Research proposal dnbid lecture 2011


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Research proposal dnbid lecture 2011

  1. 1. How to write a Research Proposal DNBID - 2011 Presented by:
  2. 2. How to write a Research Proposal
  3. 3. Research Proposal Why all this fuss about a detailed proposal for my study before I even begin?. Things are going to change once I get into the study! That is true. Changes are inevitable. But a little thought now will save you a lot of grief later on!
  4. 4. <ul><li>Title page & table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Scope of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis or research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation and delimitation of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul>Steps in Developing Research Proposal
  5. 5. Introduction 4. Research Questions or Hypothesis 2. Scope of the Study 3. Objectives of the study 5. Definitions 1. Problems to be investigated Agenda of Presentation
  6. 6. <ul><li>A plan of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prerequisite for Research investigation </li></ul></ul>What is a Proposal?
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>It communicates researcher’s intentions, makes clear the purpose of intended study, its justification & provides a step by step plan for conducting the study. </li></ul></ul>What is a Proposal?
  8. 8. <ul><li>A written Plan of a Study </li></ul><ul><li>---The Research Proposal identifies problems, states questions or hypotheses, identifies variables and define terms. </li></ul><ul><li>---The subjects to be included in the sample, the instrument to be used, the research design chosen, the procedures to be followed, how the data will be analyzed----all are spelled out in some detail. </li></ul>What is a Proposal?
  9. 9. <ul><li>Introduction should provide the background of the research study. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction may include a few subsections. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction should be clear. </li></ul>Introduction of the Research Proposal
  10. 10. <ul><li>Research proposal should include four basic components in its introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>(A) Meaningful presentation of the study. (B) Background of the study. (C) Statement of the main issue of the study. (D) Importance of the study. </li></ul>Introduction of the Research Proposal
  11. 11. <ul><li>The purpose states succinctly what the researcher proposes to investigate. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose should be a concise statement, providing a framework to which details are added later. </li></ul>Purpose of the Study
  12. 12. Justification for the Study <ul><li>Key questions to ask yourself at This point: </li></ul><ul><li>Have I identified the specific research problem I wish to investigate? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I indicated what I intend to do about this problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I put forth an argument as to why this problem is worthy of investigation? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I made my assumption explicit? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Problem to be Investigated
  14. 14. Significance Of the study Research questions or Hypothesis Statement of The problem Definition of Terms Problem to be Investigated
  15. 15. <ul><li>“ A problem might be defined as the issue that exists in the literature, theory, or practice that leads to a need for the study” (Creswell, 1994, p. 50). </li></ul><ul><li>Effective problem statements answer the question “Why does this research need to be conducted.” </li></ul> Statement of the Problem
  16. 16. <ul><li>Normally a research topic should satisfy the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) state the key variables included in the study, </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) state relationship between variables, </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) state population to which results would be applicable, </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) avoid redundant words, and </li></ul><ul><li>(v) use only acceptable scientific terms. </li></ul>Statement of the Problem
  17. 17. Scope of the Study <ul><li>Significance of the study contains three paragraphs based on three questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Why the study is important? </li></ul><ul><li>How the study is important? </li></ul><ul><li>For whom the study is important? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Scope of the Study <ul><li>Significance of the study contains three paragraphs based on three questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Why the study is important? </li></ul><ul><li>How the study is important? </li></ul><ul><li>For whom the study is important? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Objectives of the Study <ul><li>Objectives should be clearly stated and specific in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Each sub objective should delineate only one issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Action oriented words such as, “to determine”, “to find out”, “to ascertain” in formulating sub objectives, which should be numerically stated. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives should be attainable, measurable, achievable and testable. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Research Questions or Hypotheses <ul><li>Questions are relevant to normative or census type of research. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are most often used in qualitative inquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses are relevant to theoretical research and are typically used in quantitative inquiry. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>All key terms should be defined. </li></ul><ul><li>In a hypothesis testing study, these are primarily the terms that describe the variables of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher’s task is to make his/her definitions as clear as possible. </li></ul>Definitions
  22. 22. <ul><li>How To Design And Evaluate Research IN Education,2006,The McGraw Hill Companies. New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methodology, Sage publications </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Research, Allama Iqbal open University </li></ul><ul><li>WWW.des.emory.ed/.mpf/proposal.html </li></ul>References
  23. 23. Format of the Research Proposal <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction with its relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Gist of review of the related literature along with research gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Rationales of the study/justifications for selection of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Research questions, objectives, hypothesis(if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations/scope of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions of keywords (only operational definitions) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Format of the Research Proposal <ul><li>Methodology (Action plan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>o Research method with justifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Populations along with its size (structure wise if any) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Sample size, sample selection procedure, sampling techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Tools for data collection: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of tool – details and justification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tool construction: Detail plan for its construction, quality measures, finalization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Mode of data collection and cross‐validation procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Methods for data analysis </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Format of the Research Proposal <ul><li>Time‐Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Pubmed </li></ul><ul><li>Pubmedcentral </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedcentral </li></ul><ul><li>SCIRUS </li></ul><ul><li>Google scholar </li></ul><ul><li>Mendeley </li></ul>
  27. 27. Important Wisdom <ul><li>Don’t hesitate to discuss with your guide.. </li></ul><ul><li>You are not obliging your guide by doing this research project…This is for your own welfare…. </li></ul><ul><li>Guide won’t come to you..You have to approach your guide.. </li></ul><ul><li>Read relevant literature everyday..make notes… </li></ul>