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What is known from the literature about the pedagogy of VR and AR

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Working draft of upcoming symposium presentation at AMEE 2018
annotated version at
https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/what-is-known-from-the-literature-about-the-pedagogy-of-vr-and-ar-109537135
more at
https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2018/08/amee-2018-symposium-what-is-known-from.html

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What is known from the literature about the pedagogy of VR and AR

  1. 1. What is known from the literature about the pedagogy of VR and AR Dr Poh-Sun Goh Associate Professor and Senior Consultant Department of Diagnostic Radiology National University of Singapore (NUS) and National University Health System Associate Member Center for Medical Education, NUS
  2. 2. Why use AR Why before What ... and How (Underpinning) Theory ... Pedagogical (foundation) ... (guiding how instructional method, technique, or technology) is Used (Identify) Learning objective / Training intent before (search for) Tool within Toolkit / Toolbox Useful Usable Easy to use (Relatively) low cost, or value for money What is the job to be done? What would you "hire" AR for? Analogies -Heads up display (car, jet) -Road signs (both static, and dynamic - electronic / adaptive to conditions ... and in future to individual) Signposts, Guides, Templates, Overlays -Labels (pasted, mounted, electronic, QR codes) Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000102 https://telatamee2016.blogspot.sg/
  3. 3. Improved academic performance, increase in students’ engagement, motivation, and satisfaction … limitations of technical thresholds, design considerations and small sample size Saltan, F., & Arslan, Ö. (2017) Learning gains and motivation … (review of 55 studies) better learning performance and promoting learning motivation … deeper student engagement, improved perceived enjoyment, and positive attitudes of AR Chen P., Liu X., Cheng W., Huang R. (2017) Both VR and AR as effective teaching tools, where student learning is as successful as with tablet-based applications … adverse effects such as blurred-vision and disorientation with VR … relatively large portion of students also reported “difficulty concentrating” across all three learning modes (tablet, VR, AR) … increased student engagement, interactivity and enjoyment with VR and AR Moro, C., Štromberga, Z., Raikos, A. and Stirling, A. (2017) Cognitive Information Processing Theory … Dual Coding Theory … Social Learning Theory … Communities of Practice Theory … game-based learning theory, place-based learning, participatory simulations, problem-based learning, role playing, studio-based pedagogy, and jigsaw method theory etc. Bitter, Gary. (2014) Learners can accept AR as a learning technology, and that AR can improve the learning effect by acquisition of skills and knowledge, understanding of spatial relationships and medical concepts, enhancing learning retention and performance on cognitive psychomotor tasks, providing material in a convenient and timely manner that shortens the learning curve, giving subjective attractiveness, and simulating authentic experiences … decreased amount of practice needed, reduced failure rate, improved performance accuracy, accelerated learning, shortened learning curve, easier to capture learner’s attention, better understanding of spatial relationships, provided experiences with new kinds of authentic science inquiry and improved assessment of trainees ... Lack of learning theories to guide the design of AR. Of the included papers, 80% did not clearly describe which kind of learning theory was used to guide design or application of AR in healthcare education … Zhu, E., Hadadgar, A., Masiello, I., & Zary, N. (2014) First understand the type of learning experiences and therefore pedagogies that are sought, following by asking the question as to what type of technology can enable that … a powerful technology combined with a strong pedagogy is a recipe for advanced teaching and learning … Groff, J. (2013)
  4. 4. Lets start with a visualization exercise Try to ”see” with your minds eye Recall, Think of what is familiar to you Relate to material Link “new” to what you know Using and applying some educational theory to practice Lets start with what we know from educational and learning theory (in general), and from our own experience and observations
  5. 5. Lets ask some critical questions Does interest, attention, “engagement” = learning? and the ability to recall, use-apply, transfer to practice Does “liking’ = better learning and training outcomes? Does novelty, newness, eye-catching, “cool” = better? Does speed/efficiency = effectiveness? For example, reading and learning from printed text vs digital? (digital review quicker, equal for getting gist, but print better for deeper meaning, unless digital review is slow(ed) down) https://theconversation.com/the-enduring-power-of-print-for-learning-in-a-digital-world-84352
  6. 6. Why use AR Why before What ... and How (Underpinning) Theory ... Pedagogical (foundation) ... (guiding how instructional method, technique, or technology) is Used (Identify) Learning objective / Training intent before (search for) Tool within Toolkit / Toolbox Useful Usable Easy to use (Relatively) low cost, or value for money What is the job to be done? What would you "hire" AR for? Analogies -Heads up display (car, jet) -Road signs (both static, and dynamic - electronic / adaptive to conditions ... and in future to individual) Signposts, Guides, Templates, Overlays -Labels (pasted, mounted, electronic, QR codes) Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000102 https://telatamee2016.blogspot.sg/
  7. 7. Improved academic performance, increase in students’ engagement, motivation, and satisfaction … limitations of technical thresholds, design considerations and small sample size Saltan, F., & Arslan, Ö. (2017) Learning gains and motivation … (review of 55 studies) better learning performance and promoting learning motivation … deeper student engagement, improved perceived enjoyment, and positive attitudes of AR Chen P., Liu X., Cheng W., Huang R. (2017) Both VR and AR as effective teaching tools, where student learning is as successful as with tablet-based applications … adverse effects such as blurred-vision and disorientation with VR … relatively large portion of students also reported “difficulty concentrating” across all three learning modes (tablet, VR, AR) … increased student engagement, interactivity and enjoyment with VR and AR Moro, C., Štromberga, Z., Raikos, A. and Stirling, A. (2017) Cognitive Information Processing Theory … Dual Coding Theory … Social Learning Theory … Communities of Practice Theory … game-based learning theory, place-based learning, participatory simulations, problem-based learning, role playing, studio-based pedagogy, and jigsaw method theory etc. Bitter, Gary. (2014) Learners can accept AR as a learning technology, and that AR can improve the learning effect by acquisition of skills and knowledge, understanding of spatial relationships and medical concepts, enhancing learning retention and performance on cognitive psychomotor tasks, providing material in a convenient and timely manner that shortens the learning curve, giving subjective attractiveness, and simulating authentic experiences … decreased amount of practice needed, reduced failure rate, improved performance accuracy, accelerated learning, shortened learning curve, easier to capture learner’s attention, better understanding of spatial relationships, provided experiences with new kinds of authentic science inquiry and improved assessment of trainees ... Lack of learning theories to guide the design of AR. Of the included papers, 80% did not clearly describe which kind of learning theory was used to guide design or application of AR in healthcare education … Zhu, E., Hadadgar, A., Masiello, I., & Zary, N. (2014) First understand the type of learning experiences and therefore pedagogies that are sought, following by asking the question as to what type of technology can enable that … a powerful technology combined with a strong pedagogy is a recipe for advanced teaching and learning … Groff, J. (2013)
  8. 8. Why use AR Why before What ... and How (Underpinning) Theory ... Pedagogical (foundation) ... (guiding how instructional method, technique, or technology) is Used (Identify) Learning objective / Training intent before (search for) Tool within Toolkit / Toolbox Useful Usable Easy to use (Relatively) low cost, or value for money What is the job to be done? What would you "hire" AR for? Analogies -Heads up display (car, jet) -Road signs (both static, and dynamic - electronic / adaptive to conditions ... and in future to individual) Signposts, Guides, Templates, Overlays -Labels (pasted, mounted, electronic, QR codes) Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000102 https://telatamee2016.blogspot.sg/

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