Level 4
David Mullich
Survey of the Videogame Industry
The Los Angeles Film School
 Colleague Dietrich Prinz
writes the limited chess
program for Manchester
University's Ferranti Mark I
 Only capable of ...
1951: NIMROD
 First instance of a digital
computer designed
specifically to play a
game (Nim)
 Created by Ferranti and
w...
1951: OXO / Noughts and
Crosses
(Tic-Tac-Toe)
 First computer game
to use a digital
graphical display
 Created by Alexan...
1958: Tennis For Two
 The first video game
ever made!
 Created by American
physicist William
Higginbotham on a
Donner Mo...
1961: SpaceWar!
 The first video game
you’d actually want to
play (that is, the first
influential video
game).
 Programm...
1971: First Interactive Baseball
Game
 Don Daglow writes
computer baseball on a
DEC PDP-10 mainframe at
Pomona College
 ...
1971: Star Trek
 Best-known and most
widely played of the
1970s Star Trek titles
 Programmed
(probably by Mike
Mayfield)...
1972: Hunt The Wumpus
 First text adventure
 Written by Gregory Yorb in
BASIC for the PDP-10
 Written in reaction to
ex...
1974: Airflight
 Developed by Brand
Fortner and others as an
educational flight
simulator
 Popular game on the
PLATO sys...
1975: Adventure
 The first modern text
adventure game
 Originally called
ADVENT and later
Colossal Cave
 Programmed in
...
1975: Dungeon
 First role-playing
video game
 Created by Daglow on
a PDP-10 at
Claremont Graduate
University
 Unlicense...
1978: Multi-User Dungeon
 The first MUD and oldest
Virtual World in existence
 Created by Roy Trubshaw
and Richard Bartl...
1979: Zork
 Dave Lebling, Marc Blank,
Tim Anderson, and Bruce
Daniels begin writing Zork
for a PDP-10 in 1977
 Team reco...
PC Gaming
G4 Icons – PC Gaming (21:41)
1970s: Home Computer
Hobbyists
 Earliest home computers
were sold as kits and had
no operating systems
 Hobbyists gather...
1970s: Home Computer
Hobbyists
 Games were distributed
through hobbyists groups
and magazines such as
Creative Computing ...
1975: Microchess
 Written by Peter R.
Jennings for the KIM-1
 Jennings founded
Personal Software to
publish to the growi...
1977: “Trinity” of First
Successful PCs
 Apple II, designed by
Steve Jobs and Steve
Wozniak
 Commodore PET,
designed by ...
1979: Sierra On-line
 Founded by Ken and Roberta
Williams as On-Line Systems
 Best known for King’s Quest
graphic advent...
1980: IBM PC
 IBM markets low-cost
computer in response to the
Apple II’s success
 PC-DOS operating system
created by Bi...
1982: Electronic Arts
 Founded by Trip Hawkins
 Hawkins established the
Producer model of publishing,
based on record pr...
1983: Origin Systems
 Founded by brothers Richard and
Robert Garriott
 Best known for Ultima role-playing
games designed...
1984: Commodore 64
 Most popular home
computer of its day and the
best-selling computer model
of all time internationally...
1985: Atari ST and Commodore
Amiga 64
 16/32-bit computer based
on the Motorolla 68000
CPU with 512K of RAM, a
graphical ...
 Created by Ron Gilbert
and Gary Winnick for
Apple II and Commodore
64
 First game to use the
SCUMM graphical game
engin...
1989: Prince of Persia
(Broderbund)
 Created by Jordan
Mechner for the
Apple II
 Platform Game that
represented a great
...
1991: Blizzard Entertainment
 Founded by Michael Morhaime,
Allen Adham and Frank Pearce as
Silicon & Synapse
 Its first ...
1991: Civilization (MicroProse)
 One of the most
popular strategy games
of all time
 Lead to several
sequels, most recen...
1991: Neverwinter Knights (Strategic
Simulations)
 First multiplayer online
role-playing game to
display graphics
 Ran f...
1992: Dune II (Virgin Interactive)
 Established the real-time
strategy game format that
laid the foundation for
Command &...
1992: Doom (id Software)
 First-person shooter
widely regarded as one
of the most influential
titles in gaming history
 ...
1993: Myst (Broderbund)
 Graphic adventure game
that became the best-
selling PC game until The
Sims in 2002
 Helped dri...
1996: Valve Software
 Founded by Gabe
Newell and Mike
Harrington
 Known for Half-Life,
Counter-Strike and Left
4 Dead se...
1997: Grand Theft Auto
 Developed by DMA Design
(now RockStar North) and
published by BMG Interactive
 First of the enor...
1998: Snake on Nokia Mobile
Phones
 Snake was a casual video
games that originated in
arcades during the late
1970s
 Sna...
1999: EverQuest
 Developed by Sony's 989 Studios
and its early-1999 spin-off Verant
Interactive, and published by Sony
On...
2000: PopCap Games
 Advent of Flash created a
boom in web-based casual
games
 Flagship title Bejeweled
has sold more tha...
2000: The Sims
(Electronic Arts)
 Landmark game allowing
players to build a virtual world
from the ground up
 It became ...
2004: World of Warcraft (Blizzard)
 Legitimized the entire
genre of massively
multiplayer online
games
 Perfected the ru...
2007: Zynga
 Known for its line of Facebook
social games, especially
Farmville (2009)
 Founded by Marc Pinkus and
others...
2007: iPhone (Apple)
 Fundamentally changed
the mobile phone industry
by being designed to
handle other tasks, such
as ga...
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games
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LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games

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Lecture for Level 4 of The Los Angeles Film School's Survey of the Videogame Industry course.

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  • Alan Mathison Turing (1912 – 1954), was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, giving a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence.

    A Turing machine is a hypothetical device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite its simplicity, a Turing machine can be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm, and is particularly useful in explaining the functions of a CPU inside a computer.
  • Nim is an ancient mathematical game of strategy in which two players take turns removing objects from distinct heaps. The normal game is between two players and played with three heaps of any number of objects. The two players alternate taking any number of objects from any single one of the heaps. The goal is to be the last to take an object.
  • Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.[1] The machine, having been inspired by John von Neumann's seminal First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, was constructed by Maurice Wilkes and his team at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in England.

    The term Von Neumann architecture describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms

    EDSAC was the second usefully operational electronic digital stored-program computer.
  • Higinbotham created Tennis for Two to cure the boredom of visitors to Brookhaven National Laboratory, where he worked.He learned that one of Brookhaven's computers could calculate ballistic missile trajectories and he used this ability to form the game's foundation.
  • In 1961, a group of students at MIT, including Steve Russell, programmed a game titled Spacewar! on the PDP-1, a new computer at the time. The game pitted two human players against each other, each controlling a spacecraft capable of firing missiles, while a star in the center of the screen created a large hazard for the crafts. The game was eventually distributed with new DEC computers and traded throughout the then-primitive Internet. Spacewar! is credited as the first influential computer game.
  • Don Daglow wrote the first interactive baseball game, computer baseball, on a DEC PDP-10 mainframe at Pomona College. Players could manage play-by-play strategy for individual games, or simulate an entire season. Daglow went on to team with programmer Eddie Dombrower to design Earl Weaver Baseball, published by Electronic Arts in 1987.

    Don Daglow is best known for being the creator of early games from several different genres, including pioneering simulation game Utopia for Intellivision in 1981, role-playing game Dungeon in 1975, sports games including the first interactive computer baseball game Baseball in 1971, and the first graphical MMORPG, Neverwinter Nights in 1991. He founded long-standing game developer Stormfront Studios in 1988.
  • Star Trek was created (probably by Mike Mayfield) on a Sigma 7 minicomputer at University of California. This is the best-known and most widely played of the 1970s Star Trek titles, and was played on a series of small "maps" of galactic sectors printed on paper or on the screen. It was the first major game to be ported across hardware platforms by students. Daglow also wrote a popular Star Trek game for the PDP-10 during 1970–1972, which presented the action as a script spoken by the TV program's characters. A number of other Star Trek themed games were also available via PLATO and DECUS throughout the decade.
  • Hunt the Wumpus is an early video game, based on a simple hide and seek format featuring a mysterious monster (the Wumpus) that lurks deep inside a network of rooms. It was originally a text-based game written in BASIC. It has since been ported to various programming languages and platforms including graphical versions.
  • Brand Fortner and others developed Airfight as an educational flight simulator. To make it more interesting, all players shared an airspace flying their choice of military jets, loaded with selected weapons and fuel and to fulfill their desire to shoot down other players' aircraft. Despite mediocre graphics and slow screen refresh, it became a popular game on the PLATO system. Airfight was the inspiration for what became the Microsoft Flight Simulator.

    The PLATO system was an educational computing environment designed at the University of Illinois and which ran on mainframes made by Control Data Corporation. Games were often exchanged between different PLATO systems.
  • William Crowther wrote the first modern text adventure game, Adventure (originally called ADVENT, and later Colossal Cave). It was programmed in Fortran for the PDP-10. The player controls the game through simple sentence-like text commands and receives descriptive text as output. The game was later re-created by students on PLATO, so it is one of the few titles that became part of both the PLATO and DEC traditions.
  • Don Daglow, then a student at Claremont Graduate University, wrote the first role-playing video game on PDP-10 mainframes: Dungeon. The game was an unlicensed implementation of the new tabletop role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons. Although displayed in text, it was the first game to use line of sight graphics, as the top-down dungeon maps showing the areas that the party had seen or could see took into consideration factors such as light or darkness and the differences in vision between species.
  • Don Daglow, then a student at Claremont Graduate University, wrote the first role-playing video game on PDP-10 mainframes: Dungeon. The game was an unlicensed implementation of the new tabletop role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons. Although displayed in text, it was the first game to use line of sight graphics, as the top-down dungeon maps showing the areas that the party had seen or could see took into consideration factors such as light or darkness and the differences in vision between species.
  • The writing of the original Zork was started by Dave Lebling, Marc Blank, Tim Anderson, and Bruce Daniels. Unlike Crowther, Daglow and Yob, the Zork team recognized the potential to move these games to the new personal computers and they founded text adventure publisher Infocom in 1979. The company was later sold to Activision.
  • http://www.hiveworkshop.com/forums/attachments/warcraft-3-world-warcraft-350/69355d1257815732-screenshots-org_in-game1.jpg
  • http://www.hiveworkshop.com/forums/attachments/warcraft-3-world-warcraft-350/69355d1257815732-screenshots-org_in-game1.jpg
  • http://www.hiveworkshop.com/forums/attachments/warcraft-3-world-warcraft-350/69355d1257815732-screenshots-org_in-game1.jpg
  • LAFS SVI Level 4 - History of Computer and Mobile Games

    1. 1. Level 4 David Mullich Survey of the Videogame Industry The Los Angeles Film School
    2. 2.  Colleague Dietrich Prinz writes the limited chess program for Manchester University's Ferranti Mark I  Only capable of computing "mate-in-two" problems Alan Turing, “Father of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence” 1947: Alan Turing Develops Chess Theoretical Program
    3. 3. 1951: NIMROD  First instance of a digital computer designed specifically to play a game (Nim)  Created by Ferranti and weighed over a ton  Duplicate displayed at the New York World's Fair
    4. 4. 1951: OXO / Noughts and Crosses (Tic-Tac-Toe)  First computer game to use a digital graphical display  Created by Alexander S. Douglas for the world's first stored- program computer, EDSAC
    5. 5. 1958: Tennis For Two  The first video game ever made!  Created by American physicist William Higginbotham on a Donner Model 30 analog computer
    6. 6. 1961: SpaceWar!  The first video game you’d actually want to play (that is, the first influential video game).  Programmed by a group of students at MIT, including Steve Russell, on the PDP-1 Play SpaceWar!
    7. 7. 1971: First Interactive Baseball Game  Don Daglow writes computer baseball on a DEC PDP-10 mainframe at Pomona College  Daglow and programmer Eddie Dombrower later create Earl Weaver Baseball, published by Electronic Arts in 1987 Don Daglow
    8. 8. 1971: Star Trek  Best-known and most widely played of the 1970s Star Trek titles  Programmed (probably by Mike Mayfield) on a Sigma 7 minicomputer at University of California. Play Star Trek Game
    9. 9. 1972: Hunt The Wumpus  First text adventure  Written by Gregory Yorb in BASIC for the PDP-10  Written in reaction to existing hide-and-seek games such as Hurkle, Mugwump, and Snark Play Hunt The Wumpus
    10. 10. 1974: Airflight  Developed by Brand Fortner and others as an educational flight simulator  Popular game on the PLATO system despite mediocre graphics  Inspiration for what became the Microsoft Flight Simulator
    11. 11. 1975: Adventure  The first modern text adventure game  Originally called ADVENT and later Colossal Cave  Programmed in Fortran on the PDP- 10 by William CrowtherPlay Colossal Cave Adventure
    12. 12. 1975: Dungeon  First role-playing video game  Created by Daglow on a PDP-10 at Claremont Graduate University  Unlicensed implementation of Dungeons & Dragons Don Daglow
    13. 13. 1978: Multi-User Dungeon  The first MUD and oldest Virtual World in existence  Created by Roy Trubshaw and Richard Bartle at Essex University on a PDP-10  Began the heritage that culminates with today's MMORPGsRichard Bartle
    14. 14. 1979: Zork  Dave Lebling, Marc Blank, Tim Anderson, and Bruce Daniels begin writing Zork for a PDP-10 in 1977  Team recognized game's potential on personal computers and founded text adventure publisher Infocom in 1979
    15. 15. PC Gaming G4 Icons – PC Gaming (21:41)
    16. 16. 1970s: Home Computer Hobbyists  Earliest home computers were sold as kits and had no operating systems  Hobbyists gathered to discuss home computing  First meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club in Silicon Valley in 1975 inspires Steve Wozniak to design the Apple I 1975: Altair 8800
    17. 17. 1970s: Home Computer Hobbyists  Games were distributed through hobbyists groups and magazines such as Creative Computing and Dr Dobb’s Journal of Computer Orthodontia  These publications provided game code that could be typed into a computer and played
    18. 18. 1975: Microchess  Written by Peter R. Jennings for the KIM-1  Jennings founded Personal Software to publish to the growing microcomputer market  First computer game to sell 10,000 units, almost exclusively on cassette tape
    19. 19. 1977: “Trinity” of First Successful PCs  Apple II, designed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak  Commodore PET, designed by Chuck Peddle  TRS-80, sold by Radio Shack
    20. 20. 1979: Sierra On-line  Founded by Ken and Roberta Williams as On-Line Systems  Best known for King’s Quest graphic adventure games, designed by Roberta, which were ground-breaking for its color graphics and third-person perspective  Eventually purchased by Vivendi and Activision Blizzard King’s Quest 1 Walkthrough.
    21. 21. 1980: IBM PC  IBM markets low-cost computer in response to the Apple II’s success  PC-DOS operating system created by Bill Gate’s Microsoft  IBM’s agreement allows Microsoft to sell the OS, under the name MS-DOS, to other PC makers  Within a decade, PC “clones” dominate the home computer market
    22. 22. 1982: Electronic Arts  Founded by Trip Hawkins  Hawkins established the Producer model of publishing, based on record producers  Hawkins left EA in 1991 to form 3DO and later, Digital Chocolate and If You Can  Currently the third-largest gaming company by revenue, after Activision-Blizzard and Nintendo
    23. 23. 1983: Origin Systems  Founded by brothers Richard and Robert Garriott  Best known for Ultima role-playing games designed by Richard under the name Lord British  Other well-known Origin designers included Chris Roberts (Wing Commander) and Warren Spector (System Shock and Deus Ex) Ultima 4 Walkthrough Wing Commander 1 Walkthrough
    24. 24. 1984: Commodore 64  Most popular home computer of its day and the best-selling computer model of all time internationally  Advanced graphic and sound capabilities for its time, and utilized the same joystick ports as the Atari 2600  Motto: Computers for the masses, not the classes  Inspired a whole new generation of video game programmers
    25. 25. 1985: Atari ST and Commodore Amiga 64  16/32-bit computer based on the Motorolla 68000 CPU with 512K of RAM, a graphical user interface and 3-1/2” microfloppy disks  The Apple Macintosh also arrived at this time but never gained traction as a gaming system
    26. 26.  Created by Ron Gilbert and Gary Winnick for Apple II and Commodore 64  First game to use the SCUMM graphical game engine, an improvement on contemporary text parser-based graphical adventure games 1987: Maniac Mansion (Lucasfilm Games) Maniac Mansion Walkthrough
    27. 27. 1989: Prince of Persia (Broderbund)  Created by Jordan Mechner for the Apple II  Platform Game that represented a great leap forward in the quality of animation seen in video games Prince of Persia Walkthrough Prince of Persia 2 Design Doc Prince of Persia Tech Doc
    28. 28. 1991: Blizzard Entertainment  Founded by Michael Morhaime, Allen Adham and Frank Pearce as Silicon & Synapse  Its first breakthough hit was Warcraft: Orcs & Humans in 1994  Known for the Warcraft, Diablo and Starcraft series  First acquired by Davidson & Associates and later by Vivendi, which merged with Activision in 2008 Michael Monhaime Diablo Walkthrough
    29. 29. 1991: Civilization (MicroProse)  One of the most popular strategy games of all time  Lead to several sequels, most recently Civilization V  Designed by Sid Meier and Bruce Shelley Sid Meier
    30. 30. 1991: Neverwinter Knights (Strategic Simulations)  First multiplayer online role-playing game to display graphics  Ran from 1991 to 1997 on AOL  Licensed Dungeons & Dragons product  Developed by Don Daglow’s Stormfront Studios
    31. 31. 1992: Dune II (Virgin Interactive)  Established the real-time strategy game format that laid the foundation for Command & Conquer, Warcraft and Starcraft  Based on David Lynch’s 1984 movie Dune  Designed by Brett Sperry, Joseph Bostic and Aaron E. Powell of Westwood Studios Dune II Walkthrough
    32. 32. 1992: Doom (id Software)  First-person shooter widely regarded as one of the most influential titles in gaming history  Controversial for its graphic violence  Designed by Tom Hall, Sandy Peterson, John Romero, Shawn Green John Romero Doom Walkthrough
    33. 33. 1993: Myst (Broderbund)  Graphic adventure game that became the best- selling PC game until The Sims in 2002  Helped drive the adoption of CD-ROM format  Designed and directed by brothers Robyn and Rand Miller of Cyan Myst Walkthrough
    34. 34. 1996: Valve Software  Founded by Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington  Known for Half-Life, Counter-Strike and Left 4 Dead series  Created Steam software distribution platform Half-Life Walkthrough
    35. 35. 1997: Grand Theft Auto  Developed by DMA Design (now RockStar North) and published by BMG Interactive  First of the enormously successful (and violent) open world action-adventure series  Originally released on Windows in October 1997 and then on PlayStation in December
    36. 36. 1998: Snake on Nokia Mobile Phones  Snake was a casual video games that originated in arcades during the late 1970s  Snake became the standard pre-loaded game on Nokia mobile phones in 1998  Soon every major phone brand offered “time killer games” that could be played for very short moments
    37. 37. 1999: EverQuest  Developed by Sony's 989 Studios and its early-1999 spin-off Verant Interactive, and published by Sony Online Entertainment (SOE)  Designed by Brad McQuaid, Steve Clover, and Bill Trost  Infamous for its addictive qualities. Many players refer to it as "EverCrack". There has been one well-publicized suicide of an EverQuest user that resulted in his mother founding Online Gamers Anonymous. Everquest Walkthrough
    38. 38. 2000: PopCap Games  Advent of Flash created a boom in web-based casual games  Flagship title Bejeweled has sold more than 50 million units  Founded by John Vechey, Brian Fiete and Jason Kapaika  Now owned by Electronic Arts
    39. 39. 2000: The Sims (Electronic Arts)  Landmark game allowing players to build a virtual world from the ground up  It became the best-selling game in PC history, displacing Myst  Attracted casual gamers and female gamers (who made up 60% of its players  Designed by Will Wright (creator of SimCity) of Maxis
    40. 40. 2004: World of Warcraft (Blizzard)  Legitimized the entire genre of massively multiplayer online games  Perfected the rules and experience of MMOs  Designed by Rob Pardo, Jeff Kaplan, Tom Chilton
    41. 41. 2007: Zynga  Known for its line of Facebook social games, especially Farmville (2009)  Founded by Marc Pinkus and others. Don Mattrick is current CEO  Approached $1B in revenue in 2011, surpassing market value of Electronic Arts  Began trading on NASDAQ in 2011. Stock market price has since plummeted
    42. 42. 2007: iPhone (Apple)  Fundamentally changed the mobile phone industry by being designed to handle other tasks, such as gaming, beyond communications  App Store becomes digital distribution store for iOS games

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