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Level 4
David Mullich
Survey of the Videogame Industry
The Los Angeles Film School
 Colleague Dietrich Prinz
writes the limited chess
program for Manchester
University's Ferranti Mark I
 Only capable of ...
1951: NIMROD
 First instance of a digital
computer designed
specifically to play a
game (Nim)
 Created by Ferranti and
w...
1951: OXO / Noughts and
Crosses
(Tic-Tac-Toe)
 First computer game
to use a digital
graphical display
 Created by Alexan...
1958: Tennis For Two
 The first video game
ever made!
 Created by American
physicist William
Higginbotham on a
Donner Mo...
1961: SpaceWar!
 The first video game
you’d actually want to
play (that is, the first
influential video
game).
 Programm...
1971: First Interactive Baseball
Game
 Don Daglow writes
computer baseball on a
DEC PDP-10 mainframe at
Pomona College
 ...
1971: Star Trek
 Best-known and most
widely played of the
1970s Star Trek titles
 Programmed
(probably by Mike
Mayfield)...
1972: Hunt The Wumpus
 First text adventure
 Written by Gregory Yorb in
BASIC for the PDP-10
 Written in reaction to
ex...
1974: Airflight
 Developed by Brand
Fortner and others as an
educational flight
simulator
 Popular game on the
PLATO sys...
1975: Adventure
 The first modern text
adventure game
 Originally called
ADVENT and later
Colossal Cave
 Programmed in
...
1975: Dungeon
 First role-playing
video game
 Created by Daglow on
a PDP-10 at
Claremont Graduate
University
 Unlicense...
1978: Multi-User Dungeon
 The first MUD and oldest
Virtual World in existence
 Created by Roy Trubshaw
and Richard Bartl...
1979: Zork
 Dave Lebling, Marc Blank,
Tim Anderson, and Bruce
Daniels begin writing Zork
for a PDP-10 in 1977
 Team reco...
PC Gaming
G4 Icons – PC Gaming (21:41)
1970s: Home Computer
Hobbyists
 Earliest home computers
were sold as kits and had
no operating systems
 Hobbyists gather...
1970s: Home Computer
Hobbyists
 Games were distributed
through hobbyists groups
and magazines such as
Creative Computing ...
1975: Microchess
 Written by Peter R.
Jennings for the KIM-1
 Jennings founded
Personal Software to
publish to the growi...
1977: “Trinity” of First
Successful PCs
 Apple II, designed by
Steve Jobs and Steve
Wozniak
 Commodore PET,
designed by ...
1979: Sierra On-line
 Founded by Ken and Roberta
Williams as On-Line Systems
 Best known for King’s Quest
graphic advent...
1980: IBM PC
 IBM markets low-cost
computer in response to the
Apple II’s success
 PC-DOS operating system
created by Bi...
1982: Electronic Arts
 Founded by Trip Hawkins
 Hawkins established the
Producer model of publishing,
based on record pr...
1983: Origin Systems
 Founded by brothers Richard and
Robert Garriott
 Best known for Ultima role-playing
games designed...
1984: Commodore 64
 Most popular home
computer of its day and the
best-selling computer model
of all time internationally...
1985: Atari ST and Commodore
Amiga 64
 16/32-bit computer based
on the Motorolla 68000
CPU with 512K of RAM, a
graphical ...
 Created by Ron Gilbert
and Gary Winnick for
Apple II and Commodore
64
 First game to use the
SCUMM graphical game
engin...
1989: Prince of Persia
(Broderbund)
 Created by Jordan
Mechner for the
Apple II
 Platform Game that
represented a great
...
1991: Blizzard Entertainment
 Founded by Michael Morhaime,
Allen Adham and Frank Pearce as
Silicon & Synapse
 Its first ...
1991: Civilization (MicroProse)
 One of the most
popular strategy games
of all time
 Lead to several
sequels, most recen...
1991: Neverwinter Knights (Strategic
Simulations)
 First multiplayer online
role-playing game to
display graphics
 Ran f...
1992: Dune II (Virgin Interactive)
 Established the real-time
strategy game format that
laid the foundation for
Command &...
1992: Doom (id Software)
 First-person shooter
widely regarded as one
of the most influential
titles in gaming history
 ...
1993: Myst (Broderbund)
 Graphic adventure game
that became the best-
selling PC game until The
Sims in 2002
 Helped dri...
1996: Valve Software
 Founded by Gabe
Newell and Mike
Harrington
 Known for Half-Life,
Counter-Strike and Left
4 Dead se...
1997: Grand Theft Auto
 Developed by DMA Design
(now RockStar North) and
published by BMG Interactive
 First of the enor...
1998: Snake on Nokia Mobile
Phones
 Snake was a casual video
games that originated in
arcades during the late
1970s
 Sna...
1999: EverQuest
 Developed by Sony's 989 Studios
and its early-1999 spin-off Verant
Interactive, and published by Sony
On...
2000: PopCap Games
 Advent of Flash created a
boom in web-based casual
games
 Flagship title Bejeweled
has sold more tha...
2000: The Sims
(Electronic Arts)
 Landmark game allowing
players to build a virtual world
from the ground up
 It became ...
2004: World of Warcraft (Blizzard)
 Legitimized the entire
genre of massively
multiplayer online
games
 Perfected the ru...
2007: Zynga
 Known for its line of Facebook
social games, especially
Farmville (2009)
 Founded by Marc Pinkus and
others...
2007: iPhone (Apple)
 Fundamentally changed
the mobile phone industry
by being designed to
handle other tasks, such
as ga...
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
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LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games

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Lecture for Level 4 of The Los Angeles Film School's Survey of the Videogame Industry course.

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LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games

  1. 1. Level 4 David Mullich Survey of the Videogame Industry The Los Angeles Film School
  2. 2.  Colleague Dietrich Prinz writes the limited chess program for Manchester University's Ferranti Mark I  Only capable of computing "mate-in-two" problems Alan Turing, “Father of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence” 1947: Alan Turing Develops Chess Theoretical Program
  3. 3. 1951: NIMROD  First instance of a digital computer designed specifically to play a game (Nim)  Created by Ferranti and weighed over a ton  Duplicate displayed at the New York World's Fair
  4. 4. 1951: OXO / Noughts and Crosses (Tic-Tac-Toe)  First computer game to use a digital graphical display  Created by Alexander S. Douglas for the world's first stored- program computer, EDSAC
  5. 5. 1958: Tennis For Two  The first video game ever made!  Created by American physicist William Higginbotham on a Donner Model 30 analog computer
  6. 6. 1961: SpaceWar!  The first video game you’d actually want to play (that is, the first influential video game).  Programmed by a group of students at MIT, including Steve Russell, on the PDP-1 Play SpaceWar!
  7. 7. 1971: First Interactive Baseball Game  Don Daglow writes computer baseball on a DEC PDP-10 mainframe at Pomona College  Daglow and programmer Eddie Dombrower later create Earl Weaver Baseball, published by Electronic Arts in 1987 Don Daglow
  8. 8. 1971: Star Trek  Best-known and most widely played of the 1970s Star Trek titles  Programmed (probably by Mike Mayfield) on a Sigma 7 minicomputer at University of California. Play Star Trek Game
  9. 9. 1972: Hunt The Wumpus  First text adventure  Written by Gregory Yorb in BASIC for the PDP-10  Written in reaction to existing hide-and-seek games such as Hurkle, Mugwump, and Snark Play Hunt The Wumpus
  10. 10. 1974: Airflight  Developed by Brand Fortner and others as an educational flight simulator  Popular game on the PLATO system despite mediocre graphics  Inspiration for what became the Microsoft Flight Simulator
  11. 11. 1975: Adventure  The first modern text adventure game  Originally called ADVENT and later Colossal Cave  Programmed in Fortran on the PDP- 10 by William CrowtherPlay Colossal Cave Adventure
  12. 12. 1975: Dungeon  First role-playing video game  Created by Daglow on a PDP-10 at Claremont Graduate University  Unlicensed implementation of Dungeons & Dragons Don Daglow
  13. 13. 1978: Multi-User Dungeon  The first MUD and oldest Virtual World in existence  Created by Roy Trubshaw and Richard Bartle at Essex University on a PDP-10  Began the heritage that culminates with today's MMORPGsRichard Bartle
  14. 14. 1979: Zork  Dave Lebling, Marc Blank, Tim Anderson, and Bruce Daniels begin writing Zork for a PDP-10 in 1977  Team recognized game's potential on personal computers and founded text adventure publisher Infocom in 1979
  15. 15. PC Gaming G4 Icons – PC Gaming (21:41)
  16. 16. 1970s: Home Computer Hobbyists  Earliest home computers were sold as kits and had no operating systems  Hobbyists gathered to discuss home computing  First meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club in Silicon Valley in 1975 inspires Steve Wozniak to design the Apple I 1975: Altair 8800
  17. 17. 1970s: Home Computer Hobbyists  Games were distributed through hobbyists groups and magazines such as Creative Computing and Dr Dobb’s Journal of Computer Orthodontia  These publications provided game code that could be typed into a computer and played
  18. 18. 1975: Microchess  Written by Peter R. Jennings for the KIM-1  Jennings founded Personal Software to publish to the growing microcomputer market  First computer game to sell 10,000 units, almost exclusively on cassette tape
  19. 19. 1977: “Trinity” of First Successful PCs  Apple II, designed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak  Commodore PET, designed by Chuck Peddle  TRS-80, sold by Radio Shack
  20. 20. 1979: Sierra On-line  Founded by Ken and Roberta Williams as On-Line Systems  Best known for King’s Quest graphic adventure games, designed by Roberta, which were ground-breaking for its color graphics and third-person perspective  Eventually purchased by Vivendi and Activision Blizzard King’s Quest 1 Walkthrough.
  21. 21. 1980: IBM PC  IBM markets low-cost computer in response to the Apple II’s success  PC-DOS operating system created by Bill Gate’s Microsoft  IBM’s agreement allows Microsoft to sell the OS, under the name MS-DOS, to other PC makers  Within a decade, PC “clones” dominate the home computer market
  22. 22. 1982: Electronic Arts  Founded by Trip Hawkins  Hawkins established the Producer model of publishing, based on record producers  Hawkins left EA in 1991 to form 3DO and later, Digital Chocolate and If You Can  Currently the third-largest gaming company by revenue, after Activision-Blizzard and Nintendo
  23. 23. 1983: Origin Systems  Founded by brothers Richard and Robert Garriott  Best known for Ultima role-playing games designed by Richard under the name Lord British  Other well-known Origin designers included Chris Roberts (Wing Commander) and Warren Spector (System Shock and Deus Ex) Ultima 4 Walkthrough Wing Commander 1 Walkthrough
  24. 24. 1984: Commodore 64  Most popular home computer of its day and the best-selling computer model of all time internationally  Advanced graphic and sound capabilities for its time, and utilized the same joystick ports as the Atari 2600  Motto: Computers for the masses, not the classes  Inspired a whole new generation of video game programmers
  25. 25. 1985: Atari ST and Commodore Amiga 64  16/32-bit computer based on the Motorolla 68000 CPU with 512K of RAM, a graphical user interface and 3-1/2” microfloppy disks  The Apple Macintosh also arrived at this time but never gained traction as a gaming system
  26. 26.  Created by Ron Gilbert and Gary Winnick for Apple II and Commodore 64  First game to use the SCUMM graphical game engine, an improvement on contemporary text parser-based graphical adventure games 1987: Maniac Mansion (Lucasfilm Games) Maniac Mansion Walkthrough
  27. 27. 1989: Prince of Persia (Broderbund)  Created by Jordan Mechner for the Apple II  Platform Game that represented a great leap forward in the quality of animation seen in video games Prince of Persia Walkthrough Prince of Persia 2 Design Doc Prince of Persia Tech Doc
  28. 28. 1991: Blizzard Entertainment  Founded by Michael Morhaime, Allen Adham and Frank Pearce as Silicon & Synapse  Its first breakthough hit was Warcraft: Orcs & Humans in 1994  Known for the Warcraft, Diablo and Starcraft series  First acquired by Davidson & Associates and later by Vivendi, which merged with Activision in 2008 Michael Monhaime Diablo Walkthrough
  29. 29. 1991: Civilization (MicroProse)  One of the most popular strategy games of all time  Lead to several sequels, most recently Civilization V  Designed by Sid Meier and Bruce Shelley Sid Meier
  30. 30. 1991: Neverwinter Knights (Strategic Simulations)  First multiplayer online role-playing game to display graphics  Ran from 1991 to 1997 on AOL  Licensed Dungeons & Dragons product  Developed by Don Daglow’s Stormfront Studios
  31. 31. 1992: Dune II (Virgin Interactive)  Established the real-time strategy game format that laid the foundation for Command & Conquer, Warcraft and Starcraft  Based on David Lynch’s 1984 movie Dune  Designed by Brett Sperry, Joseph Bostic and Aaron E. Powell of Westwood Studios Dune II Walkthrough
  32. 32. 1992: Doom (id Software)  First-person shooter widely regarded as one of the most influential titles in gaming history  Controversial for its graphic violence  Designed by Tom Hall, Sandy Peterson, John Romero, Shawn Green John Romero Doom Walkthrough
  33. 33. 1993: Myst (Broderbund)  Graphic adventure game that became the best- selling PC game until The Sims in 2002  Helped drive the adoption of CD-ROM format  Designed and directed by brothers Robyn and Rand Miller of Cyan Myst Walkthrough
  34. 34. 1996: Valve Software  Founded by Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington  Known for Half-Life, Counter-Strike and Left 4 Dead series  Created Steam software distribution platform Half-Life Walkthrough
  35. 35. 1997: Grand Theft Auto  Developed by DMA Design (now RockStar North) and published by BMG Interactive  First of the enormously successful (and violent) open world action-adventure series  Originally released on Windows in October 1997 and then on PlayStation in December
  36. 36. 1998: Snake on Nokia Mobile Phones  Snake was a casual video games that originated in arcades during the late 1970s  Snake became the standard pre-loaded game on Nokia mobile phones in 1998  Soon every major phone brand offered “time killer games” that could be played for very short moments
  37. 37. 1999: EverQuest  Developed by Sony's 989 Studios and its early-1999 spin-off Verant Interactive, and published by Sony Online Entertainment (SOE)  Designed by Brad McQuaid, Steve Clover, and Bill Trost  Infamous for its addictive qualities. Many players refer to it as "EverCrack". There has been one well-publicized suicide of an EverQuest user that resulted in his mother founding Online Gamers Anonymous. Everquest Walkthrough
  38. 38. 2000: PopCap Games  Advent of Flash created a boom in web-based casual games  Flagship title Bejeweled has sold more than 50 million units  Founded by John Vechey, Brian Fiete and Jason Kapaika  Now owned by Electronic Arts
  39. 39. 2000: The Sims (Electronic Arts)  Landmark game allowing players to build a virtual world from the ground up  It became the best-selling game in PC history, displacing Myst  Attracted casual gamers and female gamers (who made up 60% of its players  Designed by Will Wright (creator of SimCity) of Maxis
  40. 40. 2004: World of Warcraft (Blizzard)  Legitimized the entire genre of massively multiplayer online games  Perfected the rules and experience of MMOs  Designed by Rob Pardo, Jeff Kaplan, Tom Chilton
  41. 41. 2007: Zynga  Known for its line of Facebook social games, especially Farmville (2009)  Founded by Marc Pinkus and others. Don Mattrick is current CEO  Approached $1B in revenue in 2011, surpassing market value of Electronic Arts  Began trading on NASDAQ in 2011. Stock market price has since plummeted
  42. 42. 2007: iPhone (Apple)  Fundamentally changed the mobile phone industry by being designed to handle other tasks, such as gaming, beyond communications  App Store becomes digital distribution store for iOS games

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