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Positive Psychology

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Positive Psychology

  1. 1. the power of POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY David D. Nowell, Ph.D.
  2. 2. orientation x
  3. 3. Is there a negative psychology?
  4. 4. • Anger: 5,584 • Anxiety: 41,416 • Depression: 54,040 • Joy: 415 • Happiness: 1,710 • Life satisfaction: 2,582
  5. 5. Happiness
  6. 6. Appendix A Happiness
  7. 7. “PERMA” Positive emotions Engagement / flow Relationships Meaning Accomplishment
  8. 8. Key findings
  9. 9. History of Positive Psychology x
  10. 10. Assumptions of Positive Psychology
  11. 11. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 18 A ANTECEDENT B BEHAVIOR C CONSEQUENCES
  12. 12. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 19 B BEHAVIOR A ANTECEDENT C CONSEQUENCES
  13. 13. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 20 A ANTECEDENT c CONSEQUENCES B BEHAVIOR
  14. 14. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 21 A ANTECEDENT B BEHAVIOR C CONSEQUENCES
  15. 15. THE INTERNETS ARE GREAT!
  16. 16. Are you already a positive psychology clinician?
  17. 17. Appendix F
  18. 18. …a challenge
  19. 19. …a memory test
  20. 20. COMMON CLINICAL CONCERNS THROUGH THE LENS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
  21. 21. trauma
  22. 22. Re-connecting with coping strengths
  23. 23. Positive growth after disability
  24. 24. • Assets / risks • Protective processes / vulnerabilities •Competence / adversity resilience
  25. 25. resilience Appendix F
  26. 26. anxiety
  27. 27. addictions x
  28. 28. depression
  29. 29. SSRI • Strategies • Strengths • Resources • Insights
  30. 30. The P’s of Depression • Predisposing factors • Precipitating factors • Perpetuating factors
  31. 31. The P’s of Depression • Predisposing factors • Precipitating factors • Perpetuating factors
  32. 32. The P’s of Depression • Predisposing factors • Precipitating factors • Perpetuating factors • Protective factors
  33. 33. The P’s of Depression • Predisposing factors • Precipitating factors • Perpetuating factors • Protective factors Appendix F
  34. 34. Eating disorders Where are you when you are eating?
  35. 35. Oppositional-defiant disorder as a learning disorder
  36. 36. PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR Social and
  37. 37. the Righteous Mind
  38. 38. forgiveness x
  39. 39. Do you want to be right? Or do you want to be in relationship?
  40. 40. Do you want to be right? Or do you want to be in relationship? Appendix D
  41. 41. • Empathy • Moral models • Personal principles Compassion
  42. 42. 1/30/2015 59
  43. 43. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 60 A ANTECEDENT B BEHAVIOR C CONSEQUENCES
  44. 44. Emotional Intelligence • Perceiving emotion • Using emotions to facilitate thought • Understanding emotions • Managing emotions
  45. 45. Self-soothing
  46. 46. Emotional Regulation
  47. 47. “if you knew this about me…”
  48. 48. Framingham Heart Study “…happiness, like health, is a collective phenomenon.”
  49. 49. THE HAPPINESS SET POINT I would really be happy if…..
  50. 50. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  51. 51. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  52. 52. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  53. 53. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  54. 54. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  55. 55. Intentional activity
  56. 56. strengths
  57. 57. www.viacharacter.org
  58. 58. KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  59. 59. journaling
  60. 60. journaling gratitude x
  61. 61. journaling gratitude activity scheduling
  62. 62. journaling gratitude activity scheduling Appendix E
  63. 63. savoring
  64. 64. x
  65. 65. flow
  66. 66. Flow Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  67. 67. Flow
  68. 68. Flow
  69. 69. Flow
  70. 70. Flow
  71. 71. “Challenging assignments that (slightly) stretch one's skills lead to flow…”
  72. 72. Flow
  73. 73. physical exercise
  74. 74. physical exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities
  75. 75. physical exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities
  76. 76. optimism • Hope • Self-efficacy • Goal-setting
  77. 77. what IS vs. what COULD BE 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 106 Appendix G
  78. 78. what IS… 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 107
  79. 79. …what COULD BE 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 108
  80. 80. optimism • Hope –Pathways thoughts – what causes what –Agency thoughts – who causes what
  81. 81. optimism • Hope Appendices B & C
  82. 82. optimism • Hope –Academics –Athletics –Physical health –Social connection
  83. 83. optimism • Hope –Academics –Athletics –Physical health • Peled, R. (2008) –Social connection
  84. 84. optimism • Accentuating Hope –Pathways cognitions • “roadblocks”
  85. 85. optimism • Accentuating Hope –Pathways cognitions –Agency cognitions
  86. 86. Hank: “ I have things I need to do to improve my marriage, my health, and my financial situation, but I honestly believe that I have zero chance of actually making any of those three things get better.”
  87. 87. (self-esteem)
  88. 88. kindness
  89. 89. KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  90. 90. kindness "universal egoism"
  91. 91. kindness Appendix F
  92. 92. The Magic Ratio 3:1
  93. 93. Coaching
  94. 94. laser questions • How will you know when your most important relationship has improved significantly? • Who will be the first person to notice that you’re happier, … what exactly will they notice? • How much better do you think your grades can get? And how can you reach that goal while having some fun at the same time? • What’s really great about this that I have not really noticed before?
  95. 95. laser questions • What changes will you need to make in order to get the most out of our work together? • How much stress will the copay for these sessions cause you? • What’s the most empowering thing that I can do during our sessions? • What would have happened if you’d not decided to do this work? • What is one regret you don’t want to have in this lifetime?
  96. 96. What our clients want most • make and keep more money • Get more done in less time • Communicate more effectively • Feel better physically and emotionally • Feel closer with others • Manage hassles and stressors • Find and stay on a path
  97. 97. Change your client’s brain …with their consent
  98. 98. “NeuroMalleability” 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 133
  99. 99. • Physical Exercise • Nutrition • Stress Management • Novel Learning Experience • Sleep
  100. 100. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 135 The reward and planning systems
  101. 101. What Does Dopamine Feel like? © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 136
  102. 102. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 138 The reward and planning systems
  103. 103. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 139 The Executive Functions 1. Inhibition 2. Shift 3. Regulation 4. Initiation 5. Working memory 6. Planning / organizing 7. Self-monitoring
  104. 104. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 141 The Executive Functions • Cognitive Control / “gain” (Miller & Cohen, 1991) • “the actor whose hand controls the flashlight” (Goldberg, 2009)
  105. 105. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 142 The reward and planning systems
  106. 106. The brain’s reward and planning system • Anticipate goal • Identify tasks • Sequence / problem-solve • Block out distractions • Get the reward
  107. 107. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 144 A ANTECEDENT B BEHAVIOR C CONSEQUENCES
  108. 108. "We're All ADHD Now” What the Rest of Us Can Learn from People Who Really Struggle with Focus, Distractibility, and Time Management
  109. 109. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 146
  110. 110. The best defense against the manipulation of our attention is to determine for ourselves – in advance - how we want to invest it. - E. Goldberg
  111. 111. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 148 (85 – X) x 365
  112. 112. How to Entirely Remove "Bad," "Lazy," and "Procrastinating" from Our Vocabulary
  113. 113. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 152 I’m gonna eat all the gum and candy I want!
  114. 114. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 153 Asking two questions… 1. “Am I having fun now?”
  115. 115. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 154 Asking two questions… 2. “And is this what I set out to do?”
  116. 116. Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 155 Am I having fun now? Is this what I set out to do?
  117. 117. Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 156 Am I having fun now? Is this what I set out to do? I’m having fun. I’m on task.
  118. 118. Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 157 Am I having fun now? Is this what I set out to do? I’m having fun. I’m not on task.
  119. 119. Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 158 Am I having fun now? Is this what I set out to do? I’m not having fun. I’m on task.
  120. 120. Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 159 Am I having fun now? Is this what I set out to do? I’m not having fun. I’m not on task.
  121. 121. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 160
  122. 122. Increase salience
  123. 123. easy hard
  124. 124. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 164
  125. 125. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 165
  126. 126. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 166 Appendix F
  127. 127. Working with MOTIVATIONAL ISSUES x
  128. 128. Motivation for what?
  129. 129. “…they realized what the solution was and were terrified”
  130. 130. The Five Reasons That People Do Anything That They Do
  131. 131. The Two Reasons That People Do Anything That They Do
  132. 132. The Two Reasons That People Do Anything That They Do R REWARD P PUNISHMENT
  133. 133. The One Reason That People Do Anything That They Do R REWARD P “WHAT’S THEIR PAIN?”
  134. 134. Which Techniques Should Absolutely Be Avoided with Under-motivated Clients x
  135. 135. Which Techniques Should Absolutely Be Avoided with Under-motivated Clients • Finessing our Questions x
  136. 136. Dangers of Failing to Recognize Our Clients Stage of Change
  137. 137. Yes or No ? #1. I solved my biggest problem more than six months ago. #2. I have taken action on my problem within the past six months. #3. I am intending to take action in the next month. #4. I am intending to take action in the next six months.
  138. 138. Stages of Change Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance
  139. 139. Stages of Change Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Appendix F
  140. 140. What Key Motivational Interviewing Techniques Can Be Applied to Any Clinical Situation?
  141. 141. What Key Motivational Interviewing Techniques Can Be Applied to Any Clinical Situation? • Express empathy • Create discrepancy • Roll with resistance • Support self-efficacy
  142. 142. Is relapse inevitable?
  143. 143. A complete RETHINKING OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS Strategic Behavioral Inquiry
  144. 144. What’s the kid’s deal?
  145. 145. The Magic If What "Method Actors "Have To Teach Clinicians
  146. 146. Inna: student struggling with difficult assignments, feeling demoralized and anxious.
  147. 147. Inna: “I just get blank. I usually start sitting more slouched, hold my head with my left hand…you freeze and instead of being able to think of alternatives, you start thinking to yourself that you cannot find a logical answer and you are tempted to avoid it as if it poses a threat somehow to you.”
  148. 148. STRATEGIC BEHAVIORAL INQUIRY Hëdÿdt?
  149. 149. Strategic Behavioral Inquiry A. Respectful approach to client’s interior experience B. Introduces client to the “culture” of self- management C. Specific applicable self-knowledge (meta-cognition) 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 197
  150. 150. Strategic Behavioral Inquiry Hëdÿdt – How Exactly Did You Do That? 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 198
  151. 151. Strategic Behavioral Inquiry Obstacles to good inquiry 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 199
  152. 152. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 202 A ANTECEDENT B BEHAVIOR C CONSEQUENCES ….the ad absurdum
  153. 153. The reward-and-planning system • Anticipate goal • Identify tasks • Sequence / problem-solve • Block out distractions • Get the reward
  154. 154. Alicia R. Ruelaz, M.D.: “the biggest issue for me, and others I've seen, has been maintaining motivation between the excitement of setting a goal and not losing interest before it is completed.”
  155. 155. Juzer : “my biggest problem is that I want to do everything all at once!”
  156. 156. Preferred states inventory • Archeology of a Memory, Appendix H
  157. 157. RTW
  158. 158. Marie Jahoda Connecting with Return to Work Clients around the Key Human Needs Served by Employment
  159. 159. • 1. It imposes a time structure on the day. • 2. It enlarges the scope of relationships. • 3. It provides shared purposes and activities of a social group. • 4. It assigns social status and clarifies personal identity. • 5. It requires regular activity. RTW
  160. 160. • The Rule of Thirds RTW
  161. 161. The Three Don'ts of Employment Assistance • Don’t talk about work • Don’t present work as a goal in itself • Don’t impose our values on clients
  162. 162. Four Signs That You Are Working Harder Than Your Clients • Fighting with client • Client is “yes butting” you • You worry more than they do • You dread the session
  163. 163. Four Signs That You Are Working Harder Than Your Clients And what you might be thinking….
  164. 164. How to Get Clients to Start Talking about Change • Slow down (tolerate silence) • Respect resistance • Be agnostic • Encourage agnosia • Why, specifrically, is this a problem? • Identify exceptions to the problem • Frame goals in the positive • Help clients talk like behaviorists
  165. 165. How to Get Clients to Start Talking about Change • Slow down • Respect resistance • Be agnostic • Encourage agnosia • Why, specifrically, is this a problem? • Identify exceptions to the problem • Frame goals in the positive • Help clients talk like behaviorists – More of what and less of what?
  166. 166. How to Get Clients to Start Talking about Change Accurate empathy + “more of what” Connecting the dots…
  167. 167. • “Sell me on why this absolutely positively must change…” • Letter from the future Connecting the Dots: Linking up Treatment Goals to What Our Client Already Loves x
  168. 168. You cannot not change
  169. 169. How to make somebody love you forever
  170. 170. …yeah but It Won’t Work with this Client OBJECTIONS
  171. 171. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 223 The “Big Five” 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection
  172. 172. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 224
  173. 173. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 225 …the most important 10 minutes of the day….
  174. 174. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 226 Appendix I
  175. 175. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 227 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection
  176. 176. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 228
  177. 177. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 229
  178. 178. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 230
  179. 179. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 231 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection
  180. 180. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 232 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivation al clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection
  181. 181. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 233
  182. 182. 1/30/2015 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection 234
  183. 183. Cultural Competence  What culture?
  184. 184. Cultural Competence  What competencies? Cultural Competence
  185. 185. Positive Ethics • “professional ethics” • “research ethics” • “ethics training”
  186. 186. Positive Ethics • Comprehensive • Aspirational • Positive virtues • Support clinicians in taking care of themselves
  187. 187. Positive Ethics • “He shook my hand”
  188. 188. …a challenge
  189. 189. the power of POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY David D. Nowell, Ph.D.

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