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ThinkBike WorkshopLos AngelesSeptember 22-23, 2011
The	  Experts	                       •  Cor	  van	  der	  Klaauw	                       •  Groningen	  Province	          ...
The	  Experts	  	                           •  Tonny	  Bosch	                           •  Goudappel	  Coffeng	            ...
Cycling in the NetherlandsPhilosophy and Measures forIncreasing Bikeability Hillie Talens     Project Manager CROW and    ...
Who is she?5                 ThinkBike Workshop                      Los Angeles
How does she travel?6               ThinkBike Workshop                    Los Angeles
Content  Facts & Figures  Benefits for Society  The Dutch Touch  Bicycle Infrastructure (Engineering)  Enforcement & ...
Bicycle Ownership  1,2        1,11   1                             More bicycles than                             people  ...
Bike Share: Comparison                         Denmark 18%Netherlands 27%                         Germany 10%             ...
Bike Share in the Netherlands                             Total modal split 27%                             34% of all t...
11                                         • 0%                                                • 10%                      ...
Daily Trips                                                 Average daily nr. of trips by gender                          ...
Average Distance1km = 0.6 miles                                                              Average daily covered distanc...
Emotions           joy   fear   anger    sadness     aversion                  car   bike    public transport 14          ...
Safety - Europe  15              ThinkBike Workshop                      Los Angeles
Bike Share - EU           30%                    27%           25%           20%                19%           15%         ...
Safety in Numbers1km = 0.6 miles   2                                                               12                     ...
History             1925  18      ThinkBike Workshop              Los Angeles
Development in Time                                                                                          1975 - presen...
Benefits of Cycling Sustainability Accessibility Health Liveability Economics   20                 ThinkBike Workshop...
Sustainability	   No CO2 emission  (reduction by 2.4 million tons  in the Netherlands) Efficient (1 liter of fossil fuel...
AccessibilityConsequences in Urban Areas More efficient use of  infrastructure Easier access to business  areas, etc. S...
HealthCyclists vs. Non-Cyclists Increase of life expectancy byan average of 3 years Extra time in good health (10 years)...
LifestyleCycling offers: More joy and happiness Less traffic noise Cleaner air Better social integration   24         ...
Economic Benefits Reduction in commuting costs More efficient transport Less need to build expensive  parking spaces S...
What makes the Dutch cycle? Flexibility Convenience Perceived safety Cost Health benefits The fastest way get around...
Characteristics of Cyclists Muscle power Balance No crumple zones Hardly any suspension Open air Social activity Hu...
Cycle Speed Design speed of 12.5 to 25 miles per hour Speed limits determined by circumstances 30 km/h-zones (residenti...
Good Infrastructure = More Cyclists  29                                  ThinkBike Workshop                               ...
Traffic / Road System            Function             Use                        Design  30                               ...
5 Safety Principles Functionality of roads Homogeneity of mass, speed  and direction Recognizability of road design  an...
3 Road Categories Through roads Distributor roads Access roads   32                 ThinkBike Workshop                 ...
Bicycle Traffic On/Along Distributor Roads Access Roads Not on Through Roads  33                       ThinkBike Worksh...
Main Requirements for Bicycle Infrastructure1.   Coherence2.   Directness3.   Attractiveness4.   Safety5.   Comfort     34...
1. Coherence Consistency Ease of way finding Mobility chain Choice (more than one  possible route)  35                ...
2. Directness No unnecessary detours Faster than car Constant speed Minimum delays  36                       ThinkBike...
3. Attractiveness Psychological elements Perception Social safety Side-by-side  37                       ThinkBike Wor...
4. Safety Mix if possible Separate when necessary No hard conflicts Infrastructure Safe vehicles (bicycles and cars)...
5. Comfort Smooth surface Minimum stops Protection against weather Easy way finding Priority at intersections Gentle...
Bicycle Facilities Network Route Sections Intersections Parking Others   40                ThinkBike Workshop       ...
Network A mesh/grid width of app. 800ft Urban areas Main destinations are connected No detour Not always dedicated fa...
Residential AreasShortcuts for cyclists   42                    ThinkBike Workshop                             Los Angeles
Routes: Bike (High)way More important in rural areas  and between neighborhoods  or towns To encourage longer distance  ...
Street Sections: Bicycle Street Cycle route Car stays behind bicycle Two types:  Ü  Car in the middle  Ü  Car on the ...
Street Sections: Cycle TrackParallel to main road (distributor)" Mostly one direction" 6.50 – 8.20ft wide (depending on vo...
Intersections Priority Roundabout Traffic lights Raised intersection Tunnel Bridge   46                   ThinkBike ...
Roundabouts4 types:" Bike on street" Bike lane" Separated path with priority" Separated path without priorityWith path, al...
Traffic Lights Bicycle phase - all bicycle  directions green Advanced stop lane/box Go right to turn left No right tur...
Tunnels Gradient / grade <5% > 11.5 ft wide > 9 ft headroom Sufficient light Daylight Vision through tunnel    right...
Bridges  Gradient/grade <5%  Protection against weather  11.5feet wideCyclists prefer tunnels to bridges   50          ...
Parking Safe facilities Logical location Serviceable Well fitted Sufficient space   51                ThinkBike Works...
Other Maintenance Road work zones No “cyclist dismount” signs No detour more than 50%  (max 3miles)   52              ...
Liability and EnforcementPhilosophy of Dutch enforcement:Car drivers: should take the responsibility  of driving vehicles...
Education       Start young   Safe routes to school  54                                         ThinkBike Workshop        ...
Conclusions Cyclist is not a pedestrian with wheels Bicycle facilities need to be tailor-made Handbooks should be for i...
Cycling is fun for everybody!  56                            ThinkBike Workshop                                    Los Ang...
talens@crow.nl57                    ThinkBike Workshop                          Los Angeles
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Think Bike LA - Dutch Presentation

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Think Bike LA - Dutch Presentation

  1. 1. ThinkBike WorkshopLos AngelesSeptember 22-23, 2011
  2. 2. The  Experts   •  Cor  van  der  Klaauw   •  Groningen  Province   •  Richard  ter  Avest   •  Goudappel  Coffeng   Consultancy  
  3. 3. The  Experts     •  Tonny  Bosch   •  Goudappel  Coffeng   Consultancy   •  Hillie  Talens   •  CROW  
  4. 4. Cycling in the NetherlandsPhilosophy and Measures forIncreasing Bikeability Hillie Talens Project Manager CROW and Bicycle Ambassador Fietsberaad
  5. 5. Who is she?5 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  6. 6. How does she travel?6 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  7. 7. Content  Facts & Figures  Benefits for Society  The Dutch Touch  Bicycle Infrastructure (Engineering)  Enforcement & Education  Conclusions 7 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  8. 8. Bicycle Ownership 1,2 1,11 1 More bicycles than people 0,83 0,8 0,77 0,67 0,63 0,6 Number of cycles per inhabitant 0,50 0,45 0,40 0,40 0,4 0,34 0,2 0,18 0 8 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  9. 9. Bike Share: Comparison Denmark 18%Netherlands 27% Germany 10% USA 1% 9 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  10. 10. Bike Share in the Netherlands   Total modal split 27%   34% of all trips < 4.5 miles   15% of trips 4.5-10 miles   Groningen en Zwolle > 50% 10 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  11. 11. 11 • 0% • 10% • 20% • 30% • 40% • 50% • 60% • 70% • 80% • 90% • 100% • Commuter travel Trip Motive • Business trips • Services/personal • care • Shopping • Education • Visit/stay • Social • recreational • Touring/hiking • Other • Total • Car Los Angeles • BicycleThinkBike Workshop
  12. 12. Daily Trips Average daily nr. of trips by gender 2 1,8 1,6 1,4 Daily nr. of trips 1,2 Women 1 Men 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 Age 0-12 12- 16- 18- 20- 25- 30- 40- 50- 60- 65- >75 Avg 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60 65 75 Source: RWS/AVV 2005 /MON 2005 12 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  13. 13. Average Distance1km = 0.6 miles Average daily covered distance by gender 8 7 6 Daily covered distance 5 Women 4 Men 3 2 1 0 Age 0-12 12- 16- 18- 20- 25- 30- 40- 50- 60- 65- >75 Avg 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60 65 75 Source: RWS/AVV 2005 /MON 2005 13 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  14. 14. Emotions joy fear anger sadness aversion car bike public transport 14 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  15. 15. Safety - Europe 15 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  16. 16. Bike Share - EU 30% 27% 25% 20% 19% 15% 10% 10% 9% 9% 8% 7% 5% 5% 5% 2% 0% s nd k um y en a ce ly in nd ar an ri Ita i ta la ed an st i m la lg m er Au Br en Sw Fr Be r er he i tz at D G Sw et re N G e th 16 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  17. 17. Safety in Numbers1km = 0.6 miles 2 12 Bicycle km per person per day Cyclists killed per 100 10 million bicycle km 1,5 8 1 6 4 0.5 2 0 0 Italy UK Finland Germany Sweden Netherlands 17 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  18. 18. History 1925 18 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  19. 19. Development in Time 1975 - present: 18001km = 0.6 miles - Suburbanization -  Car use 50 1600 + Transport policy + Clean & Healthy Cycle fatalities per billion bicycle km 1400 40 Bicycle km pppy 1200 1000 30 800 20 600 1950 –1975: • 400 - Suburbanization -  Car use 10 -  Transport policy • 200 -  Old fashioned • 0 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Bicycle use Bicycle unsafety 19 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  20. 20. Benefits of Cycling Sustainability Accessibility Health Liveability Economics 20 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  21. 21. Sustainability   No CO2 emission (reduction by 2.4 million tons in the Netherlands) Efficient (1 liter of fossil fuel per 311 miles) Reduction of the global footprint of a country Alleviates global warming 21 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  22. 22. AccessibilityConsequences in Urban Areas More efficient use of infrastructure Easier access to business areas, etc. Shorter travel times (the bike is the fastest means of transport) Less congestion More efficient parking (8 bicycles for 1 car) 22 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  23. 23. HealthCyclists vs. Non-Cyclists Increase of life expectancy byan average of 3 years Extra time in good health (10 years) Reduction of diseases (e.g. obesity,heart and coronary disease,Alzheimer’s) More fit and less overweight children Independent and self-confident youth Reduction in healthcare costs Reduction of work absenteeism(10-15%) 23 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  24. 24. LifestyleCycling offers: More joy and happiness Less traffic noise Cleaner air Better social integration 24 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  25. 25. Economic Benefits Reduction in commuting costs More efficient transport Less need to build expensive parking spaces Sustainable economic growth Increased business in shops along bike routes Reduction in work absenteeism (10-15%)Every km by car costs €0.32 ($0.47)Every km by bike gains €0.12 ($0.18) 25 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  26. 26. What makes the Dutch cycle? Flexibility Convenience Perceived safety Cost Health benefits The fastest way get around town Easy to combine with other modes of transport 26 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  27. 27. Characteristics of Cyclists Muscle power Balance No crumple zones Hardly any suspension Open air Social activity Humans 27 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  28. 28. Cycle Speed Design speed of 12.5 to 25 miles per hour Speed limits determined by circumstances 30 km/h-zones (residential areas) Home zones/woonerfs (10 miles/h) 28 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  29. 29. Good Infrastructure = More Cyclists 29 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  30. 30. Traffic / Road System Function Use Design 30 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  31. 31. 5 Safety Principles Functionality of roads Homogeneity of mass, speed and direction Recognizability of road design and predictability of road course and road user behaviour Forgivingness of the environment (physical and social) State awareness by the road user 31 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  32. 32. 3 Road Categories Through roads Distributor roads Access roads 32 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  33. 33. Bicycle Traffic On/Along Distributor Roads Access Roads Not on Through Roads 33 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  34. 34. Main Requirements for Bicycle Infrastructure1. Coherence2. Directness3. Attractiveness4. Safety5. Comfort 34 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  35. 35. 1. Coherence Consistency Ease of way finding Mobility chain Choice (more than one possible route) 35 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  36. 36. 2. Directness No unnecessary detours Faster than car Constant speed Minimum delays 36 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  37. 37. 3. Attractiveness Psychological elements Perception Social safety Side-by-side 37 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  38. 38. 4. Safety Mix if possible Separate when necessary No hard conflicts Infrastructure Safe vehicles (bicycles and cars) Safe road users 38 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  39. 39. 5. Comfort Smooth surface Minimum stops Protection against weather Easy way finding Priority at intersections Gentle slopes 39 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  40. 40. Bicycle Facilities Network Route Sections Intersections Parking Others 40 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  41. 41. Network A mesh/grid width of app. 800ft Urban areas Main destinations are connected No detour Not always dedicated facilities 41 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  42. 42. Residential AreasShortcuts for cyclists 42 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  43. 43. Routes: Bike (High)way More important in rural areas and between neighborhoods or towns To encourage longer distance bike commuting Priority at intersections Complete (no missing links) Separation between cyclists and motorists No detours Social safety 43 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  44. 44. Street Sections: Bicycle Street Cycle route Car stays behind bicycle Two types: Ü  Car in the middle Ü  Car on the side More than 2000 bicycles per day Less than 500 pcu/day (two way street) Less than 2000 pcu/day (one way street) 44 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  45. 45. Street Sections: Cycle TrackParallel to main road (distributor)" Mostly one direction" 6.50 – 8.20ft wide (depending on volume)" Car parking on the leftOff street path right" Two directions" 8.20 – 13.10ft wide" Depending on volume and mopeds" Centre marking wrong 45 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  46. 46. Intersections Priority Roundabout Traffic lights Raised intersection Tunnel Bridge 46 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  47. 47. Roundabouts4 types:" Bike on street" Bike lane" Separated path with priority" Separated path without priorityWith path, allow >16.4 feet ofspace for yielding car 47 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  48. 48. Traffic Lights Bicycle phase - all bicycle directions green Advanced stop lane/box Go right to turn left No right turn on red for cars Sometimes free right turn on red for bikes Mirror to avoid turning accidents 48 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  49. 49. Tunnels Gradient / grade <5% > 11.5 ft wide > 9 ft headroom Sufficient light Daylight Vision through tunnel right wrong 49 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  50. 50. Bridges  Gradient/grade <5%  Protection against weather  11.5feet wideCyclists prefer tunnels to bridges 50 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  51. 51. Parking Safe facilities Logical location Serviceable Well fitted Sufficient space 51 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  52. 52. Other Maintenance Road work zones No “cyclist dismount” signs No detour more than 50% (max 3miles) 52 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  53. 53. Liability and EnforcementPhilosophy of Dutch enforcement:Car drivers: should take the responsibility of driving vehicles that could kill should be aware of the capricious nature of cyclists (esp. children) Are always are liable when an accident occursCyclists: should stop at red lights should not cycle on side walks 53 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  54. 54. Education Start young Safe routes to school 54 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  55. 55. Conclusions Cyclist is not a pedestrian with wheels Bicycle facilities need to be tailor-made Handbooks should be for inspiration Cycling is not just a sport Bicycle is not a poor man’s Mercedes 55 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  56. 56. Cycling is fun for everybody! 56 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles
  57. 57. talens@crow.nl57 ThinkBike Workshop Los Angeles

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