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Level 5
David Mullich
Survey of the Videogame Industry
The Los Angeles Film School
1947: Cathode Ray Tube
Amusement Device
 Earliest known interactive
electronic game
 Missile simulator using
analog circ...
1951: Baer’s Idea for Interactive
Television
 Inventor Ralph Baer realizes
that by giving audience the
ability to control...
1966: First Video Game
Displayed on Television
 Baer and Bill Harrison, a
co-worker at electronics
contractor Sanders
Ass...
1968: The First Video Game
Console
 Work is completed on a
prototype, which Baer called
“The Brown Box”, that could
play ...
Rise of the Video Game: Ralph Baer (2:56)
Ralph Baer
Arcade Games
G4 Icons Episode #26: Arcade (22:45)
1966: Sega’s Periscope
Worldwide Success
 Sega introduces electro-
mechanical game called
Periscope, a submarine
simulato...
1969: Duck Hunt
 Sega produces gun games
similar to first-person
shooters
 Electro-mechanical game
using rear image proj...
1969: Missile
 Sega releases Missile, a
shooter and vehicle
combat simulation
featuring electronic
sound and a moving fil...
1971: First Coin-Op Arcade
Video Game
 Students at Stanford
University set up the
Galaxy Game, a coin-
operated version o...
1971: First Commercially Sold
Arcade Game
 Computer Space was
created by Nolan Bushnell
and Ted Dabney, and
released by N...
1972: Nolan Bushnell Forms
Atari and Creates Pong
 Nolan Bushnell and Ted
Dabney form Atari, although
Nolan buys Dabney o...
1972: Magnavox Odyssey
 US television manufacturer
Magnavox signs deal to sell
Ralph Baer’s “Brown Box”
console system un...
1975: Atari/Sears Tele-Games
Home Pong
 Atari engineer teams up
with Pong inventor Alcorn
to create a home version
of the...
1976: Coleco Telestar
 Series of 14 consoles
produced from 1976 to
1978
 Console had two paddle
controllers and the firs...
1977: Nintendo Color TV Game
 Nintendo’s first entry into
the videogame industry
was securing rights to
distribute the Ma...
Video Game Crash of 1977
 Pong “clones” had flooded
the market and
manufacturers sold older,
obsolete clones at a loss
 ...
1978: Space Invaders
(Taito/Midway)
 Designed by Tomohiro
Nishikado
 Manufactured by Taito in Japan
and later licensed t...
1979: Asteroids (Atari)
 One of the most
popular and influential
games of the Golden
Age
 70,000 arcade
cabinets sold,
b...
1980: Pac-Man (Namco/Midway)
 Sold by Namco in Japan
and sold by Midway in the
US
 Established the maze chase
genre, whi...
1981: Donkey Kong (Nintendo)
 Nintendo’s first big hit!
 Designed by first-time game
designer Shigeru Miyamoto
 Laid fo...
1982: Tron (Bally Midway)
 Based on the Walt
Disney film “Tron”
released that same year
 Consisted of four mini-
games b...
1983: Dragon’s Lair
(Cinematronics)
 Laserdisc video game
featuring animation
created by ex-Disney
animator Don Bluth
 O...
1976: Fairchild Channel F
 First programmable ROM
cartridge–based video game
console, and the first
console to use a
micr...
1977: Atari 2600
 Popularized use of
microprocessor-based
hardware and ROM cartridges
containing game code by being
super...
1979: Activision Founded
 Formed by disgruntled Atari
game designers who failed to
convince Atari to pay them
royalties a...
1980: Mattel Intellivision
 Introduced by Mattel
toy company in 1989
 Featured unique
processor allowing
superior graphi...
1982: ColecoVision
 A powerful machine with
near-arcade-quality
graphics
 Catalog of about 145
game titles
 Licensed Ni...
Video Game Crash of 1983
 Massive recession of the
videogame industry lasting from
1983 to 1985
 Revenues that had peake...
Video Game Crash of 1983
G4 Icons Episode #32: The Video Game
Crash (22:45)
1983: Nintendo Entertainment
System (NES)
 Released in Japan as the
Famicom (Family Computer)
 First console of the 8-bi...
1985: Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo)
 Designer Shigeru
Miyamoto’s first home
console game
 The standard to which all 2D
pl...
1985: Sega Master System
 Released as a direct
competitor to the NES,
starting the Console Wars
 Could play both cartrid...
1986: Atari 7800
 Originally announced in
1984 but release was
shelved due to sale of the
company
 When released in 1986...
1986: The Legend of Zelda
(Nintendo)
 Created by game
designers Shigeru
Miyamoto and Takashi
Tezuka
 Gameplay consists o...
1987: Final Fantasy (Square)
 Conceived by designer
Hironobu Sakaguchi as his
“final” effort in the video
game industry
...
1987: Metal Gear (Konami / Ultra
Games)
 Originally created for
the MSX2 in Japan by
first-time video game
designer Hideo...
1989: Nintendo GameBoy
 8-bit handheld video game
device released in Japan and
North America in 1989
 The popular puzzle...
1987: TurboGrafx-16
Entertainment SuperSystem
 Released in Japan as the PC
Engine in 1987 and in North
America two years ...
1988: Sega Genesis
 Released in Japan in 1988
as the Sega Mega Drive,
and in North America in
1989 under the name
Genesis...
1990: Neo-Geo
 SNK’s NEO-GEO was
capable of 2D graphics
at a quality level years
ahead of other consoles
because it had t...
1990: Super NES
 Released in Japan in
1990 as Super Famicom,
and in North America in
1990
 Introduced advanced
graphics ...
1993: Atari Jaguar
 Marketed as the first 64-
bit gaming system
 Proved to be a
commercial failure due to
its small libr...
1993: 3DO Interactive
Multiplayer
 Conceived by Electronic
Arts founder Trip Hawkins
 The 3DO Company
licensed the techn...
1994: Sega Saturn
 Released by Sega in
1994 in Japan and
1995 in North America
 Sold 9.4 million units
worldwide
 Insta...
1994: Sony PlayStation
 Released by Sony in 1994
in Japan and 1995 in North
America
 First “computer
entertainment platf...
1996: Nintendo 64
 Released by Nintendo in
1996 in both Japan and
North America
 Suggested retail price
was $199.99 at l...
1997: GoldenEye (Nintendo)
 Nintendo 64 title principally
made by a team who had
never coded a video game
before
 Direct...
1998: Sega Dreamcast
 Launched by Sega in Japan in 1998
and other territories in 1999
 Intended as a comeback after
prev...
2000: PlayStation 2
 Released by Sony in all
territories in 2000
 Featured DVD-base game
disks with the ability to play
...
2001: Nintendo GameCube
 Released by Nintendo in all
territories in 2001
 Nintendo’s first optical disc-
based console u...
2001: Xbox
 Released by Microsoft
in North America in
2001 and in other
territories in 2002
 Microsoft’s first entry in
...
2005: Xbox 360
 Microsoft unveiled the
Xbox 360 on MTV in
2005
 Major features include
integrated Xbox Live
service that...
2006: PlayStation 3
 First released by Sony
in 2006 in Japan and in
other territories shortly
thereafter
 First console ...
2006: Wii
 First released by Nintendo
in 2006
 Wii Remote can be used
as a handheld pointing
device and detects
movement...
Nintendo’s Vision
 Make games for an expanded
audience
 Devotion to entertainment
business
 Willingness to take risks
S...
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
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LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games

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Lecture for Level 5 of The Los Angeles Film School's Survey of the Videogame Industry course.

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LAFS SVI Level 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games

  1. 1. Level 5 David Mullich Survey of the Videogame Industry The Los Angeles Film School
  2. 2. 1947: Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device  Earliest known interactive electronic game  Missile simulator using analog circuitry to control the CRT beam and position a dot on the screen  Patent filed by Thomas T. Goldsmith and Estle Ray Mann in 1947 and filed in 1948 Circuitry schematic of Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device
  3. 3. 1951: Baer’s Idea for Interactive Television  Inventor Ralph Baer realizes that by giving audience the ability to control what was projected on their television set, their role changes from passive observing to interactive manipulation  Bear’s boss at electronics company Loral dismisses the idea because they’re behind schedule  Baer later becomes known as “The Father of Video Games” Ralph Baer (left) receives the National Medal of Technology from former president George W. Bush (right)
  4. 4. 1966: First Video Game Displayed on Television  Baer and Bill Harrison, a co-worker at electronics contractor Sanders Associates create a game called Chase, the first to display on a standard television set  Harrison, with Baer’s help, creates a light gun, the first video game peripheralBill Harrison, co-creator of the first video game for television
  5. 5. 1968: The First Video Game Console  Work is completed on a prototype, which Baer called “The Brown Box”, that could play several different games such as table tennis and target shooting  By 1969, Sanders shows off the world’s first home video game console to manufacturers  This console would eventually become the Magnavox Odyssey Brown Box prototype now on display at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History
  6. 6. Rise of the Video Game: Ralph Baer (2:56) Ralph Baer
  7. 7. Arcade Games G4 Icons Episode #26: Arcade (22:45)
  8. 8. 1966: Sega’s Periscope Worldwide Success  Sega introduces electro- mechanical game called Periscope, a submarine simulator and light gun shooter  Huge success in Japan, Europe and North America  First arcade machine to cost a quarter to play
  9. 9. 1969: Duck Hunt  Sega produces gun games similar to first-person shooters  Electro-mechanical game using rear image projection to produce moving images on screen  First of these was Duck Hunt featuring animated moving targets, score printed on ticket, and volume-controlled sound effects
  10. 10. 1969: Missile  Sega releases Missile, a shooter and vehicle combat simulation featuring electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent targets on a projection screen  Earliest known arcade game to feature a joystick with a fire button
  11. 11. 1971: First Coin-Op Arcade Video Game  Students at Stanford University set up the Galaxy Game, a coin- operated version of SpaceWar!  Earliest known instance of a coin- operated video game  Console incorporated a DEC PDP-11/20 with vector displays
  12. 12. 1971: First Commercially Sold Arcade Game  Computer Space was created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, and released by Nutting Associates in November 1971  World’s first commercially sold coin-operated video arcade game  Display is rendered on a specially modified General Electric 15" black-and-white portable television vacuum tube set
  13. 13. 1972: Nolan Bushnell Forms Atari and Creates Pong  Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney form Atari, although Nolan buys Dabney out soon afterwards  Atari hires engineer Allan Alcorn as its first employee, who creates coin-op version of the Magnavox tennis game  Pong is so successful in bringing video games to the masses that Atari is credited with creating the coin-op video arcade industryAtari founder Nolan Bushnell and Pong
  14. 14. 1972: Magnavox Odyssey  US television manufacturer Magnavox signs deal to sell Ralph Baer’s “Brown Box” console system under the name Magnavox Odyssey  Alternations include using plug-in circuits to change games and using color overlays for game backgrounds  Released with 27 games including Simon Says, Table Tennis, Volleyball and Shooting Gallery  330,000 units sold Magnavox Odyssey
  15. 15. 1975: Atari/Sears Tele-Games Home Pong  Atari engineer teams up with Pong inventor Alcorn to create a home version of the coin-op game  Home Pong becomes Sears most successful product at the time, selling 150,000 units during the holiday season  Magnavox sues Atari, but settles out of court with Atari becoming a Magnavox licensee Atari/Sears Tele-Games Home Pong
  16. 16. 1976: Coleco Telestar  Series of 14 consoles produced from 1976 to 1978  Console had two paddle controllers and the first to use General Instrument's AY-3-8500 chip, a processor that had 6 games: Tennis, Soccer, Squash, Practice, and Rifle Game (1 and 2 player versions)  One million Telestar units sold Coleco Telestar
  17. 17. 1977: Nintendo Color TV Game  Nintendo’s first entry into the videogame industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey in 1974  Beginning in 1977, Nintendo produced a series of four dedicated home consoles for the Japanese market  Three million Color TV Game units sold Nintendo Color TV Game
  18. 18. Video Game Crash of 1977  Pong “clones” had flooded the market and manufacturers sold older, obsolete clones at a loss  Many manufacturers abandoned their console game business, leaving only Atari and Magnavox  Crash came to an end with the success of Taito’s Space Invaders in 1978
  19. 19. 1978: Space Invaders (Taito/Midway)  Designed by Tomohiro Nishikado  Manufactured by Taito in Japan and later licensed to Midway in the US  By 1981, the game grossed over $1 Billion, making it the best-selling entertainment product of its time  Inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls  Considered to have started The Golden Age of Arcade Games
  20. 20. 1979: Asteroids (Atari)  One of the most popular and influential games of the Golden Age  70,000 arcade cabinets sold, becoming Atari’s best- selling game of all time
  21. 21. 1980: Pac-Man (Namco/Midway)  Sold by Namco in Japan and sold by Midway in the US  Established the maze chase genre, which appealed to both men and women  Introduced the first gaming mascot, power-ups and cut- scenes  Considered a video game classic and an icon of 1980s pop culture
  22. 22. 1981: Donkey Kong (Nintendo)  Nintendo’s first big hit!  Designed by first-time game designer Shigeru Miyamoto  Laid foundations for platform game genre as well as for visual storytelling in video games  Introduced Mario (originally called “Jumpman”, the character who would become Nintendo’s mascot  Enormously successful in Japan and North America
  23. 23. 1982: Tron (Bally Midway)  Based on the Walt Disney film “Tron” released that same year  Consisted of four mini- games based on scenes from the film  The game earned more money than the film’s initial release
  24. 24. 1983: Dragon’s Lair (Cinematronics)  Laserdisc video game featuring animation created by ex-Disney animator Don Bluth  One of only three video games (along with Pong and Pac-Man) on display in the Smithsonian Institution Dirk the Daring, hero of Dragon’s Lair
  25. 25. 1976: Fairchild Channel F  First programmable ROM cartridge–based video game console, and the first console to use a microprocessor  Contained two built-in games, Hockey and Tennis, with 27 additional Videocarts  Spurred Atari into improving and releasing their Atari VCS gaming system, which was still in development  250,000 units sold Fairchild Channel F Promotional Poster
  26. 26. 1977: Atari 2600  Popularized use of microprocessor-based hardware and ROM cartridges containing game code by being superior to the Fairchild  Originally named the Atari VCS  Typically bundled with two joystick controllers, pair of game paddles, and the game Combat (later Pac-Man)  30 million units sold, and considered one of the greatest game consoles of all time  This is the system that brought video games into the home. Atari 2600
  27. 27. 1979: Activision Founded  Formed by disgruntled Atari game designers who failed to convince Atari to pay them royalties and give them credit on game boxes  Became the first third-party developer of video games  Promoted game creators along with the games themselves  In 1982, released Pitfall!, a best-selling title on the Atari 2600 In 1982, Activision releases Pitfall for the Atari 2600
  28. 28. 1980: Mattel Intellivision  Introduced by Mattel toy company in 1989  Featured unique processor allowing superior graphics to the older Atari 2600  More than 125 games released  Sold 3 million units Mattel Intellivision
  29. 29. 1982: ColecoVision  A powerful machine with near-arcade-quality graphics  Catalog of about 145 game titles  Licensed Nintendo’s Donkey Kong as the official pack-in cartridge, which was received as a near-perfect arcade port ColecoVision “The arcade quality video game system”
  30. 30. Video Game Crash of 1983  Massive recession of the videogame industry lasting from 1983 to 1985  Revenues that had peaked at $3.2 billion in 1983 fell to $100 million by 1985, almost destroying the industry  Crash blamed on a glut of low- quality video games, flooded console market, and competition from home computers High-profile failures like the ET-The Extraterrestrial video game contributed to the crash
  31. 31. Video Game Crash of 1983 G4 Icons Episode #32: The Video Game Crash (22:45)
  32. 32. 1983: Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)  Released in Japan as the Famicom (Family Computer)  First console of the 8-bit era, with tile and sprite-based graphics  Introduced the gamepad  Nintendo introduced now- standard business model of licensing third-party developers  Longest production run of any console (1983-2003) and credited with ending the Video Game Crash of 1983  Considered the greatest video game console in history NES gamepad controller
  33. 33. 1985: Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo)  Designer Shigeru Miyamoto’s first home console game  The standard to which all 2D platformers would be judged!  “Jumpman” renamed Mario  Sold 40.24 million copies, making it the best-selling video game in the Mario series and the fifth best- selling game ever  Ensured Nintendo’s dominance over the console market with the NESDesign Club - Super Mario Bros: Level 1-1
  34. 34. 1985: Sega Master System  Released as a direct competitor to the NES, starting the Console Wars  Could play both cartridges and credit card-sized “Sega cards”  Although technically superior to the NES, it failed to overturn Nintendo’s market share in Japan and North America  Small game library, coupled with the highly uneven quality of the few games released Sega Master System with Light Gun
  35. 35. 1986: Atari 7800  Originally announced in 1984 but release was shelved due to sale of the company  When released in 1986, it had simple dual joysticks and was almost fully backward compatible with the Atari 2600  Considered affordable at $140Atari 7800 ProSystem
  36. 36. 1986: The Legend of Zelda (Nintendo)  Created by game designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka  Gameplay consists of a mixture of action, adventure, and puzzle solving  Original game is the fourth best-selling NES game of all time  Series consists of 16 games, with a total of 67.9 million copies The Legend of Zelda for NES
  37. 37. 1987: Final Fantasy (Square)  Conceived by designer Hironobu Sakaguchi as his “final” effort in the video game industry  RPG that introduced a side- view perspective of combat, evolving class-change system, and different modes of transportation  Regarded as one of the most influential early RPG’s and launched a series that has sold over 100 million unitsFinal Fantasy for NES
  38. 38. 1987: Metal Gear (Konami / Ultra Games)  Originally created for the MSX2 in Japan by first-time video game designer Hideo Kojima  Considered to be the progenitor of the stealth game genre  Ported to the NES and sold in US by Konami’s Ultra GamesMetal Gear for NES
  39. 39. 1989: Nintendo GameBoy  8-bit handheld video game device released in Japan and North America in 1989  The popular puzzle game Tetris was included with the system  It was a tremendous success. The Game Boy and its successor, the Game Boy Color, sold a combined 118 million units worldwide  Made play portable and helped gamers to stick with Nintendo rather than Sega Nintendo GameBoy with Tetris
  40. 40. 1987: TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem  Released in Japan as the PC Engine in 1987 and in North America two years later  First console of the 16-bit era, although it had a 8-bit processor with dual 16-bit GPU capable of producing 482 colors simultaneously  CD-ROMS were introduced in this generation as add-ons  Suffered from a lack of third- party support and the absence of a second controller port TurboGrafx-16
  41. 41. 1988: Sega Genesis  Released in Japan in 1988 as the Sega Mega Drive, and in North America in 1989 under the name Genesis  Sega’s most successful game console  Controversy over violent games like Mortal Combat forced Sega to create the first video game rating system, allowing it to ship games with little censorship and giving it a competitive edge over Nintendo Sega Genesis
  42. 42. 1990: Neo-Geo  SNK’s NEO-GEO was capable of 2D graphics at a quality level years ahead of other consoles because it had the same hardware as SNK’s arcade games  However, it was also the most expensive console at the time by a wide margin Neo-Geo
  43. 43. 1990: Super NES  Released in Japan in 1990 as Super Famicom, and in North America in 1990  Introduced advanced graphics and sounds and was able to run some of the first three- dimensional video games on consoles  Became the best-selling console of the 16-bit era despite its late start and fierce competition Super NES
  44. 44. 1993: Atari Jaguar  Marketed as the first 64- bit gaming system  Proved to be a commercial failure due to its small library of games and prompted Atari to leave the home video game console market  Last console from an American company until the 2001 introduction of the X-BoxAtari Jaguar
  45. 45. 1993: 3DO Interactive Multiplayer  Conceived by Electronic Arts founder Trip Hawkins  The 3DO Company licensed the technology for other manufactures, such as Panasonic, to produced  Despite a highly promoted launch (including being named Time magazine’s “1994 Product of the Year”) its high price of $699 was one of the factors that prevented it from achieving success 3DO Interactive Multiplayer
  46. 46. 1994: Sega Saturn  Released by Sega in 1994 in Japan and 1995 in North America  Sold 9.4 million units worldwide  Installed base was 6 million units in Japan but only 2 million in the US, losing market share to its competitorsSega Saturn
  47. 47. 1994: Sony PlayStation  Released by Sony in 1994 in Japan and 1995 in North America  First “computer entertainment platform” to ship 100 million units  The best selling console of all time from 1998 until 2006, when it was surpassed by the PlayStation 2  Its competitor Nintendo was considered stuck in the past with its use of cartridges and cap on mature-themed games Sony PlayStation
  48. 48. 1996: Nintendo 64  Released by Nintendo in 1996 in both Japan and North America  Suggested retail price was $199.99 at launch and sold 32.93 million units worldwide  Time Magazine named it “1996 Machine of the Year” despite having a limited texture cache and still relying on ROM cartridges Nintendo 64
  49. 49. 1997: GoldenEye (Nintendo)  Nintendo 64 title principally made by a team who had never coded a video game before  Directed by Martin Hollis of Rare and published by Nintendo  Multiplayer deathmatch mode considered one of the most enjoyable multiplayer experiences ever  Sold 8 million units worldwide, making it the third best selling Nintendo 64 game
  50. 50. 1998: Sega Dreamcast  Launched by Sega in Japan in 1998 and other territories in 1999  Intended as a comeback after previous efforts with the Sega Saturn failed  First console with a built-in modem and internet support for online play  Despite it being initially well received, sales plummeted when the PlayStation 2 was announced and the system was discontinued in 2001 Sega Dreamcast
  51. 51. 2000: PlayStation 2  Released by Sony in all territories in 2000  Featured DVD-base game disks with the ability to play DVD movies and audio CD’s  More than 3,800 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch  It is the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 150 million units, winning the Console Wars Sony PlayStation 2
  52. 52. 2001: Nintendo GameCube  Released by Nintendo in all territories in 2001  Nintendo’s first optical disc- based console using 80mm “mini-DVD”’s (but couldn’t play standard DVD’s or audio CD’s)  First Nintendo to support online gaming  Criticized for its color scheme and lack of features  Sold 22 million units worldwide before being discontinued in 2007 Nintendo GameCube
  53. 53. 2001: Xbox  Released by Microsoft in North America in 2001 and in other territories in 2002  Microsoft’s first entry in the console market, and first American console since the Atari Jaguar  In 2002, Microsoft launched Xbox live, a fee-based online gaming system Microsoft Xbox
  54. 54. 2005: Xbox 360  Microsoft unveiled the Xbox 360 on MTV in 2005  Major features include integrated Xbox Live service that allows players to compete online  Windows Media Center multimedia capabilities  Games rendered natively at HD resolutions Xbox 360
  55. 55. 2006: PlayStation 3  First released by Sony in 2006 in Japan and in other territories shortly thereafter  First console to use Blu- ray Disc as its major storage medium  Major features include its unified gaming services, the PlayStation Network PlayStation 3
  56. 56. 2006: Wii  First released by Nintendo in 2006  Wii Remote can be used as a handheld pointing device and detects movement in three dimensions  First console to offer Virtual Console service, with which select emulated games from past systems can be downloadedWii Remote in action
  57. 57. Nintendo’s Vision  Make games for an expanded audience  Devotion to entertainment business  Willingness to take risks Shigeru Miyamoto

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