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What is known from the literature about the pedagogy of VR and AR

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Annotated and updated version, working draft for presentation at Symposium 3B @ AMEE 2018

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What is known from the literature about the pedagogy of VR and AR

  1. 1. What is known from the literature about the pedagogy of VR and AR Dr Poh-Sun Goh Associate Professor and Senior Consultant Department of Diagnostic Radiology National University of Singapore (NUS) and National University Health System Associate Member Center for Medical Education, NUS Annotated and updated version
  2. 2. Why use AR Why before What ... and How (Underpinning) Theory ... Pedagogical (foundation) ... (guiding how instructional method, technique, or technology) is Used (Identify) Learning objective / Training intent before (search for) Tool within Toolkit / Toolbox Useful Usable Easy to use (Relatively) low cost, or value for money What is the job to be done? What would you "hire" AR for? Analogies -Heads up display (car, jet) -Road signs (both static, and dynamic - electronic / adaptive to conditions ... and in future to individual) Signposts, Guides, Templates, Overlays -Labels (pasted, mounted, electronic, QR codes) Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000102 https://telatamee2016.blogspot.sg/ Clayton Christenson, “Jobs to be done” theory of innovation
  3. 3. Rapid evolution of lightweight, untethered, head mounted displays … need to match technology with need … Stanford Virtual Heart Project using an immersive VR headset to help kids and families understand cardiac anatomy better and to teach medical students … HoloAnatomy at Case Western Reserve University with the Cleveland Clinic uses the HoloLens (Microsoft) computer headset and educational software to enable students to perform holographic dissections, visualize and understand the body’s organs and systems better … EchoPixel system (EchoPixel) allows users wearing specialized glasses to see and manipulate cardiovascular anatomy for preprocedural planning … Early data show that this improved visualization will allow the physician to learn more quickly, interpret images more accurately, and accomplish interventions in less time … Silva, JNA., Sourthworth, M., Raptis, C., Silva, J. (2018) and Silva, J. online interview with Cox, C. @ tctmd.com (2018) Taking advantage of younger generation familiarity with VR to make medical education more hands on … AR and VR help students understand anatomical spartial relationships easier than on gross specimen (McBride, J from Clevland Clinic piloting HoloLens) …. 3D environments in VR and AR perceived by students as more lifelike, interesting and enjoyable (Moro, C from Bond University Queensland) … Kuehn, BM. (2018) and Rohman, M online article/interviews @ healthimaging.com (2018) Immersive Media Initiative (IMI), Ohio University's Scripps College of Communication 360-degree, fully immersive trauma room experience for simulation training ……. Ohio's Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) HoloLens in medical education to study anatomy in 3D with interactivity … and practice procedures ….. AR and VR will also become a standard part of medical training as costs decrease … Mueller, LD online article/interviews @ cardinalhealth.com (2017) HoloLens at CWRU allows immersive, interactive, 3D visualization individually or in groups/collaboratively … Early results are very positive and show that students learn at least as well, in less time, than they did in the cadaver lab … Workman, Su online article/interviews @ er.educause.edu (2018) UCSF Bridges Curriculum (2016) … 1st year med students use virtual reality as an optional part of anatomy curriculum to supplement lectures, traditional textbooks, online learning and cadaver lab … wow students, immersive, better visualize, participate in simulations … Baker, M online article/interviews @ ucsf.edu/news (2017) ARKit 2.0 emphasizes multiuser experience in AR. This means that now people on different iOS devices can interact and experience the same AR in real time Part of Apple iOS12 announcement @ WWDC 2018 Recent release of AR developer platforms by Google and Apple is enabling the creation of new apps for Android and Apple devices, potentially making it easier for artists to create their own AR art …. Smith, MK. Online article BBC News business section 10 August 2018 'There are boats floating above my head in Times Square'
  4. 4. Improved academic performance, increase in students’ engagement, motivation, and satisfaction … limitations of technical thresholds, design considerations and small sample size Saltan, F., & Arslan, Ö. (2017) Learning gains and motivation … (review of 55 studies) better learning performance and promoting learning motivation … deeper student engagement, improved perceived enjoyment, and positive attitudes of AR Chen P., Liu X., Cheng W., Huang R. (2017) Both VR and AR as effective teaching tools, where student learning is as successful as with tablet-based applications … adverse effects such as blurred-vision and disorientation with VR … relatively large portion of students also reported “difficulty concentrating” across all three learning modes (tablet, VR, AR) … increased student engagement, interactivity and enjoyment with VR and AR Moro, C., Štromberga, Z., Raikos, A. and Stirling, A. (2017) Cognitive Information Processing Theory … Dual Coding Theory … Social Learning Theory … Communities of Practice Theory … game-based learning theory, place-based learning, participatory simulations, problem-based learning, role playing, studio-based pedagogy, and jigsaw method theory etc. Bitter, Gary. (2014) Learners can accept AR as a learning technology, and that AR can improve the learning effect by acquisition of skills and knowledge, understanding of spatial relationships and medical concepts, enhancing learning retention and performance on cognitive psychomotor tasks, providing material in a convenient and timely manner that shortens the learning curve, giving subjective attractiveness, and simulating authentic experiences … decreased amount of practice needed, reduced failure rate, improved performance accuracy, accelerated learning, shortened learning curve, easier to capture learner’s attention, better understanding of spatial relationships, provided experiences with new kinds of authentic science inquiry and improved assessment of trainees ... Lack of learning theories to guide the design of AR. Of the included papers, 80% did not clearly describe which kind of learning theory was used to guide design or application of AR in healthcare education … Zhu, E., Hadadgar, A., Masiello, I., & Zary, N. (2014) First understand the type of learning experiences and therefore pedagogies that are sought, following by asking the question as to what type of technology can enable that … a powerful technology combined with a strong pedagogy is a recipe for advanced teaching and learning … Groff, J. (2013)
  5. 5. Lets start with a visualization exercise Try to ”see” with your minds eye Recall, Think of what is familiar to you Relate to material Link “new” to what you know Using and applying some educational theory to practice Lets start with what we know from educational and learning theory (in general), and from our own experience and observations
  6. 6. Lets ask some critical questions Does interest, attention, “engagement” = learning? and the ability to recall, use-apply, transfer to practice Does “liking’ = better learning and training outcomes? Does novelty, newness, eye-catching, “cool” = better? Does speed/efficiency = effectiveness? For example, reading and learning from printed text vs digital? (digital review quicker, equal for getting gist, but print better for deeper meaning, unless digital review is slow(ed) down) https://theconversation.com/the-enduring-power-of-print-for-learning-in-a-digital-world-84352 Time on Task Active, Collaborative/ Interactive, Contextual (for transfer), Reflective Multimedia/ Illustrations/ Video
  7. 7. Why use AR Why before What ... and How (Underpinning) Theory ... Pedagogical (foundation) ... (guiding how instructional method, technique, or technology) is Used (Identify) Learning objective / Training intent before (search for) Tool within Toolkit / Toolbox Useful Usable Easy to use (Relatively) low cost, or value for money What is the job to be done? What would you "hire" AR for? Analogies -Heads up display (car, jet) -Road signs (both static, and dynamic - electronic / adaptive to conditions ... and in future to individual) Signposts, Guides, Templates, Overlays -Labels (pasted, mounted, electronic, QR codes) Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000102 https://telatamee2016.blogspot.sg/
  8. 8. Rapid evolution of lightweight, untethered, head mounted displays … need to match technology with need … Stanford Virtual Heart Project using an immersive VR headset to help kids and families understand cardiac anatomy better and to teach medical students … HoloAnatomy at Case Western Reserve University with the Cleveland Clinic uses the HoloLens (Microsoft) computer headset and educational software to enable students to perform holographic dissections, visualize and understand the body’s organs and systems better … EchoPixel system (EchoPixel) allows users wearing specialized glasses to see and manipulate cardiovascular anatomy for preprocedural planning … Early data show that this improved visualization will allow the physician to learn more quickly, interpret images more accurately, and accomplish interventions in less time … Silva, JNA., Sourthworth, M., Raptis, C., Silva, J. (2018) and Silva, J. online interview with Cox, C. @ tctmd.com (2018) Taking advantage of younger generation familiarity with VR to make medical education more hands on … AR and VR help students understand anatomical spartial relationships easier than on gross specimen (McBride, J from Clevland Clinic piloting HoloLens) …. 3D environments in VR and AR perceived by students as more lifelike, interesting and enjoyable (Moro, C from Bond University Queensland) … Kuehn, BM. (2018) and Rohman, M online article/interviews @ healthimaging.com (2018) Immersive Media Initiative (IMI), Ohio University's Scripps College of Communication 360-degree, fully immersive trauma room experience for simulation training ……. Ohio's Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) HoloLens in medical education to study anatomy in 3D with interactivity … and practice procedures ….. AR and VR will also become a standard part of medical training as costs decrease … Mueller, LD online article/interviews @ cardinalhealth.com (2017) HoloLens at CWRU allows immersive, interactive, 3D visualization individually or in groups/collaboratively … Early results are very positive and show that students learn at least as well, in less time, than they did in the cadaver lab … Workman, Su online article/interviews @ er.educause.edu (2018) UCSF Bridges Curriculum (2016) … 1st year med students use virtual reality as an optional part of anatomy curriculum to supplement lectures, traditional textbooks, online learning and cadaver lab … wow students, immersive, better visualize, participate in simulations … Baker, M online article/interviews @ ucsf.edu/news (2017) ARKit 2.0 emphasizes multiuser experience in AR. This means that now people on different iOS devices can interact and experience the same AR in real time Part of Apple iOS12 announcement @ WWDC 2018 Recent release of AR developer platforms by Google and Apple is enabling the creation of new apps for Android and Apple devices, potentially making it easier for artists to create their own AR art …. Smith, MK. Online article BBC News business section 10 August 2018 'There are boats floating above my head in Times Square'
  9. 9. Improved academic performance, increase in students’ engagement, motivation, and satisfaction … limitations of technical thresholds, design considerations and small sample size Saltan, F., & Arslan, Ö. (2017) Learning gains and motivation … (review of 55 studies) better learning performance and promoting learning motivation … deeper student engagement, improved perceived enjoyment, and positive attitudes of AR Chen P., Liu X., Cheng W., Huang R. (2017) Both VR and AR as effective teaching tools, where student learning is as successful as with tablet-based applications … adverse effects such as blurred-vision and disorientation with VR … relatively large portion of students also reported “difficulty concentrating” across all three learning modes (tablet, VR, AR) … increased student engagement, interactivity and enjoyment with VR and AR Moro, C., Štromberga, Z., Raikos, A. and Stirling, A. (2017) Cognitive Information Processing Theory … Dual Coding Theory … Social Learning Theory … Communities of Practice Theory … game-based learning theory, place-based learning, participatory simulations, problem-based learning, role playing, studio-based pedagogy, and jigsaw method theory etc. Bitter, Gary. (2014) Learners can accept AR as a learning technology, and that AR can improve the learning effect by acquisition of skills and knowledge, understanding of spatial relationships and medical concepts, enhancing learning retention and performance on cognitive psychomotor tasks, providing material in a convenient and timely manner that shortens the learning curve, giving subjective attractiveness, and simulating authentic experiences … decreased amount of practice needed, reduced failure rate, improved performance accuracy, accelerated learning, shortened learning curve, easier to capture learner’s attention, better understanding of spatial relationships, provided experiences with new kinds of authentic science inquiry and improved assessment of trainees ... Lack of learning theories to guide the design of AR. Of the included papers, 80% did not clearly describe which kind of learning theory was used to guide design or application of AR in healthcare education … Zhu, E., Hadadgar, A., Masiello, I., & Zary, N. (2014) First understand the type of learning experiences and therefore pedagogies that are sought, following by asking the question as to what type of technology can enable that … a powerful technology combined with a strong pedagogy is a recipe for advanced teaching and learning … Groff, J. (2013)
  10. 10. Why use AR Why before What ... and How (Underpinning) Theory ... Pedagogical (foundation) ... (guiding how instructional method, technique, or technology) is Used (Identify) Learning objective / Training intent before (search for) Tool within Toolkit / Toolbox Useful Usable Easy to use (Relatively) low cost, or value for money What is the job to be done? What would you "hire" AR for? Analogies -Heads up display (car, jet) -Road signs (both static, and dynamic - electronic / adaptive to conditions ... and in future to individual) Signposts, Guides, Templates, Overlays -Labels (pasted, mounted, electronic, QR codes) Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000102 https://telatamee2016.blogspot.sg/

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