DEFENSE MECHANISM
PROF. ARNEL A. DIEGO MA.Ed.
Director, Social Sciences Department
THE ID, EGO
AND SUPEREGO
Levels of Consciousness






Conscious: thoughts or
motives that a person is
currently aware of or is
remembering
Prec...
Freudian Theory
Structures of Personality
 Id
 Operates

according to the “pleasure principle”

 Ego
 Operates accordi...
Structure of personality

ID- Pleasure principle
Driven

purely by needs,
wants and desires,
without regard for
consequen...
EGO - Reality
principle

This

follows what is
realistic and includes
all the gray areas of
decision making, or
the justi...
Superego – Morality
Strict

adherence to the rules
that govern society, everything
is either black or white, right or
wr...
Table 12.2 Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development
ANXIETY
ANXIETY


Unpleasant inner state that people seek to avoid. Anxiety acts as a
signal to the ego that things are not going...
Fig. 15.3 Frustration
and common
reactions to it.
 Reactions

to frustration can be both positive
and negative.

 Positive

reactions are realistic and
reasonable ones.

...
DEFENSE
MECHANISM
DEFENSE MECHANISM
 Refer

to unconscious mental processes that
protect the conscious person from
developing anxiety

 Th...
REPRESSION
 Anxiety-evoking

thoughts are
pushed into the unconscious.

 “Repressed

memories” are
memories that have be...
REGRESSION


A reversion to immature
patterns of behavior.



Is the reversion to an
earlier stage of
development in the...


Example: An adolescent who is
overwhelmed with fear, anger and
growing sexual impulses might become
clingy and start ex...
DISPLACEMENT


Substituting a less threatening object
for the original object of impulse.



Involves taking out our fru...
DENIAL


The best known defense
mechanisms.



Denial is an outright refusal to admit
or recognize that something has
oc...
PROJECTION
 Person

attributes their own
unacceptable impulses to
others.



Example: A spouse may
be angry at their sig...
RATIONALIZATION


Involves explaining an
unacceptable behavior or
feeling in a rational or logical
manner, avoiding the t...
SUBLIMATION
 Channeling

of unacceptable
impulses, thoughts and
emotions into more acceptable
ones.



Example: For exam...
REACTION FORMATION


Behaving in a way that is exactly
the opposite of one’s own true
feelings.



Example: a woman who ...
COMPENSATION


Process of psychologically
counterbalancing perceived
weaknesses by emphasizing
strength in other areas.

...
INTELLECTUALIZATION


Intellectualization is the
overemphasis on thinking when
confronted with an unacceptable
impulse, s...
IDENTIFICATION
 Bolstering

self-esteem by
forming an imaginary or
real alliance with some
person or group



Example: A...
GROUP ACTIVITY
 Form

a group with six members only…
 Create a scenario that shows the uses of
different defense mechani...
CRITERIA
 Content

= 40pts
 Organization = 25pts
 Creativity / Acting Skills = 30pts
 Audience Impact = 5pts
REFERENCES
Feldman, Robert S. (2008). Understanding
Psychology (5th edition). Mc Graw Hill
International
Gaerlan, Josefina...
THANK YOU

Therefore I say to you
what ever things you asked,
when you pray believed that you
received them and YOU WILL H...
Module 13   defense mechanism
Module 13   defense mechanism
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  • Psychodynamic theories include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental processes.
    Freud‘s psychoanalytic theory (1901, 1924, 1940) grew out of his decades of interactions with his clients. This theory focuses on the influence of early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and the methods people use to cope with sexual and aggressive urges.
    Freud divided personality into 3 components.
    The id is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification and engages in primary-process thinking (primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented).
    The ego is the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle, seeking to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets can be found, thus mediating between the id and the external world.
    The superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong…the superego emerges out of the ego at around 3-5 years of age.
    Freud’s most enduring insight was his recognition that unconscious forces can influence behavior. Freud theorized that people have 3 levels of awareness, conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
  • Psychodynamic theories include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental processes.
    Freud‘s psychoanalytic theory (1901, 1924, 1940) grew out of his decades of interactions with his clients. This theory focuses on the influence of early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and the methods people use to cope with sexual and aggressive urges.
    Freud divided personality into 3 components.
    The id is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification and engages in primary-process thinking (primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented).
    The ego is the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle, seeking to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets can be found, thus mediating between the id and the external world.
    The superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong…the superego emerges out of the ego at around 3-5 years of age.
    Freud’s most enduring insight was his recognition that unconscious forces can influence behavior. Freud theorized that people have 3 levels of awareness, conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
  • Psychodynamic theories include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental processes.
    Freud‘s psychoanalytic theory (1901, 1924, 1940) grew out of his decades of interactions with his clients. This theory focuses on the influence of early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and the methods people use to cope with sexual and aggressive urges.
    Freud divided personality into 3 components.
    The id is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification and engages in primary-process thinking (primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented).
    The ego is the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle, seeking to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets can be found, thus mediating between the id and the external world.
    The superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong…the superego emerges out of the ego at around 3-5 years of age.
    Freud’s most enduring insight was his recognition that unconscious forces can influence behavior. Freud theorized that people have 3 levels of awareness, conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
  • Module 13 defense mechanism

    1. 1. DEFENSE MECHANISM PROF. ARNEL A. DIEGO MA.Ed. Director, Social Sciences Department
    2. 2. THE ID, EGO AND SUPEREGO
    3. 3. Levels of Consciousness    Conscious: thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering Preconscious: thoughts or motives that one can become aware of easily Unconscious: thoughts or motives that lie beyond a person's normal awareness but that can be made available through psychoanalysis.
    4. 4. Freudian Theory Structures of Personality  Id  Operates according to the “pleasure principle”  Ego  Operates according to the “reality” principle  Superego  Contains values and ideals
    5. 5. Structure of personality ID- Pleasure principle Driven purely by needs, wants and desires, without regard for consequences (I want it and I want it now)
    6. 6. EGO - Reality principle This follows what is realistic and includes all the gray areas of decision making, or the justifications for behavior
    7. 7. Superego – Morality Strict adherence to the rules that govern society, everything is either black or white, right or wrong
    8. 8. Table 12.2 Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development
    9. 9. ANXIETY
    10. 10. ANXIETY  Unpleasant inner state that people seek to avoid. Anxiety acts as a signal to the ego that things are not going right.  Freud identified three types of anxiety:  Neurotic anxiety is the unconscious worry that we will lose control of the id's urges, resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior.  Reality anxiety is fear of real-world events. The cause of this anxiety is usually easily identified. For example, a person might fear receiving a dog bite when they are near a menacing dog. The most common way of reducing this anxiety is to avoid the threatening object.  Moral anxiety involves a fear of violating our own moral principles.
    11. 11. Fig. 15.3 Frustration and common reactions to it.
    12. 12.  Reactions to frustration can be both positive and negative.  Positive reactions are realistic and reasonable ones.  Negative reactions are less realistic and reasonable, those are defensive reactions.
    13. 13. DEFENSE MECHANISM
    14. 14. DEFENSE MECHANISM  Refer to unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from developing anxiety  The defense mechanisms are ways and actions which people use in order to hide their incapability and failure.
    15. 15. REPRESSION  Anxiety-evoking thoughts are pushed into the unconscious.  “Repressed memories” are memories that have been unconsciously blocked from access or view.  Example: A woman is unable to recall that she was raped
    16. 16. REGRESSION  A reversion to immature patterns of behavior.  Is the reversion to an earlier stage of development in the face of unacceptable thoughts or impulses.
    17. 17.  Example: An adolescent who is overwhelmed with fear, anger and growing sexual impulses might become clingy and start exhibiting earlier childhood behaviors such as bedwetting.  A boss has a temper tantrum when an employee makes a mistake Note: An adult may regress when under a great deal of stress, refusing to leave their bed and engage in normal, everyday activities.
    18. 18. DISPLACEMENT  Substituting a less threatening object for the original object of impulse.  Involves taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening.  Example: After parental scolding, a young girl takes her anger out on her little brother
    19. 19. DENIAL  The best known defense mechanisms.  Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring.  Example: Drug addicts or alcoholics often deny that they have a problem or an employee deny that the wages he received is not fair
    20. 20. PROJECTION  Person attributes their own unacceptable impulses to others.  Example: A spouse may be angry at their significant other for not listening, when in fact it is the angry spouse who does not listen.
    21. 21. RATIONALIZATION  Involves explaining an unacceptable behavior or feeling in a rational or logical manner, avoiding the true reasons for the behavior.  Example: Ian goes out of drinking the night before a big test rationalize his behavior by saying “the test isn't all that important”
    22. 22. SUBLIMATION  Channeling of unacceptable impulses, thoughts and emotions into more acceptable ones.  Example: For example, a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration or a person with strong feeling of aggression becomes a soldier
    23. 23. REACTION FORMATION  Behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one’s own true feelings.  Example: a woman who is very angry with her boss and would like to quit her job may instead be overly kind and generous toward her boss and express a desire to keep working there forever.
    24. 24. COMPENSATION  Process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weaknesses by emphasizing strength in other areas.  For instance, when a person says, “I may not know how to cook, but I can sure do the dishes!,”
    25. 25. INTELLECTUALIZATION  Intellectualization is the overemphasis on thinking when confronted with an unacceptable impulse, situation or behavior without employing any emotions.  Example: a person who has just been given a terminal medical diagnosis, instead of expressing their sadness and grief, focuses instead on the details of all possible fruitless medical procedures.
    26. 26. IDENTIFICATION  Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group  Example: An insecure young man joins a fraternity to boost his self-esteem
    27. 27. GROUP ACTIVITY  Form a group with six members only…  Create a scenario that shows the uses of different defense mechanism (preparation time: 10 minutes).  Act / present it on class (3 – 5 minutes only).
    28. 28. CRITERIA  Content = 40pts  Organization = 25pts  Creativity / Acting Skills = 30pts  Audience Impact = 5pts
    29. 29. REFERENCES Feldman, Robert S. (2008). Understanding Psychology (5th edition). Mc Graw Hill International Gaerlan, Josefina, Limpingco Delia & Tria Geraldine. General Psychology (5th edition). Ken Incorporated
    30. 30. THANK YOU Therefore I say to you what ever things you asked, when you pray believed that you received them and YOU WILL HAVE THEM.. MARK 11:24

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