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Social Seating - Project Justification

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Project justification for a social seating design project.

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Social Seating - Project Justification

  1. 1. Social Seating for the 21st Century Library Using furniture to transform the modern public library into a valid Third Place for social interaction. Duncan McKean / May 2009 / 05975465 / 6980 words
  2. 2. “Are you sitting comfortably? Then I’ll begin.” V, V for Vendetta by Alan Moore
  3. 3. Copyright © Duncan McKean 2009. All rights reservecd. The text of this document is covered by Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales. You are free to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work under the following conditions: Attribution: You must give the original author credit. No Derivative Works: You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the licence terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author’s moral rights. For further information please visit creativecommons.org Set in Calisto MT. Printed and bound in Great Britain by computershare.com Copyrighted images in this document used under Fair Use. If you are the copyright holder and believe your material has been used unfairly, please email: shout@duncanmckean.co.uk 4
  4. 4. 5 “Being around people with whom you feel a connection, on many levels, not just a professional one, is very relaxing.” Jacqueline Bisset
  5. 5. 6
  6. 6. 7 Executive Summary What place, if any, does a library have in the 21st Century? This report is a creative exploration containing the sum of six months design work distilled and laid out as a clear story of the project from research to the final concept. Through interviews, filmed observations and questionnaires unique insights were discovered. People really valued a library whether they used it or not. People need their own Third Place. That is, a place that is not home (first place), nor work (second place). The design brief captured the idea of using the free and public space that the library provides as a Third Place for people to use in the same way that people use coffee shops or bars. How could seating affect this Third Place? How it could be an aid to conversation, increase social communication and somehow replicate the essence of the Third Place that other, more beverage-orientated places, try to achieve? Transferring the campfire metaphor and the associated story-telling connotations to the library created a system of social seating with a focus on heat and casual conversation. The result is Huddle.
  7. 7. 2 3 Introduction Research Idea 8 Generation 1.1 Project Inspiration 12 2.1 Research Strategy 21 2.2 Secondary Research 22 2.3 Primary Research 23 2.4 Expert Interviews 26 2.5 User Observations 28 2.6 Questionnaire 1 32 2.7 Questionnaire 2 34 2.8 Two Observations 36 2.9 Insights / Opportunities 38 2.10 Opportunity Selection 40 3.1 Exploring the Idea 45 3.2 Library Components 46 3.3 Soul of a Library 50 3.4 Portraying Information 52 3.5 Concepting Day 54 3.6 The Third Place 60 3.7 Concept Directions 62 3.8 Idea Evaluation 64 3.9 Updated Top-line-brief 65 3.10 Stakeholder Map 67 1 2.11 Initial Top-line-brief 41
  8. 8. 9 Concept Generation Development + Validation Appendix 4.1 Statement of Needs 71 4.2 Concept: Tetris 74 4.3 Concept: +one 75 4.4 Concept: Samovar 78 4.5 Concept: Pools 80 4.6 Concept: Touchy-Feely 81 4.7 Concept: Huddle 82 4.8 Concept Evaluation 84 4.9 Concept Summary 88 5.1 Design Development 92 5.2 Ergonomics 95 5.3 Suggested Layout 96 5.4 Materials 97 5.5 Electronics 99 5.6 Costing 102 5.7 Competitor Analyis 104 5.8 Concept Validation 106 5.9 Brand Platform 112 5.10 Further Development 114 5.11 Summary 117 A: Bibliography 120 B: Questionnaire 1 122 C: Questionnaire 2 124 D: Concept Statements 125 E: Screening Matrices 129 F: Initial Top-line-brief 133 G: Full Design Brief 136 H: Meeting Records 139 4 5
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  10. 10. Introduction 1 11
  11. 11. This project was inspired by two articles, one from the Independent newspaper (Savage, 2008), which laid out a fairly gloomy prediction for the future of libraries: book borrowing had fallen by 34% over the last 10 years (Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountability, 2008) and as a result of low attendance, 40 libraries were closed throughout 2007 (Savage, 2008). The other article was a Government report that said 87% of respondents to a public consultation about local library closures said that the closure of a local library would affect them greatly (Buckinghamshire City Council Government report, 2006). The idea that people still held libraries in such high esteem even though they did not seem to use them indicated that there is a future for libraries in the 21st Century, although it might not be as a repository for knowledge. This project looked at these 21st Century libraries and based on research provides an alternative viewpoint to what a library should represent. Existing solutions to increase footfall include the following libraries that have developed their services and re-invented their purpose: 12
  12. 12. 13 Winchester Library Conference rooms Art gallery Specially designed children’s area Bold branding Renamed as a ‘Discovery Centre’
  13. 13. 14
  14. 14. Norwich and Norfolk Millennium Library Heritage centre Community information Computer/console games Regular drop-in events: teenage and child reading groups, writing workshops, Internet and learning workshops 15
  15. 15. 16
  16. 16. Handsworth Library, Birmingham 17 Refurbished in line with suggestions from local people Provides flexible space for events, activities and workshops Provides performance space for artists, musicians and storytellers
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  18. 18. Research 2 19
  19. 19. “We need to move on from the perception of libraries as merely depositories for books...” 20 John Rouse, Chief Executive of CABE
  20. 20. Shadowing two different library users Duncan Iraci Angharad Williams Library Usage, 50 replies Expectations of ‘Third Place’, 14 replies 21 2.1 Research Strategy Secondary Research Primary Research Insights and Opportunities Journals, eg. Public Library Journal Online, e.g. Office of National Statistics, www.statistics.gov.uk Government Reports, e.g. Audit Commission, Building Better Library Services Experience Services Newspaper and Magazine Articles, e.g. The Bookseller Observing Surveys Expert Interviews Stuart Taylor, Librarian & Historian Val O’Sullivan, Children’s Librarian Helen Carpenter, Librarian and Director of WTYL This diagram explains the research strategy undertaken. Secondary research was done first to understand the context and area. Primary research was then undertaken to provide unique insights that were not available through the public domain. The primary research led to insights and then opportunities. This was evolved into concepts and a design brief.
  21. 21. 2.2 Secondary Research Secondary research provided several findings, 3 key ones: Everybody has an opinion on how a library should behave: “Attempts to replace a local library with a mobile library service at Avonmouth were met with very strong local resistance.” (IDeA peer review, 2004) What a library used to be and what a library should do now has changed drastically: John Rouse, Chief Executive of the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (Cabe) states: “We need to move on from the perception of libraries as merely depositories for books and look at how new library buildings which adopt the best in design and innovation can revolutionise people’s experiences of library services.” (Wainwright, 2003) 22 People still believe that libraries should be at the centre of a community: “The growing recognition of Third Places in relation to social capital and community cohesion suggests an appropriate role for the public library movement seeking to reaffirm its place in the network society.” (Harris, 2003) For a full list of secondary research, please see the bibliography in Appendix A.
  22. 22. 23 2.3 Primary Research Primary research was particularly important to gain original insights. It was necessary to know more about an actual library-user’s experiences; to ask questions to librarians, library-users, and people who did not use libraries; to learn about community and to experience a Third Place firsthand. The following primary research was undertaken: »» Three expert interviews »» Personal user experience and observations »» Shadowing two service user experiences »» Questionnaire* sent to a sample of the public representing different demographics in terms of age, geography and interests questioning library habits and experiences (if any). Received and analysed 50 replies. »» Second questionnaire* sent to smaller sample of the public representing different demographics in terms of age, geography and interests questioning expectations of a Third Place. Received and analysed 14 replies. *Samples of questionnaires and responses are available in Appendix B and C.
  23. 23. “The growing recognition of Third Places in relation to social capital and community cohesion suggests an appropriate role for the public library movement seeking to reaffirm its place in the network society.” Harris, K. (2003) Your Third Place or mine? Public library 24 and local communities.
  24. 24. 25 To get an understanding of the research area and empathy with the research group, it was necessary for me to experience the library myself. This was achieved in several different libraries across the city on a numerous number of occasions. As a user myself, the following insights emerged: Books t »» hat you want are never there. »» You cannot leave your posessions alone as they will probably get stolen. »» Very few libraries have public toilets. »» The staff mostly seems to deal with public computers that do not work.
  25. 25. 26 Method: email correspondence backed up with telephone calls. Findings Val categorises visitors into: browsers, seekers, internetters, parents bonding with children, self-educators. Books are chosen by a stock team of librarians. On the role of libraries in a community: “Libraries do have a role and strive to have a bigger role. They are often the ‘tourist information point’ for even the smallest village. They also provide a means for a community to share with each other information, facilities and services. They are now also seeking to provide ‘soft learning’ opportunities with short courses and workshops.” The OCLC Environmental Scan “Library Landscape” adds to this by stating “amongst the many new roles that libraries are assuming is the role of library as community centre. Not just warehouses of content, they are social assembly places…” (OCLC, 2003) 2.4 Expert Interviews One of the barriers to libraries is lack of awareness of services on offer. Secondary research supports this: “... libraries also need to market and promote themselves better to lapsed and non-users.” (MORI, 2002) Outcomes from Questionnaire 1 also help validate this finding. Outcomes Libraries are in a unique position within the community. Libraries do not promote their services clearly.
  26. 26. 27 Method: email correspondence only. Findings Asylum Seekers are told to go to libraries, as they are a ‘safe place’ that is not home where they can learn about the community and feel included. Helen’s report (Carpenter, 2007) supports this as does ‘Public library services to refugees and asylum seekers in the northeast’ (MacDonald and Kane, 2005). See also welcometoyourlibrary. org.uk On libraries as a Third Place: “…how it is being used for positive interaction between people, connecting the people and the resources the library holds in a way that enriches lives…” The above finding is validated by a quote from a report on libraries as a Third Place: “The growing recognition of Third Places in relation to social capital and community cohesion suggests and appropriate role for the public library movement seeking to reaffirm its place in the network society.” (Harris, 2003) Outcomes Libraries are in a unique position within the community. Asylum Seekers and Refugees use libraries as a Third Place where they can learn about the community and feel included.
  27. 27. 28 Method: 2.5-hour semi-structured exploratory interview in Gloucester Road library. Findings Stuart categorizes visitors into: book droppers, nosers, need-helpers, paper readers, browsers, non-interactives. Books are chosen by a stock team of librarians. Secondary research supports this: “To reverse the decline in use... library services need to buy more of the books people want.”(Audit Commission, 2002) He participates in BookStart, which encourages children to read early from an early age. Supporting Quote: “That’s what libraries are about. At the moment that we persuade a child, any child, to cross that threshold, that magic threshold into a library, we change their lives forever, for the better. It’s an enormous force for good.” Barack Obama, American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference in Chicago Keynote Speech, June 23, 2005. Outcomes Could members of the public choose the books that go into their library? It is important to get children interested in reading from an early age to get them to visit libraries.
  28. 28. 29 2.5 User Observations Findings Angh a rad is a lurker: “That’s where I h i de .” Ser vices are secondar y to her. T he space is i mportant. It is a place that is not home, nor work. Angha ra d Williams, Charity Worker Secondary Suppor t: “Most needed are those ‘T h ird Places’ which lend a public balance to the increased privati zation of home life. Third Places are nothing more than infor mal public gathering places. The phrase ‘T h ird Places’ der ives from consider ing our homes to be the ‘fi rst’ places in our lives, and our work places the ‘second.’” (Oldenbu rg, 1989) Browsing through the compact d iscs. Angha rad ca sually sitti ng near shelves wh i lst read i ng. Outcomes Need for a Third Place within the community.
  29. 29. 30 Findings Dunca n is a lapsed user: “I used to come all the time and then when I changed jobs the librar y was not longer on my way home.” No idea about what serv ices the central library had. Duncan asking questions to the library staff. Duncan Iraci, Desi gner Du ncan deciding on which DVD box set to take out. Outcomes Libraries do not promote their services clearly. Browsing through the compact discs.
  30. 30. “Most needed are those ‘Third Places’ which lend a public balance to the increased privatization of home life. Third Places are nothing more than informal public gathering places. The phrase ‘Third Places’ derives from considering our homes to be the ‘first’ places in our lives, and our work places the ‘second.’” (Oldenburg, 1989) 31
  31. 31. 2.6 Questionnaire 1 To see what public opinion was on a series of questions about public libraries, an email questionnaire was sent out. A summary of relevant findings is below. A questionnaire including sample response is available in Appendix B. Findings People claim that if certain »» services were 32 available it might entice them to go to the library more. They already have those services. Dave Wyatt, Graphic Designer, Bristol. “Possibly a simple Internet site that tells you whether they have the book available or not.” Chris Anthony, Student Union Staff Member, UWE: “if they rented DVD’s” “Free wifi” Clemency Evans, Web Design Agency Director, Bristol. “Wide choice of DVD’s to borrow (especially foreign…)” Hélène Duranton, University Foreign Language Manager. “Working space” Neil Ferguson, Design Festival Director Library is identified as a community space. Darren Wells, Occultist: “It is a resource that serves the local community.” Britain is also getting lonelier in the last 30 years (Easton, 2008) and so a community space would be a great tool against this trend getting any worse.
  32. 32. 33 Outcomes Libraries do not promote their services clearly. Everybody has an opinion about what a library should be whether he or she goes or not. Libraries are in a unique position within the community.
  33. 33. 2.7 Questionnaire 2 To see what public opinion was on a series of questions about ‘Third Places’, an email questionnaire was sent out. A summary of relevant findings is below. A questionnaire including sample response is available in Appendix C. Findings 60% of respondents would pay up to £1 per day for access to this Third Place. 90% of respondents would use this place to de-stress 34 and meet up with friends. 90% of respondents agree that a Third Place would be beneficial to the community. When Ray Oldenburg published his work The Great Good Place (1989) on ‘the Third Place’ he did not put forward libraries as example of this place that was not home and was not work. According to the results of this questionnaire, a library would be a perfect community space. “Life without community has produced, for many, a life style consisting mainly of a home-to-work-and-back- again shuttle. Social well-being and psychological health depend upon community. It is no coincidence that the ‘helping professions’ became a major industry in the United States as suburban planning helped destroy local public life and the community support it once lent.” (Oldenburg, 1989)
  34. 34. 35 Outcomes Libraries can be considered as a valid Third Place. Libraries are in a unique position within the community.
  35. 35. 2.8 Two Observations 36 Could the public library be the soul of the local community? Piece of graffiti found on the side of a building in Stoke’s Croft, Bristol.
  36. 36. 37 With the closure of Bristol North Swimming Pool the local community created a piece of art that invited the rest of the community to raise awareness to the council what they would like done with the space. Most of the public wanted was either a library or a place to relax away from work and home.
  37. 37. 2.9 Insights and Opportunities Insight: If you study at a library you cannot leave your working area without risk of your possessions being stolen. Opportunity: Protecting personal possessions whilst away from them in a library. Insight: “People have a strong opinion about what their local public library should be like whether they go or not.” Opportunity: To engage the local community in defining their library in a way they will use. Insight: Refugees and Asylum Seekers are told to go to local libraries as ‘safe places’ that are not home where they can feel included and learn about the community. 38 Opportunity: Design a service that helps marginalised groups (asylum seekers, unemployed, etc) integrate into the community. Insight: People claim that certain services were available it might entice them to go to the library more. They already have those services. Opportunity: Better ways of informing the public of library services. Insight: People who are subjected to libraries at a young age usually stay faithful to libraries throughout their lives. Opportunity: Make libraries more accessible to parents with children to help development and socializing.
  38. 38. Insight: “…public libraries are in a unique position in offering space in communities.” Opportunity: To develop the library as a genuine alternative community ‘Third Place’ to go to other than work or home. 39 Opportunity: To create a library that reflects and benefits the community it serves.
  39. 39. 2.10 Opportunity Selection 40 Concepts statements for all of the previous opportunities can be found in Appendix D. Each of these concept statements has been evaluated against each other using the selection matrix (see Appendix E). Although close, the result is the opportunity to develop the library into a valid Third Place.
  40. 40. 41 2.11 Initial Top-line-brief This is the first top-line-brief. Due to emergent needs discovered later in the design process, another draft of the top-line-brief was created before the full brief was written. Below are the key points from this first top-line-brief which can be found in Appendix F: Opportunity A product / service that engages the local community to help create a valid Third Place used by, benefitting and reflecting that community. Idea The library can be considered »» as a viable Third Place for the local community to use. »» If the local community had an opportunity to invest and engage with this Third Place they would be more likely use other facilities there. »» If this engagement reflected each user then this could reflect the community as a whole and facilitate a community network for users and visitors. Product / Service Outline Description »» The product / service will give users the opportunity to personalise their experience of the Third Place in an innovative way. »» These “personalisations” should create a strong sense of personal investment and facilitate interaction between community members.
  41. 41. 42
  42. 42. Idea Generation 3 43
  43. 43. 44
  44. 44. 45 3.1 Exploring the Idea Specific research then took place exploring how people could invest in a library if this was a Third Place. The aim was to identify how people could react to the library, in what ways and how this reaction could be visualized. The first thing to do was to experience as many different libraries as possible. The project only looked at urban libraries in this context and as a result only public libraries within the City of Bristol. These included Bristol Central, Avonmouth, Clifton, Bedminster, Filton, Redland and Cheltenham Road to name but a few. The main points that were looked at are on the following pages including a few key points revealed through this examination.
  45. 45. 3.2 Components of a Library 46
  46. 46. When comparing a range of different Bristol-based libraries it was interesting to note that they seemed to be created from the same mould and had a lot in common with each other: Ways of portraying w »» hat’s on information »» Books, computers & resources »» A free, warm, public space Yet each library is different in character and feeling; partly based on the location and the content, but probably more importantly it is the people that give each library its soul. 47
  47. 47. »» Bristol Central 48 »» Bedminster
  48. 48. »» Knowle 49 »» Hartcliffe
  49. 49. 3.3 The Soul of a Library? 50 Soul (n) The immaterial part of a person that consists of thoughts and personality. Personality (n) Dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences cognitions, motivations and behaviours (Ryckman, 2007)
  50. 50. Therefore, to create the soul of a library: get a range of dynamic and organized set of characteristics, then get the community to choose them. 51
  51. 51. 3.4 Ways of Portraying Information 52 »» Chernoff Faces
  52. 52. If individuals have a way of interacting or expressing themselves in a way that could be read by other members of the community, it would have to be »» Simple to express »» Simple to understand »» Be closed to abuse 53
  53. 53. 3.5 Concepting Day Concepting day was dedicated to the quick generation of a pool of ideas from which to draw inspiration. Relevant outcomes were as follows: Ways of bringing people »» together: community 54 area, shared seating, meeting place, shared interests, need to be inclusive »» Senses: users generating soundscapes, light tree that people can sit around, »» Emotional investment: just be being in a place is an investment »» Give the place sentimental value by sharing the library experience
  54. 54. 55
  55. 55. 56
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  57. 57. The final process was generating headings that represent the overview of the project; the adding associated words to the headings. Key phrases were marked out and applied as benchmarks throughout the project: 58 »» Informal public life
  58. 58. 59 »» Relax and Socialise »» Everybody loves a fire »» Sense of place
  59. 59. 3.6 Dissection of the Third Place A Third Place--as mentioned before--is a place that is not home nor work. Examples of Third Places in today’s society would be: »» Coffeeshops »» Pubs and bars »» Protected street corners »» Bookshops »» Garden centres »» Print shops Starbucks even has the tag-line ‘the Third Place’. There is no reason why a library can be used as 60 a Third Place where people can go and meet and socialise as it is the people, not the place that make it. According to The Great Good Place (Oldenberg, 1989) three of the main requisites of a Third Place are conversation, a sense of playfulness and the comfort and warmth that a home has. It is these three ideas that the project focussed on.
  60. 60. 61 “A place that does not reduce a human being to a mere customer”.
  61. 61. 3.7 Concept Directions Exploration of the idea concluded with three possible options for concept development: Some form of »» Community generated 62 sculpture.
  62. 62. 63 A civic engagement service »» that uses the community to help develop the services that the community might need. »» Social seating for an informal gathering place.
  63. 63. 3.8 Idea Evaluation Out of the three directions, the social seating concept was carried forward for the following reasons: The project was looking at »» turning the library 64 into a Third Place. This concept was in line with the strongest insight and opportunity. »» The exploration of a community driven sculpture did not seem relevant to the library as a Third Place. The social seating were more in line with the characteristics of a Third Place than with a service platform or a community sculpture. These emergent needs meant that the top-line-brief had to be changed to include the most important criteria of a Third Place: conversation and a sense of playfulness.
  64. 64. 65 3.9 Updated Top-line-brief The full design brief are available in Appendix G. Opportunity A product that facilitates the 21st century library into becoming a valid Third Place. Idea The library can be considered »» as a viable Third Place for the local community to use. »» If the local community had an opportunity to engage with this Third Place they would be more likely use other facilities there. Product Outline Description »» The product will give users the opportunity to experience this Third Place in an innovative way. »» This experience should facilitate interaction between community members. Target Market The market can be segmented into the following groups: »» Current library users »» Lapsed library users »» Non-library users »» Vulnerable sections of society »» Tourists and people new to the area »» Local councils that run the libraries Consumer/Customer /User Benefits »» Will create a Third Place where people can go that is not work or home. »» Help introduce beneficial library services to a new audience. »» Will make people feel part of a community. User Needs The product must: »» Allow the user to interact with product in an engaging or provocative way. »» Facilitate community networking. »» Give the Third Place a sense of identity. The product should: »» Be free to use. »» Be intuitive to use so no handholding
  65. 65. 66 required. »» Can be used by ages 8-80. »» Can be interacted with in a visually stimulating way. »» Give the ‘Cheers’ feeling: where everybody knows your name. Likely features and technology »» Some form of social seating. »» Product likely to contain electrical parts. Development issues and challenges »» Product must not be a ‘use once’ novelty. »» Ability to appeal to a lot of different target markets. »» Product must conform to any relevant standards. »» Ergonomic considerations to touchpoint. »» Additional considerations might be required for certain target segments such as vulnerable users. Assumptions »» Currently there is no cost limitation to develop product. »» It is valuable to target several market segments instead of targeting a narrow segment because as a community third space it should serve the whole community. Technical expertise required »» Ergonomic consideration around seating. »» Product likely to contain electronic parts. Limitations The scope of this product is purposefully broad at this stage, however it is limited by/to the following: »» Public libraries. »» The community being ‘local’ to the library as defined by current local authority library catchment areas.
  66. 66. 67 Stakeholder Map This chart shows the ‘players’ that could be involved or have a vested interest in this project. They have been categorised into groups in order to give a sense of hierarchy and relevance.
  67. 67. 68
  68. 68. Concept Generation 4 69
  69. 69. The following concepts are taken directly from the accompanying process book. This book shows the full development of the final chosen concept from initial design explorations through several key stages. These key stages have been identified and put into this report. Although these key stages are separate concepts in their own right, they all show aspects of development that contributed to the final, chosen concept. In order to maintain a consistent design direction in concept generation a statement of needs was created. This allows the concept development to be guided by a set of key statements that will be used as a checklist to weight the quality of concepts against each other. The statement should also validate why the final concept was chosen. 70
  70. 70. 71 4.1 Statement of Needs Primary research shows that a library can be a valid Third Place. Research also shows that this will increase the use of other services within the library. The two most important ingredients of a Third Place are conversation and a sense of playfulness. These ingredients help towards the psychology of comfort and support of the place. Therefore, a form of seating specific to libraries; Should suggest c »» omfort and support »» Should facilitate social interaction between people »» Should reflect the environment it is in »» Could create a ‘signature’ to represent the environment »» Should be inclusive »» Should have a relevant focal point
  71. 71. The first thing to help generate concepts was to be inspired. All forms of seating, including chairs, stools and leaning rests were explored and analysed. Out of these explorations came the first swathe of concepts based around the idea of ‘a form of seating that aids conversation.’ 72
  72. 72. 73
  73. 73. 4.2 Concept: Tetris The concept is inspired by Tetris blocks. These blocks were originally based on the letters I L J O S T and Z. This seating is created by placing the soft foam of tetris blocks on top of each other. Since each block is only 250mm high, at least two block will have to be placed upon each other to create the ergonomically correct seat height of 500mm. 74
  74. 74. 75 A selection of modular stools and chairs that can be plugged into each other to generate more seating areas the more people arrive to the social group. 4.3 Concept: +one
  75. 75. While observing people talking and socialising in other Third Places (such as bars and coffee shops), dead spaces were apparent between each social groups. People talked over this dead space, sat around the outside of it and rarely interacted with it. The only exception was when this dead space contained a table. 76 Creating a focal point in this dead space could be a way of aiding conversation. Giving people something to gather around would in itself be an aid to socialisation and conversation. Inspiration was gathered from world folklore and cultural ideas for what this focal point could be.
  76. 76. 77
  77. 77. 4.4 Concept: Samovar 78
  78. 78. 79 A samovar is a Russian communal kettle. People have been gathering around them, similar to the modern office water cooler for over 200 years. Having something that generates heat would be a good aid to social interaction.
  79. 79. 4.5 Concept: Pools Another way of creating space where people can interact would be around a lamp or under a pool of light. This would create a boundary within which people could interact and socialise. 80
  80. 80. 4.6 Concept: Touchy Feely 81 The idea that warmth is social and having a low-level heat emitter as part of shared seating would be a more tangible representation of comfort and security than just light. This means that users could share and interact with the heat component using it to develop relationships with each other.
  81. 81. 4.7 Concept: Huddle The Huddle seems to be an amalgamation of all the more more sociable parts of the previous concepts: Social seating that can interact with a freestanding low-level heat emitting device. It takes the idea of gathering from the Samovar concept, plus the gathering that people do round campfires--a metaphor that everybody can understand. The idea of storytelling around the campfire is deep-rooted in Western culture and can easily be associated with the library through silhouettes of well-known stories on the heat emitter. The light can flicker to represent the comfort of firelight and could be controlled by the volume level of local conversation. This would help conversation by giving the users a need to talk, which is the prime driver behind a Third Place. The Huddle could be placed in the centre of a social circle or even be incorporated with the range of furniture for a more intimate setting. 82
  82. 82. 83
  83. 83. 4.8 Concept Evaluation Very Good[+2] 84 Good[+1] Neutral Bad[-1] Very Bad[-2] Aids Conversation Comfort Reects Environment Focal Point Inclusive Playful Fits Brief Development Opportunities These concepts where evaluated against each other using the following criteria based on the statement of needs, the relevant aspects of those conditions necessary for a Third Place and other select design criteria: »» Aids conversation »» Comfort »» Reflects environment »» Focal point »» Inclusive »» Playful »» Fits Brief These criteria were then placed into this chart where each concept was assessed for each of these criteria and awarded a mark. The grading range from -2 very bad through to 2 very good.
  84. 84. example This idea is not very inclusive, as you could not see the elderly heaving shapes together to create seating. Libraries are inclusive places and so the furniture should reflect that. 85 2 1 -1 -2 -2 2 1 1 Concept Name Tetris Concept Image Concept Assessment Concept Comments Concept Score
  85. 85. Tetris +one Samovar 2 86 Concept too similar to products already existing on the market. Likelihood to encounter a substantial amount of Health and Safety legislation concerning the public and hot liquids. 1 0 1 -1 -2 -2 2 1 1 This idea is not very inclusive, as you could not see the elderly heaving shapes together to create seating. Libraries are inclusive places and so the furniture should reflect that. -1 -2 -1 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 2
  86. 86. 87 Pools Touchy-Feely Huddle 1 1 1 Light is not tangible and it can be difficult to interact with light. Difficult to get a lot of people around the same focal point. 2 2 Could be construed as quirky. 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1
  87. 87. 4.9 Concept Summary 88 »» Product A: Touchy-Feely To assist in the evaluation of the concepts, the concepts with the top two scores were rendered in a CAD package and sent out to the experts (i.e. librarians), plus a selection of people previously interviewed as part of the research phase. They were told that this was not the final concept but a direction. Two questions were asked: Which c »» oncept would you prefer to use? »» Why? 100% of the 20 replies voted for Product B, ‘Huddle’. Sample comments were: “Product B is more versatile and allows different numbers and combinations of people to use it.” Steve Wilkins, Graphic Designer. Does not visit libraries.
  88. 88. 89 »» Product B: Huddle “The first one you have to get closer so there is more likely to be an invasion on personal space to get near the Huddle.” Sally Oliphant, Children’s Publisher. Does not visit libraries. “We also like to focus on the fire instead of focussing on other person at points - especially when partaking in a bit of philosophical activity!” Dominic Murray, Company Secretary. Does not visit libraries. “The campfire likeness is familiar, if not fundamental, to all people(whether they’ve actually sat next to one or not).” Dave Harrison, Musician. Visits libraries. “In my mind, I would rather use product B... I like the idea that you can pull up the stools ... around it, and therefore arrange the space in a way that works for you and your friends.” Hélène Duranton, Coordinator, Visits libraries.
  89. 89. 90
  90. 90. Development + Validation 5 91
  91. 91. 5.1 Design Development The Huddle come with two distinct units: The Huddle itself, and social seating in the form of stools that can interact with the Huddle. The Huddle itself could be branded with images that could represent the surrounding environment. In this case, scenes from classic literature. The Huddle also has a weight in the bottom to assist stability. This would ensure that the product would always return to the upright position if knocked. This would also help protect the internal electronics. 92 Scale models of the concept were created to help show how the product could work.
  92. 92. 93
  93. 93. 94
  94. 94. 95 The decision to have more than one form of seating would be to make the product more inclusive. As libraries are inclusive places, it would be necessary for the seating in libraries to be as well. The stools would cover most people for informal seating, but the fact that the casual chair would be more suitable for somebody older or less-abled means that they too could enjoy the social benefits of Huddle. Stool width, depth and height are all based on Dreyfuss anthropometrics in order to allow for the greatest percentile range of people to use it. This has been supported by examining the dimensions of stools already on the market. Huddle Heat Emitted around 30-35°C Height 1000mm Max Diameter 600mm Stool Width 600mm Depth 800mm Height 450mm 5.2 Ergonomics
  95. 95. 5.3 Suggested Layouts 96
  96. 96. 97 5.4 Materials There are several factors that were taken into consideration when choosing materials for the Huddle: The seating had to be »» strong enough for consistent use and hold a range of weights as detailed by Dreyfuss. »» The seating and Huddle components need the capability to be cleaned simply without fear of damage to important components. »» The Huddle had to be resistant to the minimal heat that the components generated. The texture of the Huddle is similar to IKEA’s energy efficient lightbulbs. They are slightly textured and feel ‘rubbery’. This is another layer of protection for the user from the heat source. More importantly, this ‘rubbery’ feel makes the Huddle more tactile for users to interact with. The orange colours of the Huddle were chosen because orange is a combination of red energy and happy yellow. It is a highly visible colour and “increases oxygen supply to the brain… stimulates mental activity. It is highly accepted among young people.” (QSX Software Group, 2008) The British Standards that apply to the Huddle are: »» BS EN 15373:2007 Furniture - Strength, durability and safety -Requirements for non-domestic seating »» BS 7176:2007 Specification for resistance to ignition of upholstered furniture for non-domestic seating by testing composites
  97. 97. Rigid Polypropylene with added fire retardents and stabilisers. Reinforced with glass. Melting point of 150°C Vivid orange colouring Translucent Mottled effect to increase tactility 98 Cushion is a flexible polymer foam (medium density). Created from polyurethane. Woven fabric. Orange coloured Added fire retardent Durable Machine washable Rigid polypropylene with added fire retardents and stabilisers. Reinforced with glass. Melting point of 150°C Plain white Opaque Smooth Base of Huddle is weighted so it returns to upright position. Holds electronics and lithium cell battery. Heating element is protected by ceramic holder.
  98. 98. 99 5.5 Electronics
  99. 99. There are similar products on the market that could use similar technologies. The IKEA energy-saving »» lightbulb is warm 100 enough to the touch but still provides ample light. »» The Panda Bear toy also involves an element of portability plus colour changing LED lights. »» The egg-shaped LED light flickers to resemble a candle. »» The ceramic heat emitter is used in reptile houses and can be controlled by a thermostat to ensure it does not get too hot. The Huddle unit could be charged overnight in a shaped caddy, ready to be used and moved about during the day. Ceramic heaters can be as low as 24w
  100. 100. The diagram shows how the electronic elements could fit together inside the Huddle. 101
  101. 101. 5.6 Costing Costing was worked out by examining similarly made products already on the market and using intelligent assumptions. The stool: Polyethylene blow moulded stool with fire retardent and upholstery £20.90 (EFM Chesterfield, 2009) The most expensive this stool could be would be about £25.00. 102
  102. 102. The Huddle: Based on a lantern of similar size with another 1/3 added on to consider the heating element brings the cost of the Huddle to around £350.00 (ModernMetropolis, 2009) 103 Since all the technology can be found in the home, there is no reason to believe that daily running costs will be expensive.
  103. 103. 5.7 Competitor Analysis Seating Heating There are no exact competitors to this concept, but there are similar furniture, heaters and places: Current library furniture is standard, cheap and straight out of an office catalogue. Jonathan Shale at Bristol City Council furniture procurement (jonathan.shale@bristol.gov.uk) confirmed that current seating was bought out of a contract catalogue. Similar furniture as shown here cost £184.95 (Gresswell, 2009) per unit but do not provide the associated social aspects that Huddle would. 104 The idea of gathering around a focal point could be seen in some garden furniture, but the style and quality of the furniture would not be suitable for a library environment. The smoke caused by a chiminea would also not be suitable. The cost of a similar arrangement to above would be in the region of £60.00 for the chiminea and £10.00 for each chairs. (diy.com, 2009)
  104. 104. Other current Third Places include coffee shops and public houses. The advantages that these have are that you can buy drink and food from these places. This does lead to the uneasy obligation to regularly purchase these things in order to use these Third Places. The advantage that a library has is that the place is free. You could, if you wished, bring your own beverages. This marks the library out as a far more economical place to meet people. The warmth element of the Huddle concept is also a suitable replacement for the necessity of food and drink. 105 Third Places
  105. 105. 5.8 Concept Validations - The Librarian 106 “Hi Duncan, brilliant idea! I would prefer to use product B and can see straightaway how it could be used I would prefer B because of the option to be used/shared by more people. Additional stools/chairs can be added as required so it is therefore more flexible. It can be used in an informal situation, people gathering and chatting in the library. In this situation, although attractive to all ages, I can see it being popular with young people, perhaps meeting together after school or at weekends in the library. It would be good to give it a name - meet you at the xxxxxx at 4pm for example. Glo-fire is a good name but to promote it the library could have a ‘competition’ and invite suggestions from it’s customers. It would also be an opportunity to promote the Glo-fire and library by mentioning the competion plus a photo of the ‘Glo-fire’ in the local press. It would also be useful in a ‘semi-formal’ situation. We have adult and children’s reading groups in the library, 6 to 20 participants. It is normal to have the group in a circle to make discussion easier so this would be a wonderful focal point and add interest if there are changes as there is more conversation. As a children’s librarian with my young reading group I may end up challenging them to reduce the flickering (they are already quite vocal) or ask them to take it in turns to make it flicker. […] We also have rhyme times in our libraries (as language is a precursor to reading) and depending on numbers parents often sit with babies on their laps in a circle. This would really be a singing round the campfire The Huddle design concept was given to Val O’Sullivan, children’s librarian for Hampshire County Council in order to get an experts perspective whether the concept would be relevant in the context of a library. Val O’Sullivan Children’s Librarian Val.O’Sullivan@hants.gov.uk Hampshire County Council Here is her reply in full:
  106. 106. 107 situation - brilliant. The unit also looks as though it would be fairly easily portable which is very useful for library authorities who for funding reasons may not be able to have as many of these as they would wish and may need to transport it between libraries to use at an variety of venues and events. We often do outreach events in marquees etc. and this would be a wonderful attraction in a ‘story/ rhyme’ corner at a library promotion event. Excellent idea with a myriad of uses!! [...] Val”
  107. 107. Two Interior Designers 108 Chris Jones is a Director of Smith and Jones, a creative 3-Dimensional Design Consultancy. Chris Jones chris@smithandjones.co.uk 0117 316 9415 Spike Island, Bristol “Also, personally, I shy away from any techie sorts of things like this as I think it takes away from the conversation. Possibly this would work in a bar for 18 - 24’s but not in a library. Looking at the image, Im wondering how long I could sit there before I wanted to relax into a nice old chair - there is no backs on the seats so how could I fully relax? Perhaps if you are to design a meeting place at a library, shouldn’t books be the focus? Somewhere you can sit with friends and see books you have read and recommend books to friends?
  108. 108. Russell Ashdown is the owner of Remodel Design, sustainable interior design specialists. 109 Russell Ashdown russell@remodeldesign.co.uk 0117 330 8177 Redland, Bristol “Your furniture has the capacity to change a whole space if it can be a catalyst for greater interaction. Your ‘third’ place will only come about when the furniture shapes the way the whole building is used by starting other patterns of use. This would be a interesting way to design a building, from the furniture outwards. -The concept of hand warming is great. The analogy of the hearth or the fireplace is a very strong subliminal draw for people and the flickering reminds me of candlelight, gentle and approachable. I can see this working really well in an external location. In Denmark cafes supply blankets so that people can still eat and drink outside. Generally I like the way you are appealing to primeval instincts inherent in most of us and draw us together. -The circular form of the pieces feels right. I actually think restricting the number of people that can sit around one focal point is beneficial. Too many people can’t have one conversation or it becomes a shouting match. Stuff to think about; -Conversation and libraries are not always welcome. It’s no coincidence that most library furniture is designed for solitary use, and your concept makes a distinct break with this. In what sort of space would this furniture be placed -I’d be interested to see if you could incorporate the idea of ‘learning’, in my view the main function of the library, perhaps as a group through visual or audio using the focal point. The hand warming idea looses it relevance inside a building. -How do you facilitate growth of the number of people above three. I love the way a wide flight of steps can allow tens of people to gather and interact. Can your pieces be modular adding more to expand over an area creating a series of ‘hearths’ for people. When you visualise the design, it would be much more true to your concept to show how the elements can grow. Does this make sense?”
  109. 109. Council Procurement 110 “We’ve had a look at the designs and think they would be particularly good for childrens areas of libraries where they could be integrated into storytimes, also in cafe areas if available. Possibly a brighter glow rather than flickering would be better to comply with DDA regs - some people may find flickering lights disturbing. It would certainly be a good talking point in libraries.” Alison Weston, amongst other things, buys furniture for libraries on behalf of Bristol City Council. Alison Weston Procurement alison.weston@bristol.gov.uk 0117 903 7211 Bristol City Council
  110. 110. 111 Library User “I like the fact that you can choose to be closer or further away from the Huddle and that if you choose to be closer to it that this is essentially like interacting with it as it will respond to conversation by flickering. The idea that the Huddle will also get brighter the closer people sit would hopefully encourage conversation amongst people sat there but not force it. I like having control over the seating and how close or far I sit from the Huddle and from other people. The fact that the Huddle gives off hand warmth is also a nice touch, being that I use the library as a Third Place the warmth adds an aspect of comfort which is almost impossible to find in public spaces.” Angharad Williams, Cha rity Worker Angharad Williams uses libraries on a regular basis. She always has. Angharad Williams Charity Worker angharad.williams@treeaid.org.uk 07878 944 197 Bristol
  111. 111. 5.9 Suggested Brand Platform Target Market:»» Foreign Students »» Insight: Informal Public Life 112 Social seating for the 21st Century library. Huddle
  112. 112. 113 »» Personality: Playful »» Benefits: Aids sociability »» Essence: Friends
  113. 113. 5.10 Further Development This product is not only suitable for aiding conversation within the library environment. Because the material of the seating is very simple to colour and because the Huddle can be easily branded, there is a myriad number of future and alternative uses for this seating concept. Because the Huddle units are charged and portable, they could be used outdoors at music festivals where organisers would have less safety concerns than with real fires. 114 They could also be used as garden furniture for those slightly chilly autumn nights.
  114. 114. 115 There is no reason that the seating could be used as seating for exhibitions. The furniture and Huddle could be branded to the exhibition giving the space a casual seating area for visitors. Alternative Third Places such as coffee shops could also benefit from Huddle furniture.
  115. 115. Val identified some excellent uses that had not initially been thought of, showing that there could be alternate uses for Huddle furniture. The views of Chris Jones were very personal and so had to be addressed cautiously, but they did indicate that comfort and asthetic needed to be looked at as future development. Russell Ashdown also identified some future development issues concerning the potential need to restrict the number of users in order to help conversation and the association of learning with the furniture. One of the more important development issues came from Alison and Bristol City Council concerning the compliance with DDA regulations and flickering lights. This will have to checked and addressed. 116
  116. 116. 117 5.11 Summary The benefits this social seating concept could provide in a 21st Century library are twofold: If somebody has a personal investment in a community then it has greater personal value to them (McMillan and George, 1986). Attendance to the library as a Third Place to socialise, relax and meet friends is a personal investment. This could lead to other existing library services being used by people that previously had not used them. Helping create a Third Place within a local community. This benefits the local community by fostering a more creative interaction between community members that would not normally interact, leading to a strengthening of social cohesion. This is covered in detail by The Great Good Place (Oldenberg, 1989). This design concept generates an environment that is conducive to conversation, mingling and an informal public life.
  117. 117. 118
  118. 118. 119 Appendix
  119. 119. Appendix A: Bibliography Audit Commission. (2002) Building Better Library Services. BQ (2009) Warwick Dining Chair [online] Available from: http://www.diy.com Accessed on 21 apr 09 Bennett, S., Demas, S., Freeman, G.T., Frischer, B., Oliver, K.B., and Peterson, C.A. (2005) Library as Place: Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space. Council on Library and Information Resources: Washington DC BS EN 15373:2007 Furniture – Strength, durability and safety – Requirements for non-domestic 120 seating. BS 7176:2007 Specification for resistance to ignition of upholstered furniture for non-domestic seating by testing composites. Buckinghamshire City Council (2006) Bucks CC – Proposed Library Closures and their replacement with alternative library services [online] Available from: www.buckscc.gov.uk/bcc/get//assets/ docs/cab_20060123_item6.pdf Accessed on: 31 oct 08 CABE (2006) Better Public Building. On behalf of HM Government. Carpenter, H. (2007) The role of public libraries in multicultural relationships. On behalf of the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Dorling, D., Vickers, D., Thomas, B., Pritchard, J. and Ballas, D. (2008) Changing UK – The way we life now. Social And Spatial Inequalities (SASI) group, Department of Geography: University of Sheffield Dul, J., Weerdmeester, B. (2001) Ergonomics for Beginners. Taylor and Francis: London Easton, M (2008) Life in UK ‘has become lonelier’ BBC News [online] Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7755641.stm Accessed on: 1 dec 08 EFM Chesterfield (2009) Rectangular Polypropylene Stools [online] Available from: http://websites.uk-plc.net/EFM_Chesterfield/ products/Rectangular_Polypropylene_Stools. htm Accessed on: 21 apr 09 Fang, C. (2008) University Library: The “Third Place” for Students. Nanjing University of Science and Technology: Nanjing Fuad-Luke, A (2004) The Eco-Design Handbook. Thames Hudson: London Granta Design (2009) CES 2009 Edupack [Computer Program] Available from: http:// www.grantadesign.com/education/index.htm Accessed on: 19 apr 09 Goulding, A. (2006) Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, Public Libraries in England: A valuable public service or a service in distress? Gresswell (2009) Easy Seating-Grangeline [online] Available from: OCFUN+LWGWWE B+LWGW025+GWP+ENG+FUNCPARMS+ ZZWSESSID(A0200):02868092930066613737+ ZZWNAVPAG(A0100):PRODUCT+DATESE Q(A0140):42310914957 Accessed on: 23 apr 09 Grindlay, DJC., Morris, A. (2004) The decline in adult book lending in UK public libraries and its possible causes. I literature review. Department of Information Science: Loughborough University. Grindlay, DJC., Morris, A. (2004) The decline in adult book lending in UK public libraries and its possible causes, II statistical analysis. Department of Information Science: Loughborough University. Harris, K. (2003) Your Third Place or mine? Public library and local communities. Public Library Journal, 18(2), 2003, p26-29. Haworth, (2008) The Ergonomic Seating Guide Handbook. Haworth: Washington DC
  120. 120. 121 “Attempts to replace a local library with a mobile library service at Avonmouth were met with very strong local resistance.” IDeA peer review, Bristol City Council library services 5-7 July 2004, p15 Infinitiy (2006) Haunted Flicker Light Adapter [online] Available from: http://www. instructables.com/id/Haunted-Flicker-Light- Adapter/ Accessed on 18 apr 09 Knight, A. (2008) Welcome to your library: Exploring the role of libraries as promoters of health literacy and community cohesion. Healthy Hillingdon: Uxbridge Leadbetter, C. (2003) How to create a modern public library system. On behalf of DEMOS. Macdonald, M., Kane, D. (2005) Public library services to refugees and asylum seekers in the North East. University of Central England McMillan, D.W., Chavis, D.M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23.) ModernMetropolis (2009) Post-War Designer Lighting [online] Available from: http://www. modernmetropolis.com/post-war-designer-lighting/ Accessed on: 21 apr 09 MORI, (2002) Perceptions of Libraries. For the Audit Commission. National Opinion Research Center (1946) What… Where… Why… do people read? University of Denver Oldenburg, R. (1989). The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day. New York: Paragon House. Oldenburg, R. [ed] (2001) Celebrating the Third Place. New York: Marlowe Company OCLC (2003) Environmental Scan “Library Landscape” [online] Available from: http:// www.oclc.org/reports/escan/toc.htm Accessed on: 12 nov 08 Page, B. (2008) There’s more to libraries than lending, The Bookseller 2/8/08 issue 5318 p30-31. Parry, N (2003) Stimulating Growth and Renewal of Public Libraries: The Natural Life Cycle as Framework. [online] Available from: http:// www.ericdigests.org/2005-2/libraries.html Accessed on: 28 sep 08 QSX Software Group (2008) Colour Wheel Pro [Computer Program] Available from: http:// www.color-wheel-pro.com/color-meaning.html Accessed on: 21 apr 09 RS Catalogue (2008) 2. Electronic Components, Power Connectors.RS: Corby Ryckman, R. M. (2007) Theories of Personality Wadsworth Publishing: Florence Savage, M. (2008) The Big Question: Does the decline in book lending spell the end for the public library, The Independent, 16/01/08 [online] Available from: http://www.independent. co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/features/the-big- question-does-the-decline-in-book-lending-spell- the-end-for-the-public-library-770432.html Accessed on: 5 august 08 Strange, H.(2008) Public libraries told to innovate or die out, The Times, 06 mar 08 [online] Available from: http://entertainment. timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_ entertainment/books/art/public-libraries-told-to- innovate-or-die-out.htm Accessed on: 15 nov 08 Tilley, A., Dreyfuss, H. (2002) The Measure of Man and Woman: Human Factors in Design. John Wiley Sons Inc: Indianapolis UWE Library Services (2008) References – The Harvard System [internet] http://www.uwe. ac.uk/library/resources/general/info_study_ skills/harvard2.htm Accessed on: 27 Nov 2008 Wainwright, M (2003) Libraries blamed for their own decline, The Guardian, 18/08/03 [online] Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/ business/2003/aug/18/society.education Accessed on: 31 oct 08 Walter, C., DesRoches, D. (2008) The 21st Century Teacher-Librarian. [online] Available from: http://disruptiveinnovators.wikispaces. com Accessed on: 03 oct 08
  121. 121. Appendix B: Questionnaire 1 Can you help me? I’m doing a research project about people’s expectations and thoughts on public libraries. I’d be really grateful if you could answer the following questions EVEN IF you do not use public libraries yourself. Amongst other things I need to compare user versus non-user expectations. This should take no more than 5 minutes to complete. I have to write a report by the 30th november so i’d love it if I could get something back quickly. 122 demographic bit Age: teens, 20’s, 30’s, 40’s, 50’s, 60’s, 70’s+ 30’s Sex: M/F M Have you ever been to a public library? Y/N Y How frequently do you use your public library? daily, weekly, monthly, annually, never? annually Do you live in an urban or a rural environment? urban/rural Rural What transport could you use to get to your nearest public library? Car, bike, bus (though limited as very rural), train. Do you live in UK? Y/N Yes qualitative bit What do you think the main role of a public library is? Mainly, it is a resource that serves the local community. Its role is to provide an environment where you can find information on most areas of life that you might need, and know that you can order in specific things if you can’t them find there. The comparatively recent introduction of internet access adds to this role. Connected to this role is that it provides a place, a haven from the busy world, where you can utilise the information and work in peace. Its role demands that it also be a centre of local information too. Or something like that :-) What words from the following list best sum up your impression of a public library? * organised, yes * freedom, yes * safety, yes * warm, yes * funky, no * stimulating, yes * reflective, yes * noisy, no * aimless, no * comfy, yes * communal, yes * dark, no * helpful, yes * convenient,yes
  122. 122. 123 * depressing,no * inclusive, yes * private, yes * formidable clarification needed: in the sense of impressive, quality of resources etc. then yes; in the sense of scary, off-putting then no. What do you use a public library for? Information gathering, investigation, research, borrowing books, time out for a quiet read/catching up in the news etc., buying 2nd hand books/cds etc., finding local information (including council news, etc.), Why do you think a public library is the only free public space that is warm and sheltered and where you are left alone to pursue your own thoughts and dreams? Interesting question, hadn’t ever thought of it like that. In a sense, it is the very essence of what a library is, it is over the border from the hustle and bustle of the outside world; a collection of silent words and dreams that demand the respect of peace, consideration and study. Or something. On a more practical level, work and study is far better carried out in peace, and this tradition is probably what most people associate with libraries - the Shhh! factor. What services do you think your local public library offers out of the following? * TV news, no, except through internet * free internet, yes * free computer lessons, yes * free wifi, possibly, don’t know but some probably do * world music, yes * fiction books, yes * local history resources, yes * maps, yes * books for sale, yes * notice board, yes * photocopier, no, possibly * seating, yes * toilets, no * advice, on certain things..... * books prescribed by doctors, yes * social groups yes * hot and cold drinks. no What services would make you use your public library more? None Which of the following statements do you think relate to public libraries more? Why? * “[our]...mission is to organise the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.” * “To inspire and enable every individual [...] to participate actively in the cultural, economic and democratic life of the city through the exploitation of information, learning opportunities, and the enjoyment of books and other media.” Definitely the 2nd statement - if you want to make change, you have to arm yourself with information.... Thank you very much for your time. I’ll let you know if anything interesting comes from the research.
  123. 123. Appendix C: Questionnaire 2 Hello. Thank you very much for completing part one of my questions. I have just a couple more questions for you in relation to the project but more about public spaces known as ‘Third PlaceS’. This should also take under 5 minutes to complete. don’t be over descriptive, just a sentence or two is fine. A Third Place is a place that is not work and not home, but makes you feel safe and relaxed with a sense of belonging. 1. Why would YOU need a place like this? As I have stresses and priorities at home and work to seek refuge from. 2. What would YOU like this ‘Third Place’ to contain? keep it to under 3 things. Coffee, quiet, people to watch 3. How much would YOU pay to have access to this ‘Third Place’? I’d buy services there, but I doubt I’d pay an entrance fee. If it were a nice garden I might pay two pounds. 4. What would YOU like to do to personalise this ‘Third Place’ to your liking? keep it to under 3 things. Make a nice garden, some big windows and cubby holes to get cosy in 5. In what way could this ‘Third Place’ reflect YOUR local community? imagine it is at the end of your road. Local artists’ work(s) 6. Why would meeting people in this ‘Third Place’ be beneficial to YOUR community? Because it would get people talking to each other and finding common links and get people supporting one another in numerous ways. 124 7. How can YOU remain individual in a community? would YOU want to? Everyone is an individual in a community. All you do is be yourself. Just to let you know that your names will not be associated with any replies or comments. Once again, thank you very much for your time. I shall let you know of any interesting results.
  124. 124. 125 Appendix D: Concept Statements Opportunity Protecting personal possessions whilst away from them in a library. Idea People who spend time working in a library cannot leave their belongings to go and get another book or go to the bathroom without packing up all their things. Concept A product or service that would protect personal belongings from being stolen. Target Market • Students • Self Educatiors Consumer Benefits • Security • Could increase attendance Likely Features • Personal locking system • analogue or digital Development Issues / Associated Risks Need to work in situ possibly with a variety of possessions and in a variety of locations. Assumptions Better security leading to an increase in attendance. Technical Expertise An expert in opportunistic theft or security. Opportunity To engage the local community in defining their library in a way they will use. Idea People who have an investment in something tend to be more attracted to it. If there were a way to give the community the ‘kit’ to create the library they want, they would use it more. Concept A product or service that gives people the opportunity to invest in their library. Target Market All people within a specified catchment area to a local library. Consumer Benefits Gives consumers a sense of belonging and pride in their community. Likely Features Some form of collaborative interaction with service. Development Issues / Associated Risks • Difficult to be all things for all people. • There will always be people not wanting to participate. • No blank slate. Consumers must choose from a series of components. Assumptions n/a Technical Expertise • Council • Community Support Officers • NGO’s • Library Designers
  125. 125. Opportunity To develop the library as a genuine alternative community ‘Third Place’ to go other than work or home. Idea Helping community cohesion by having a public place to be private in. Concept A product or service that creates a Third Place for the community to use. Target Market • All people within a specified catchment area to a local library. • Visitors to area. • Foreign nationals. Consumer Benefits • Sense of belonging. • Could lower crime rate. • Community cohesion. Likely Features An area that is like a home from home. Development Issues / Associated Risks • Difficult to be all things for all people. • There will always be people not wanting to participate. Assumptions n/a Technical Expertise • The Community • Local Council • Experience Designers 126 Opportunity To create a library that reflects and benefits the community it serves. Idea Your bookshelf is a story of you. Can a series of public library bookshelves be a story of the community? Concept A product or service that creates / displays information concerning the local community. Target Market • All people within a specified catchment area to a local library. • Visitors to area. • Foreign nationals. Consumer Benefits • Sense of belonging. • Detailed information about area could help important decision making. Likely Features Individual way of displaying information about the community. Development Issues / Associated Risks • Information is only as accurate as the data. • No blank slate. Possible abuse of position. Assumptions Consumers will understand what the product / service is trying to do. Technical Expertise • The Community • Information / Interaction Designers
  126. 126. 127 Opportunity Design a service that helps marginalised groups (asylum seekers, unemployed, etc) integrate into the community. Idea Asylum seekers are told to go to libraries, as it is a safe place that is not home. Concept A service that makes marginalised groups feel more part of the community. Target Market • Marginalised social groups • Community area Consumer Benefits • Sense of belonging. • Detailed information about area could help important decision making. Likely Features • Learning English • Learning about area • Skills training Development Issues / Associated Risks • Possible resistance by community. • Sensitive area Assumptions Is already being done. Technical Expertise • Council and Immigration Services • Welcometoyourlibrary.org.uk Opportunity Better ways of informing the public of library services. Idea A lot of what libraries already do people do not know about. Concept A product or service that helps highlight what services the local library has. Target Market • Non-library / lapsed users Consumer Benefits • Increased awareness as to what library has to offer. • Increase footfall to libraries Likely Features • Innovative advertising campaign Development Issues / Associated Risks • Location of campaign. • Specific advertising to differing market segments. Assumptions Assuming that advertising campaign would be successful. Technical Expertise • Marketing
  127. 127. Opportunity Make libraries more accessible to parents with children to help development and socialising. Idea If people go to libraries when they are young they usually continue to go to libraries throughout their life. Concept A product or service that aids children and parents to socialise in a safe, community area. Target Market • Parents with children • Children aged 0 thru 12 Consumer Benefits • Better socialisation skills for children • Support group for parents Likely Features • Public toilets • Collaborative Events Development Issues / Associated Risks • Security around children • 12 year old children have different needs to 3 year old children. Assumptions That parents will want their children to socialise with people in the community. Technical Expertise • Junior Teachers • Librarians • Social Services 128
  128. 128. 129 Appendix E: Screening Matrices Opportunity: Protecting personal possessions whilst away from them in a library. Criteria 1 2 3 Rating Novelty Familiar Somewhat new Nothing similar on market 1 Clear research to concept chain* No chain Incomplete Explicit 3 Benefits match Needs No match Some matching Fully matched 2 Possible within time resources Impossible Likely Possible 3 Believable Unbelievable Grounded Believable 2 Breakthrough benefits Some improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in more than one benefit 1 Know how available Uncertain Probably Definitely 2 Probability of success Long shot 50 - 50 Good 2 Total 16
  129. 129. 130 Opportunity: To engage the local community in defining their library in a way they will use. Criteria 1 2 3 Rating Novelty Familiar Somewhat new Nothing similar on market 2 Clear research to concept chain* No chain Incomplete Explicit 2 Benefits match Needs No match Some matching Fully matched 3 Possible within time resources Impossible Likely Possible 2 Believable Unbelievable Grounded Believable 2 Breakthrough benefits Some improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in more than one benefit 3 Know how available Uncertain Probably Definitely 2 Probability of success Long shot 50 - 50 Good 2 Total 18 Opportunity: To develop the library as a genuine alternative community ‘third place’ to go other than work or home. Criteria 1 2 3 Rating Novelty Familiar Somewhat new Nothing similar on market 3 Clear research to concept chain* No chain Incomplete Explicit 2 Benefits match Needs No match Some matching Fully matched 3 Possible within time resources Impossible Likely Possible 2 Believable Unbelievable Grounded Believable 3 Breakthrough benefits Some improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in more than one benefit 3 Know how available Uncertain Probably Definitely 2 Probability of success Long shot 50 - 50 Good 3 Total 21
  130. 130. 131 Opportunity: To create a library that reflects and benefits the community it serves. Criteria 1 2 3 Rating Novelty Familiar Somewhat new Nothing similar on market 2 Clear research to concept chain* No chain Incomplete Explicit 3 Benefits match Needs No match Some matching Fully matched 2 Possible within time resources Impossible Likely Possible 3 Believable Unbelievable Grounded Believable 3 Breakthrough benefits Some improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in more than one benefit 2 Know how available Uncertain Probably Definitely 2 Probability of success Long shot 50 - 50 Good 3 Total 20 Opportunity: Design a service that helps marginalised groups (asylum seekers, unemployed, etc) integrate into the community. Criteria 1 2 3 Rating Novelty Familiar Somewhat new Nothing similar on market 1 Clear research to concept chain* No chain Incomplete Explicit 3 Benefits match Needs No match Some matching Fully matched 2 Possible within time resources Impossible Likely Possible 3 Believable Unbelievable Grounded Believable 3 Breakthrough benefits Some improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in more than one benefit 3 Know how available Uncertain Probably Definitely 2 Probability of success Long shot 50 - 50 Good 2 Total 19
  131. 131. 132 Opportunity: To create a library that reflects and benefits the community it serves. Criteria 1 2 3 Rating Novelty Familiar Somewhat new Nothing similar on market 2 Clear research to concept chain* No chain Incomplete Explicit 3 Benefits match Needs No match Some matching Fully matched 2 Possible within time resources Impossible Likely Possible 3 Believable Unbelievable Grounded Believable 3 Breakthrough benefits Some improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in more than one benefit 2 Know how available Uncertain Probably Definitely 2 Probability of success Long shot 50 - 50 Good 3 Total 20 Opportunity: Design a service that helps marginalised groups (asylum seekers, unemployed, etc) integrate into the community. Criteria 1 2 3 Rating Novelty Familiar Somewhat new Nothing similar on market 1 Clear research to concept chain* No chain Incomplete Explicit 3 Benefits match Needs No match Some matching Fully matched 2 Possible within time resources Impossible Likely Possible 3 Believable Unbelievable Grounded Believable 3 Breakthrough benefits Some improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in one benefit Definite improvement in more than one benefit 3 Know how available Uncertain Probably Definitely 2 Probability of success Long shot 50 - 50 Good 2 Total 19
  132. 132. 133 Appendix F: Initial Top-line-brief Background • Over the last 10 years book borrowing has fallen by 34% (Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountability, 2008). • 87% of respondents to a public consultation felt that a library closure would affect them greatly (Buckinghamshire City Council Government report, 2006) • “Attempts to replace a local library with a mobile library service at Avonmouth were met with very strong local resistance.” (IDeA peer review, 2004) • “We need to move on from the perception of libraries as merely depositories for books…” (John Rouse, Cabe, 2003) • “The growing recognition of Third Places in relation to social capital and community cohesion suggests an appropriate role for the public library movement seeking to reaffirm its place in the network society.” (Harris, 2003) • “…how it [a library] is being used for positive interaction between people, connecting the people and the resources the library holds in a way that enriches lives…” (Helen Carpenter, Director, welcometoyourlibrary.org, 2008) Insights • Public libraries are in a unique position to be a Third Place (not home, not work) within the community. • People still believe that a library should be the centre of a community and have an opinion on what a library should be whether they use them or not. Opportunity • A product / service that engages the local community to help create a valid Third Place used by, benefitting and reflecting that community. Idea • The library can be considered as a viable Third Place for the local community to use. • If the local community had an opportunity to invest and engage with this Third Place they would be more likely use other facilities there. • If this engagement reflected each user then this could reflect the community as a whole and facilitate a community network for users and visitors. Product / Service Outline Description • The product / service will give users the opportunity to personalise their experience of the Third Place in an innovative way. • These “personalisations” should create a strong sense of personal investment and facilitate interaction between community members.
  133. 133. Target Market The market can be segmented into the following groups: • Current library users • Lapsed library users • Non-library users • Vulnerable sections of society • Tourists and people new to the area • Local councils that run the libraries Consumer / Customer / User Benefits • Will create a Third Place where people can go that is not work or home. • Help introduce beneficial library services to a new audience. • Will make people feel part of a community. User Needs The product / service must: • Allow the personalisation to be represented in a way that other people can interpret. • Allow the user to interact with product / service in an engaging or provocative way. • Facilitates community networking. • Give the Third Place a sense of identity. The product / service should: • Be available for a subscription price of £1.00 per day or under as primary research verifies. 134 • Be intuitive to use so no handholding required. • Can be used by ages 8-80. • Portray information resulting from personalisation in a visually stimulating way. • Give the ‘Cheers’ feeling: where everybody knows your name. • Product / Service could be used as an informal tourist centre as primary research verifies. Likely features and technology • Human interaction touchpoint. • Way of expressing the personalisation in a simple analogue, digital or mechanical way. • A way for users to experience what other users have expressed. Development issues and challenges • Product / Service must not be a ‘use once’ novelty. • Possible danger of information overload for consumers / users. • Ability to appeal to a lot of different target markets. • Product / Service must conform to any relevant standards. • Ergonomic considerations to touchpoint. • Additional considerations might be required for certain target segments such as vulnerable users.
  134. 134. 135 Assumptions • Currently there is no cost limitation to develop product / service. • It is valuable to target several market segments instead of targeting a narrow segment because as a community third space it should serve the whole community. Technical expertise required • At this stage no technical expertise has been identified. Limitations The scope of this product / service is purposefully broad at this stage, however it is limited by/to the following: • Public libraries. • The community being ‘local’ to the library as defined by current local authority library catchment areas.
  135. 135. Appendix G: Full Design Brief Version 2_ 05 mar 09 1 Product Mission A system of seating that draws together the changes in the nature of public libraries, the need in the community for a Third Place and the art of conversation into a unified, integrated manner capable of being mass produced. A product that aids the 21st century library into becoming a valid Third Place. The product will give users the opportunity to experience this Third Place in an innovative way. This experience should facilitate interaction between community members. The modern public library can be a valid meeting and socialising place for the local community. One of the primary functions of a Third Place is to aid conversation and so this system of seating should help this function. The product could be casual seating that fits round some sort of focal point and could hold 3-5 people. The product could come in a range; combined together to give a unified look or as a single unit. 2 Project Mission The purpose of this project is to design a form of social seating that can go in a local urban public library to help it become a Third Place where visitors can relax and socialise. The designer is to question the entire concept of library seating and bring it to a new level. To do this, the designer is to explore the human-centred 136 aspect of design and the way humans can interact with the product in new and innovative ways that could aid conversation, a key insight to what goes on in a Third Place. 3 Design Requirements 3.1 Performance Demands Must have a seated area »» at least 350mm x 350mm. »» Seated area must be at least 350mm above floor. Wishes Could be interacted with in an innovative way. 3.2 Environment Demands »» To be used indoors in a public library. »» Allow the user to interact with product in an engaging or provocative way. »» Facilitates community networking. »» Give the Third Place a sense of identity. Wishes »» Can be moved about. »» Be intuitive to use so no handholding required. »» Can be interacted with in a visually stimulating way. »» Give the ‘Cheers’ feeling: where everybody knows your name. 3.3 Service life Demands »» 12 months guarantee. Wishes »» A significant part of the product can be recycled at end of service. 3.4 Product lifespan Demands »» No information available Wishes »» Possibly new parts available so product can remain contemporary. 3.5 Target product cost Demands
  136. 136. 137 »» No information available Wishes »» Be free to use. 3.6 Target selling price Demands »» No information available Wishes »» Sale price should be competitive with current seating on the market. 3.7 Quantity Demands »» tbc Wishes »» tbc 3.8 Competition Demands »» None Wishes »» Product must be of a competitive price. 3.9 Shipping Demands »» Product should be wrapped in cardboard and bound. »» Able to fit onto pallets. Wishes »» Product optimises shilling container space. 3.10 Assembled dimensions Demands »» Each component of seating should be no more than 2000mmx2000mmx2000mm. Wishes »» Should be able to fit through normal sized doorway. 3.11 Weight Demands »» Should be able to be moved by a single person. Wishes »» tbc 3.12 Conformance Standards and Specifications Demands Product must conform to include: »» BS EN 15373:2007 Furniture – Strength, durability and safety – Requirements for non-domestic seating. »» BS 7176:2007 Specification for resistance to ignition of upholstered furniture for non-domestic seating by testing composites. Wishes Product must conform to include: »» BS EN ISO 9002 3.13 Quality and Reliability Demands »» Should be easily cleanable Wishes »» Quality finish 3.14 Shelf Life Demands »» No information available Wishes »» No information available 3.15 Company Constraints Demands »» No information available Wishes »» No information available 3.16 Market Constraints Demands »» Affordable for purchase by public sector. Wishes »» Easy transition onto other markets. 3.17 Legal IP Rights Demands
  137. 137. »» No information available Wishes »» No information available 3.18 Installation Demands »» Product comes ready assembled. »» No installation required Wishes »» No information available 3.19 Disposal Demands »» No information available Wishes »» Returned for recycling 3.20 Manufacturing Constraints Demands »» No information available Wishes »» Mass customisation in at least 3 different 138 ways. 3.21 Customer / Consumers / End Users Demands »» Will create a Third Place where people can go that is not work or home. »» Help introduce beneficial library services to a new audience. »» Will make people feel part of a community. Wishes »» Able to be updated to stay fashionable with current trends. »» Can be used by ages 8-80. 3.22 Product Brand Strategy Demands »» No information available Wishes »» No information available 4 Contractual Project Management Requirements 4.1 Deliverables End April_ Project Justification hand-in End May_ Project presentation 4.1 Contractual Requirements UWE can use all project-related documentation and models as promotional material. 4.3 Project Management Requirements Contact Chris McCleave in first instance concerning queries.
  138. 138. 139 Appendix H: Supervisor Meeting Records
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  148. 148. Honor Roll Natalie Benwell John Dobson Christopher Hart Duncan Iraci Neil Jones Christopher McCleave Nikki, Mea Indiana McKean Colin Meloy Alan Moore Neal Stephenson Hunter S Thompson 149
  149. 149. e: shout@duncanmckean.co.uk w: duncanmckean.co.uk

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