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Presentation 20 october 2010

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Presentation 20 october 2010

  1. 1. Urbanization Trends inUrbanization Trends in IndiaIndia Rakesh GuptaRakesh Gupta Indian Institute of Public AdministrationIndian Institute of Public Administration
  2. 2. ContentsContents UrbanizationUrbanization Variations in Rural and Urban PopulationVariations in Rural and Urban Population Urban Infrastructure and Service DeliveryUrban Infrastructure and Service Delivery Urban Policy in Five Year PlansUrban Policy in Five Year Plans
  3. 3. What’s ‘Urban’?What’s ‘Urban’? That possesses a Local Authority Like:That possesses a Local Authority Like: Municipal Corporation, Municipal Boards,Municipal Corporation, Municipal Boards, Cantonment Board, Notified AreaCantonment Board, Notified Area Committee or Town Area Committee.Committee or Town Area Committee. Minimum Population of 5,000;Minimum Population of 5,000; Density of 400 persons/S.Q.KM: andDensity of 400 persons/S.Q.KM: and
  4. 4. 75% of Male working population is75% of Male working population is engaged in non-Agricultural Pursuitsengaged in non-Agricultural Pursuits State Government can declare a place asState Government can declare a place as urban if it has pronounced urbanurban if it has pronounced urban characteristics and amenities as the newlycharacteristics and amenities as the newly founded industrial areas, large housingfounded industrial areas, large housing settlements or places of touristssettlements or places of tourists importance usually have.importance usually have. What’s ‘Urban’?What’s ‘Urban’? …..Continued…..Continued
  5. 5. Variation in Rural Urban Population 1901-Variation in Rural Urban Population 1901- 20012001 YearYear Population (Million)Population (Million) RuralRural UrbanUrban TotalTotal No. UANo. UA TownsTowns Percentage Increase in Population -91Percentage Increase in Population -91 RuralRural UrbanUrban TotalTotal UA/UA/ TownsTowns 19011901 212.48212.48 25.8525.85 (10.84)(10.84) 238.39238.39 18271827 19411941 274.38274.38 44.1544.15 (13.86)(13.86) 318.66318.66 22502250 29.1329.13 70.7970.79 33.6733.67 23.1523.15 19511951 292.51292.51 62.4462.44 (17.29)(17.29) 361.08361.08 28432843 37.6637.66 141.5141.5 51.51. 4747 55.6155.61 19611961 360.14360.14 78.9378.93 (17.96)(17.96) 438.23438.23 23652365 69.4969.49 205.3205.3 82.8382.83 29.4529.45 19711971 438.85438.85 109.11109.11 (19.91)(19.91) 548.15548.15 25902590 106.54106.54 322.1322.1 129.94129.94 41.7641.76 19811981 525.45525.45 159.46159.46 (23.34)(23.34) 685.18685.18 35783578 147.29147.29 517.9517.9 187.42187.42 84.8984.89 19911991 627.14627.14 217.17217.17 (25.72)(25.72) 844.32844.32 37683768 195.15195.15 740.1740.1 254.17254.17 106.24106.24 20012001 741.66741.66 285.35285.35 (27.78)(27.78) 1027.021027.02 51615161 249.05249.05 10041004 330.82330.82 182.48182.48
  6. 6. Slum population in Million Plus CitiesSlum population in Million Plus Cities Name of CityName of City Population 2001Population 2001 Slum Population as % ofSlum Population as % of Urban PopulationUrban Population Gr. MumbaiGr. Mumbai 11,914,39811,914,398 48.8848.88 DelhiDelhi 9,817,4399,817,439 18.8918.89 KolkataKolkata 4,980,5444,980,544 32.5532.55 BangaluruBangaluru 4,292,2234,292,223 8.048.04 ChennaiChennai 4,216,2684,216,268 25.6025.60 AhmedabadAhmedabad 3,515,3613,515,361 12.5112.51 HyderabadHyderabad 3,449,8783,449,878 17.4317.43 PunePune 2,540,0692,540,069 20.9220.92 KanpurKanpur 2,532,1382,532,138 14.5714.57 SuratSurat 2,433,7872,433,787 16.6816.68 JaipurJaipur 2,324,3192,324,319 15.0715.07
  7. 7. Slum population in Million Plus CitiesSlum population in Million Plus Cities Contd……Contd…… Nagpur 2,051,320 35.42 Indore 1,597,441 16.25 Bhopal 1,433,875 8.81 Ludhiana 1,395,053 22.56 Patna 1,376,950 0.25 Vadodara 1,306,035 8.21 Lucknow 2,207,340 NA Agra 1,259,979 9.67 Kochi 596,473 1.32 Varanasi 1,100,748 12.55 Nashik 1,076,967 13.21 Meerut 1,074,229 43.87
  8. 8. Slum population in Million Plus CitiesSlum population in Million Plus Cities Contd……Contd…… Faridabad 1,054,981 46.55 Coimbatire 923,085 6.49 Madurai 922,913 19.06 Vishakhapatnam 969,608 17.65 Jabalpur 951,469 28.95 Jamshedpur 570,349 NA Asansol 486,304 NA Dhanbad 198,963 NA Allahabad 990,298 NA Amritsur 975,695 NA Vijaywada 825,436 39.97 Rajkot 966,642 15.57
  9. 9. Urbanisation & Decadel GrowthUrbanisation & Decadel Growth Population in CrorePopulation in Crore Year Total Population No. of towns & UAs Urban Population ( U P) Share of U P to Total Population Decadal Growth of U P (%) Index of UP(Base1 951=100 1951 36.11 2843 6.24 17.3 41.4 100 1961 43.92 2365 7.89 18.0 26.4 126 1971 54.81 2590 10.91 19.9 38.2 175 1981 68.33 3378 15.95 23.3 46.1 256 1991 84.63 3768 21.76 25.7 36.4 349 2001 102.86 5161 28.61 27.8 31.3 458
  10. 10. Infrastructure and ServiceInfrastructure and Service DeliveryDelivery WaterWater According to 54th round of National SampleAccording to 54th round of National Sample Survey, 70% of urban households reportedSurvey, 70% of urban households reported being served by tap and 21% by Tube well orbeing served by tap and 21% by Tube well or hand pump.hand pump. 66% of urban households reported having their66% of urban households reported having their principal source of water within their premisesprincipal source of water within their premises while 32% had it within 0.2 Km.while 32% had it within 0.2 Km. 41% had sole access to their principal source of41% had sole access to their principal source of drinking water and 59% were sharing a publicdrinking water and 59% were sharing a public source.source.
  11. 11. Infrastructure and ServiceInfrastructure and Service DeliveryDelivery (….continued)(….continued) Solid WasteSolid Waste 71% of urban households reported removal of household waste by71% of urban households reported removal of household waste by household members themselves, 14% by Local Authorities, 12% byhousehold members themselves, 14% by Local Authorities, 12% by private agreement among residents.private agreement among residents. 47% of urban households reported removing of their wastes to47% of urban households reported removing of their wastes to community dumping spot and 30% to individual dumping spot.community dumping spot and 30% to individual dumping spot. The solid waste generated by the million plus cities ranges fromThe solid waste generated by the million plus cities ranges from 1200 metric tones per day in cities like Ahmedabad and Pune to a1200 metric tones per day in cities like Ahmedabad and Pune to a maximum of 5000-5500 metric tones per day in cities like Delhi andmaximum of 5000-5500 metric tones per day in cities like Delhi and Mumbai.Mumbai. Out of total waste generated in the million plus cities hardly 30% isOut of total waste generated in the million plus cities hardly 30% is treated before disposal.treated before disposal. The per capita solid waste generation ranges from 300 gm inThe per capita solid waste generation ranges from 300 gm in Bangalore to 500-550 gm in Mumbai and Delhi.Bangalore to 500-550 gm in Mumbai and Delhi.
  12. 12. Infrastructure and ServiceInfrastructure and Service DeliveryDelivery (….continued)(….continued) Urban TransportUrban Transport Fare structure of city transport in most of the million plus cities is highlyFare structure of city transport in most of the million plus cities is highly subsidized.subsidized. Public Transport Authorities have to resort to deficit financing and have veryPublic Transport Authorities have to resort to deficit financing and have very little incentive to be cost affective.little incentive to be cost affective. Road network of the million plus cities has problems like inefficient use, poorRoad network of the million plus cities has problems like inefficient use, poor maintenance, poor traffic management and poor enforcement of regulationsmaintenance, poor traffic management and poor enforcement of regulations on parking and encroachments on right-of-way.on parking and encroachments on right-of-way. High proportion of traffic is slow moving.High proportion of traffic is slow moving. High traffic volumes and low road capacities lead to high volume / capacityHigh traffic volumes and low road capacities lead to high volume / capacity ratios for most of the road networks in million plus cities.ratios for most of the road networks in million plus cities. The share of public transport in mega cities is Mumbai 88%, Kolkata 79%,The share of public transport in mega cities is Mumbai 88%, Kolkata 79%, Chennai 67% and Delhi 62%.Chennai 67% and Delhi 62%. The share of urban suburban railway is Mumbai (44%). Kolkata (14%),The share of urban suburban railway is Mumbai (44%). Kolkata (14%), Chennai (16%) and Delhi (1%).Chennai (16%) and Delhi (1%). With the introduction of metro in Delhi, the share of passenger trips byWith the introduction of metro in Delhi, the share of passenger trips by metro is likely to increase substantially with the completion of phase I and II.metro is likely to increase substantially with the completion of phase I and II.
  13. 13. Urban Policy during the Five Year PlansUrban Policy during the Five Year Plans 1951 – 61—1951 – 61— Housing provided the beacon for policyHousing provided the beacon for policy formulation.formulation. Search for the techniques and solutions.Search for the techniques and solutions. Thrust shifted to urban & regional planning.Thrust shifted to urban & regional planning. Housing was treated as part of wider process ofHousing was treated as part of wider process of planning urban and regional areas.planning urban and regional areas. Slum clearance was also adopted as an instrumentSlum clearance was also adopted as an instrument of urban policy.of urban policy.
  14. 14. 1961 – 69 –1961 – 69 – Emphasis shifted from narrow focus on housing toEmphasis shifted from narrow focus on housing to urbanizationurbanization Strengthening of civic administration predominantlyStrengthening of civic administration predominantly emphasizedemphasized ……....ContinuedContinued Urban Policy during the Five Year PlansUrban Policy during the Five Year Plans
  15. 15. 1969 – 79 ----1969 – 79 ---- Notion of equity was introducedNotion of equity was introduced Policies of dispersal adoptedPolicies of dispersal adopted Building of State Capitals adoptedBuilding of State Capitals adopted Policy for EIUS introducedPolicy for EIUS introduced Sites and Services Scheme adoptedSites and Services Scheme adopted Integrated urban development became the major policyIntegrated urban development became the major policy issue: IUDPs preparedissue: IUDPs prepared Habitat 1976 brought focus on ‘Welfare’ in urban policyHabitat 1976 brought focus on ‘Welfare’ in urban policy Environmental protection and socio economic justiceEnvironmental protection and socio economic justice emerged as new facets of development policy.emerged as new facets of development policy. ……....ContinuedContinued Urban Policy during the Five Year PlansUrban Policy during the Five Year Plans
  16. 16. 1980 – 90 ---1980 – 90 --- Thrust on urban policies that are complementary toThrust on urban policies that are complementary to rural development.rural development. IDSMT Scheme introducedIDSMT Scheme introduced Emphasis shifted from Government action toEmphasis shifted from Government action to people’s participationpeople’s participation Problems of urban poor was recognizedProblems of urban poor was recognized Urban Basic Services Scheme (UBS) introducedUrban Basic Services Scheme (UBS) introduced ……....ContinuedContinued Urban Policy during the Five Year PlansUrban Policy during the Five Year Plans
  17. 17. 1992 – 2002 ---1992 – 2002 --- UBS modified as UBSP of 600 towns 329 identifiedUBS modified as UBSP of 600 towns 329 identified as GEMS;15 AGROCLIMATIC Regions, 80 ruralas GEMS;15 AGROCLIMATIC Regions, 80 rural regionsregions Macro strategy of urban development with urbanMacro strategy of urban development with urban rural linkages: IDSMTrural linkages: IDSMT PrivatizationPrivatization Urban poverty alleviation programs continuedUrban poverty alleviation programs continued Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojna introducedSwarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojna introduced – Urban Self Employment ProgramUrban Self Employment Program – Urban Wage Employment ProgramUrban Wage Employment Program ……....ContinuedContinued Urban Policy during the Five Year PlansUrban Policy during the Five Year Plans
  18. 18. 2002 – 2007 ---2002 – 2007 --- Strengthening of ULBs for infrastructureStrengthening of ULBs for infrastructure development (CCF,URIF)development (CCF,URIF) Public Private PartnershipsPublic Private Partnerships Finance of ULBs to be strengthened throughFinance of ULBs to be strengthened through smooth working of SFCssmooth working of SFCs JNNURM was launched for overall development ofJNNURM was launched for overall development of selected 63 cities.selected 63 cities. Strengthening the autonomy of ULBsStrengthening the autonomy of ULBs – FunctionalFunctional – Financial (improving the debt – servicing capabilitiesFinancial (improving the debt – servicing capabilities ……....ContinuedContinued Urban Policy during the Five Year PlansUrban Policy during the Five Year Plans
  19. 19. Thank You!Thank You!

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