3 Success Factors that Define High Performance Teams

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The findings on success factors for what rates highly in high performance teams may surprise you. It's not the usual leadership - trust - stable team mix.

This is the SlideShare of my recent JVS presentation on SlideShare. A full blog post article is coming with video, audio and a teams vs. psuedo-teams / groups handout.

Featured: High Performance Team Research Themes & Titles: Giver, Matcher, Taker Culture (McKinsey and Adam Grant), Positive/Negative ratio (what to start doing, stop doing suggested) Losada's and Fredrickson's research on team performance, positive organizational scholarship and emotional flourishing.

See the full post here: http://reveln.com/3-success-factors-for-high-performance-teams-and-what-gets-in-the-way/

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  • A team of Harvard psychologists quietly “invaded” the US intelligence system. The team, led by Richard Hackman, wanted to determine what makes intelligence units effective. By surveying, interviewing, and observing hundreds of analysts across 64 different intelligence groups, the researchers ranked those units from best to worst.Then they identified what they thought was a comprehensive list of factors that drive a unit’s effectiveness—only to discover, after parsing the data, that the most important factor wasn’t on their list. Source: McKinsey: Givers, Matchers, Takers and Adam Grant
  • Realize that BOTH of them are giving, not just the one at the top. Being OPEN to receive IS giving....
  • The Complex Dynamicsof High Performance Teams M. LOSADAMeta Learning, 2280 Georgetown Blvd. Ann Arbor, MI 48105, U.S.A. (November 1998) One of the brilliant advances in the application of positive psychology relates to corporate team performance and is a concept which emerged from a dynamic collaboration between two scientists, Marcial Losada and Barbara Fredrickson. This work was summarized in their 2005 paper: Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing. In Fredrickson’s subsequent 2009 book Positivity, she recounts the “stunning beauty” of their complementary life’s work – Losada offering rich descriptions of team behavior distilled into mathematics and Fredrickson offering evolutionary theory and experimental evidence for individual flourishing. Together they make an inarguable case for the pivotal role of positive emotions in successful team performance and present further evidence of positive emotions as the basis for individual flourishing.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY #6 (Out of 8)ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY #1Advancing the MissionDefinition: Demonstrates ability to operate effectively in a manner consistent with the University of Michigan mission and culture; demonstrates understanding of the unique issues related to higher education.  ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY#2 Building Relationships/ Interpersonal SkillsDefinition: Values organizational diversity; treats others with respect; promotes cooperation; effectively manages relationships. ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY#3 Creative Problem Solving/Strategic ThinkingDefinition:Develops and creates ideas, processes and approaches that shape the future; takes risks and makes decisions based on facts; uses analysis and critical thinking skills to solve problems; ensures that decisions are aligned with articulated strategic directions of management.  ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY#4 CommunicationDefinition: Demonstrates effective verbal, written, listening, and presentation communication skills. ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY #5 Development of Self and OthersDefinition: Seeks opportunities to learn and to develop themselves and others; applies new skills/knowledge needed to add value to the performance of the organization; sets developmental goals for self and others; seeks performance feedback.ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY#7 Leadership/Achievement OrientationDefinition: Influences others to accomplish the mission in ways consistent with the values of the organization; Holds self (and others) accountable to meet goals and objectives; accomplishes desired outcomes; sets an example of integrity and ethics through demonstrated performance. ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY #8 Quality ServiceDefinition: Strives to meet the expectations of internal and external customers; demonstrates skill and knowledge specific to serving others.ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCY #6 Flexibility/Adaptability to ChangeLevel 1 – initiates and implements change that positively impacts a department or workgroupDevelops action plans for change effecting a department or workgroup.Champions change by articulating its positive effectDevelops and implements new ways to accomplish workAdvocates for changes that will enhance the work environmentFormulates and implements measures to track the implementation of changeTakes corrective action when measures indicate changes are not producing the desired outcomes. Level 2 – initiates and implements change that positively impacts a unitDevelops and implements innovations that have impact on an organization/unitDetermines organizational readiness for change and incorporates strategies into the change plan based on that assessmentArticulates a compelling vision to the members of the organization.Identifies potential resistance points and works with the members of the organization to mitigate or eliminate the concerns Level 3 – introduces innovations Innovates with leading practice and ideas from other organizations on a national or global level.Confers with external and internal innovators and thought leaders to interpret the application of the leading practice to positive effect enterprise-wide.Organizes and provides the resources necessary to effectively implement large scale change. Level 4 – leads effective organizational changeDetermines institution readiness for change and incorporates strategies into the enterprise change plan based on that assessmentArticulates a compelling change vision for the organizationDrives complex change through the organization with a broad understanding of cultural context, resistance and success factors.
  • The Fellowship of the Ring traveling through Moria ("Black Chasm") in north-western Middle-earth, an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through the Misty Mountains. The Dwarf clan known as the Longbeards lived there. Gandalf took the fellowship through Moria is that neither Gandalf nor Aragorn trusted the Gap of Rohan as a way through the mountains and the route through Lebennin was too long. This left only the Pass of Caradhras or Moria.Gandalf thought that the weather would prevent their use of the Pass, Aragorn was also worried about this. However, Aragorn thought that they should try Caradhras first. This Gandalf concented to, after this failed they then followed the course that Gandalf felt from the begining they should have used and was the only one that he thought had a chance of success.Source: www.thetolkienforum.com
  • Supervisors that give death staresSexual harassmentLow paid job at community college (8.25 / hr.) His salary six figuresAsked to better the program, never recognized for our contributions, just “used”He made racist jokes about his life, not a supportive placeDoing aftercare, they just wanted to have someone sweep in and do end of day work. Ran the after camp all by myself.Kid smacked my butt, traumatize by thisBoss was doing what she thought was coaching, but you have to be open to coaching. They just assume you don’t have skills. No, I’m fine.  Supervisors that give death staresSexual harassmentLow paid job (8.25 / hr.) Supervisor salary six figuresAsked to better the program, never recognized for our contributions, just “used”Racist jokes, not a supportive placein common with your friends Threatened managers, definitely, threatened by new ideas.Big income disparity, slave labor type of thingHave a BA and being paid nothing ($8-10 hour) (Six figure salary supervisor)No respect for people’s time, no work-life balance What’s in common with your friends Threatened managers, definitely, threatened by new ideas.Big income disparity, slave labor type of thingHave a BA and being paid nothing ($8-10 hour) (Six figure salary supervisor)No respect for people’s time, no work-life balance
  • Positive organizational scholars have made an explicit call for the use of nonlinear models stating that their field “is especially interested in the nonlinear positive dynamics. . . that are frequently associated with positive organizational phenomena” (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003, pp. 4-5)This article answers this call by showing how a nonlinear dynamics model, the meta learning (ML) model, developed and validated against empirical time series data of business teams by Losada (1999), can be used to link the positivity/negativity ratio (P/N) of a team with its connectivity, the control parameter in the ML model. P/N was obtained by coding the verbal communication of the team in terms of approving versus disapproving statements. In the ML model, positivity and negativity operate as powerful feedback systems: negativity dampens deviations from some standard, while positivity acts as amplifying or reinforcing feedback that expands behavior.=====Source article: The Role of Positivity and Connectivity in the Performance of Business Teams: A Nonlinear Dynamics Model Author: Losada, Marcial; Heaphy, EmilyPublication info: The American Behavioral Scientist 47.6 (Feb 2004): 740-465.
  • Drucker, we teach leaders how to do things, but not what to stop doing.“If you want something new, you have to stop doing something old” ― Peter F. Drucker “People in any organization are always attached to the obsolete - the things that should have worked but did not, the things that once were productive and no longer are.” ― Peter F. Drucker In light of the benefits of more open systems of helping, why don’t more organizations develop giver cultures? All too often, leaders create structures that get in the way. According to Cornell economist Robert Frank, many organizations are essentially winner-take-all markets, dominated by zero-sum competitions for rewards and promotions. When leaders implement forced-ranking systems to reward individual performance, they stack the deck against giver cultures.1Pitting employees against one another for resources makes it unwise for them to provide help unless they expect to receive at least as much—or more—in return. Employees who give discover the costs quickly: their productivity suffers as takers exploit them by monopolizing their time or even stealing their ideas. Over time, employees anticipate taking-behavior and protect themselves by operating like takers or by becoming matchers, who expect and seek reciprocity whenever they give help.Fortunately, it is possible to disrupt these cycles. My research suggests that committed leaders can turn things around through three practices: facilitating help-seeking, recognizing and rewarding givers, and screening out takers.In a landmark study led by Michael Johnson at the University of Washington, participants worked in teams that received either cooperative or competitive incentives for completing difficult tasks. For teams receiving cooperative incentives, cash prizes went to the highest-performing team as a whole, prompting members to work together as givers. In competitive teams, cash prizes went to the highest-performing individual within each team, encouraging a taker culture. The result? The competitive teams finished their tasks faster than the cooperative teams did, but less accurately, as members withheld critical information from each other.To boost the accuracy of the competitive teams, the researchers next had them complete a second task under the cooperative reward structure (rewarding the entire team for high performance). Notably, accuracy didn’t go up—and speed actually dropped.People struggled to transition from competitive to cooperative rewards. Instead of shifting from taking to giving, they developed a pattern of cutthroat cooperation. Once they had seen their colleagues as competitors, they couldn’t trust them. Completing a single task under a structure that rewarded taking created win–lose mind-sets, which persisted even after the structure was removed.Johnson’s work reminds us that giver cultures depend on a more comprehensive set of practices for recognizing and rewarding helping behavior in organizations. Creating such a culture starts with expanding performance evaluations beyond results, to include their impact on other individuals and groups. For example, when assessing the performance of managers, the leadership can examine not only the results their teams achieve but also their record in having direct reports promoted.Yet even when giving-metrics are included in performance evaluations, there will still be pressures toward taking. It’s difficult to eliminate zero-sum contests from organizations altogether, and indeed doing so risks extinguishing the productive competitive fires that often burn within employees.
  • Adapted from Reference:  Positivity Master Class article was written by Margaret Moore Coach Meg, Co-Director of Institute of Coaching.  References 1. Losada, M., Fredrickson, B., Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing, American Psychologist: Vol. 60, No. 7, 678–686, 2005. 2. Fredrickson, B. L., Positivity, Crown Publishers, New York, 2009. 3. Losada, M., Heaphy, M, The Role of Positivity and Connectivity in the Performance of Business Teams: A Nonlinear Dynamic, American Behavioral Scientist: Vol. 47 No. 6, 740-765, 2004.  
  • "Back when work was mostly a matter of brawn," the thinking goes, "work itself could be managed." But now "there is a sizeable knowledge or service component in most jobs. The most powerful sources of value are locked in people's heads, and in their hearts."
  • The Lorenz attractor has chaotic behaviour, named for Edward N. Lorenz. The movie shows the changing of the attractor with increasing Prandtl number.Losada:I realized that, except for some differences in the arrangement of the terms and the letters chosen to designate the parameters, these were the same set of coupled nonlinear differential equations that Lorenz had chosen for his model and published in one of the most often cited papers in science [15]. Lorenz obtained his equations from an idealized mathematical model of thermally driven fluid convection. The conduction of heat through a fluid can be described by partial differential equations, which Lorenz used as a starting point for deriving a simpler model using Fourier series. The Lorenz attractor has chaotic behaviour, named for Edward N. Lorenz. The movie shows the changing of the attractor with increasing Prandtl number.It is named after the German physicist Ludwig Prandtl.It is defined as:\mathrm{Pr} = \frac{\nu}{\alpha} = \frac{\mbox{viscous diffusion rate}}{\mbox{thermal diffusion rate}} = \frac{c_p \mu}{k}
  • 3 Success Factors that Define High Performance Teams

    1. 1. 3 Success Factors that Define High Performance Teams Deb Nystrom, REVELN Consulting JVS, Southfield, Michigan 1
    2. 2. Factors? • Stable team • Right number of people • Clear vision • Well-defined roles and responsibilities • Appropriate rewards • Recognition and resources • Strong leadership Photo: by Wade Brooks, Flickr cc 2
    3. 3. The SINGLE strongest predictor of group effectiveness Giving Culture 3
    4. 4. Success Factor #1: The highest-performing teams invest extensive time and energy in coaching, teaching and consulting with their colleagues, fostering a “giver” culture Photo: by Ekaterina Sotova Flickr.jpg
    5. 5. High Performance Team Experience D. Nystrom REVELN.com 5 “Teamwork is so important that it is virtually impossible for you to reach the heights of your capabilities or make the money that you want without becoming very good at it.” ~ Brian Tracy Photo by Radarsmum67 Flickr cc
    6. 6. High Performance Science D. Nystrom REVELN.com 6 Source: M. LOSADA, The Complex Dynamics of High Performance Teams, November 1998
    7. 7. Low Performing Teams 7 Source: M. LOSADA, The Complex Dynamics of High Performance Teams, November 1998 Deb Nystrom www.REVELN.com
    8. 8. Similarities? D. Nystrom REVELN.com 8Photo credits, Flickr CC, see slide 15
    9. 9. Flexibility ~ Adaptability to Change • Responds positively to and champions change to (and with) others; • Looks for ways to make changes work rather than only identifying why change will not work. • Adapts to change quickly and easily. • Makes suggestions for increasing the effectiveness of changes. • Incorporates innovative practices into the workplace to increase productivity and organization effectiveness Reference: Competencies, Syracuse University, University of Michigan Deb Nystrom www.REVELN.com
    10. 10. Success Factor #2: Be clear about where you’re going, but very flexible in how you get there. Photo: by duncan, Flickr
    11. 11. Real Life Interview with Millenial • Supervisors that give death stares • Sexual harassment • Low paid job, supervisor’s salary is six figures • Asked to better the program, never recognized for our contributions, just “used” • Racist jokes, not a supportive place D. Nystrom REVELN.com 11 • Threatened managers, threatened by new ideas. • Income disparity, felt like slave labor type of thing • Have a BA and being paid nothing ($8-10 hour) Very highly paid supervisors • No respect for people’s time, no work-life balance
    12. 12. Differences D. Nystrom REVELN.com 12 Losada, Marcial; Heaphy, Emily “The Role of Positivity and Connectivity in the Performance of Business Teams: A Nonlinear Dynamics Model” 2004
    13. 13. Success Factor #3: Begin with endings! End fragile practices that interfere with adaptive, giver culture building Flickr CC photo by billso D. Nystrom REVELN.com
    14. 14. High Performance, Practical Action Groups: “If you want something new, you have to stop doing something old” ~ Peter F. Drucker D. Nystrom REVELN.com 14
    15. 15. DPPE & DVF • Data • Purpose • Plan • Evaluate • Dissatifaction (3:1, 5:1) • Vision • First Steps D. Nystrom REVELN.com 15 Photo credits: Eagle by wordman1, Emu, by Alois Staudacher Flickr cc
    16. 16. 16 Insourcing & Teams Companies are Changing No HR Department Read more about these companies via the REVELN curation newsletters, including: Change Leadership Watch
    17. 17. 5 Actions 3. Start to model more positive, appreciative, curious behaviors 4. Keep the ratio of positive / negative statements above 3:1 5. Notice and build on the contributions and synergy of everyone’s strengths – Balance open-minded inquiry and exploration with zesty advocacy Challenge: • Allow system chaos (adaptation) to become“anti-fragile” D. Nystrom REVELN.com 17 1. End low performing command & control mgmt. practices 2. Create space to allow yourself & teams to open and broaden – bigger than self, team & organization (systems)
    18. 18. Q & A D. Nystrom REVELN.com 18 "Back when work was mostly a matter of brawn, work itself could be managed." Now, "…knowledge or service *are+ in most jobs. The most powerful sources of value are locked in people's heads, and in their hearts.” ~ James Hoopes Photo credits: iStock photos & Flickr CC: Eagle by by Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Flickr CC
    19. 19. References - Credits D. Nystrom REVELN.com 19 • Article: Adam Grant, Givers take all: The hidden dimension of corporate culture, April 2013 (McKinsey) • Article: M. Losada, The Complex Dynamics of High Performance Teams, 1998 • Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder, Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2012 • Photo credits, from Flickr Creative Commons: cover Slide, Birds slide, Eagle: By poecile05, Pigeon by bramblejungle, Emu by cskk Moa sign by ghewgill • Photos this page, The Lorenz attractor, cited by M. Losada, mathmatician, regarding the “same set of of coupled nonlinear differential equations chosen for his model...” from The Complex Dynamics of High Performance Teams, November 1998
    20. 20. References • www.Reveln.com • LinkedIn: Deb Nystrom, REVELN Consulting • REVELN ScoopIt Newsletters: – Change Leadership Watch – Talent & Performance Development – The Science & Art of Motivation • Thanks to JVSdet.org Business Connections 20

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