires 1 - Tyler 3 4 2 - Schmidt 2 - Tyler 1 - Tyler 1. Lt Scott wounded; 2. 3 rd & 4 th Platoons stop at Line of Resistance Tyler receives message: Schmidt wounded; 2d Platoon uncertain of objective location** Sgt. Schnecke killed; F Company not in sight ** 2 - Tyler 1 - Tyler French tank captain insists Tyler move forward 200m for better field of fire ** Tyler’s men under heavy fire. Tyler wounded; spent rest of day in shell hole. Company M (and Lt. Tyler) Advance
9-The Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation: I Cantigny, May 1918 Early Air-Ground Cooperation Battle for Air Space Control, 1918 GCMF Mentoring Documents in Draft Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation-I The U.S. Army Air Service in the AEF, 1918 Authors: USAFA historian and Tom Bowers
10-AEF Air Observers AEF Air Observers Training to Adjust Artillery Fire CLICK By the end of the war, the AEF had twice as many balloons aloft as all the other belligerents combined, and had nearly as many fixed-wing observation aircraft squadrons (18) as they had pursuit (fighter) squadrons (20). Air observers were trained with simulation to adjust fire. From each observer’s seat in the gallery (left) the “battlefield” below is scaled to present the view from 2000 meters (6500 feet). The instructor designates targets, and then manipulates an apparatus that marks the “explosion” of artillery shells on the terrain. The observer must locate these precisely on his map, then enter the map coordinates into a radio telegram to the fire direction center on the ground, together with corrections of range and azimuth to put a subsequent volley onto the target. These data are then sent in Morse code.
11-Suggestion Lt Col, USAF Asst Prof ,USAFA Marshall Library’s Holdings G.C. Marshall papers 900 aerial photos of Meuse-Argonne WWI French & US topo maps 5000 SC photos An Emminent USAFA Author Plus Unexploited Sources Suggestion:
12-The Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation: II Photos from Belgian inhabitants during battle (914 snapshots on hand) ~25,000 POW, unk German KIA — remnants of 20 German divisions 851 motor vehicles, 50 armored vehicles, 652 horse drawn vehicles* * Blumenson, M. Breakout and Pursuit . OCMH, 1960. P. 684. The Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation-II The Battle of Mons, Sep 3-5, 1944 Authors: Jack Neufeld (ed. Air Power History ) and Dr. Steve Bowman (former Director, U.S.Army Mil. History Institute)
14-The Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation III <ul><li>Operation ANACONDA, OEF 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Authors: Tom Donnelly ( Operation Just Cause ) & USAF TBD </li></ul>The Evolution of Air-Ground Cooperation-III Open Sources
16-Proposal Proposal Contract between GCMF & Holm Center : For three LDS tracing evolution of air-ground cooperation, using the GCMF’s decision-focused VSR technique: (1)AEF 1918;(2) Mons Pocket 1944; (3) ANACONDA 2002 Co-fund 3 qualified authors now hired (~$20k each) AETC furnishes 2 AF authors (active duty) Thereafter: AETC accesses LDS via Beyond Campus (gratis) (GCMF retains copyright, full lease to Holmes Center)