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Humanside of project management


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dead horse, challenges in getting manpower, project life cycle

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Humanside of project management

  1. 1. Human side of Project Management
  2. 2. 1. Buying a stronger whip. 2. Changing riders. 3. Appointing a committee to study the horse. 4. Arranging to visit to see how they ride horses. 5. Imparting training to increase riding ability. 6. Have the lawyers bring suit against the horse producer Winning a Derby
  3. 3. 7. Promote the horse to a management position. 8. Do a Study to see if contractors can ride it cheaper. 9. Purchase a product to make horses run faster. 10. Revisit the performance requirements for horses. 11. Say this horse was procured with cost as an independent variable. 12. Providing additional funding to increase the horse's performance. Winning a Derby
  4. 4. This Presentation Structure <ul><li>Dead Horse, already visited </li></ul><ul><li>Project Implementations </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers of change </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Concept </li></ul><ul><li>People Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging Paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Key People Issues </li></ul><ul><li>NTPC Stories </li></ul>
  5. 5. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION –Some Facts & Figures <ul><li>20 % projects are unable to take off for years, </li></ul><ul><li>8 % are dropped. </li></ul><ul><li>60 % projects completed with cost over run </li></ul><ul><li>55 % projects could be completed. </li></ul>Source: 8th five year plan projects <=10 % Normal Less uncertainty 10-50 % Higher uncertainty 50-100 % Extreme uncertainty > 100 % Time overrun of Completed Projects
  6. 6. Regulation New Technology, New material Competition Customer Demands Employee Expectations Management Practices Information Technology Organization Culture Investor Demands Project Management Commercial Focus Financial Viability & stability DRIVERS OF CHANGE People on the Periphery
  7. 7. PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT AS PER BRITISH STANDARD BS 6079: 1996, PROJECT IS DEFINED AS (CLAUSE NO. 1.3.6)-- A unique set of coordinated activities, with definite starting and finishing points undertaken by an individual or organization to meet specific objectives within defined schedule, cost and performance parameters. Project is a one time multi function activity.
  8. 8. MAN MATERIAL MONEY SUCCESSFUL PROJECT IN TIME DECISION MAKING The 3Ms would be dead inventories If not deployed at the right time, the right way. PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT
  9. 9. Project Patterns <ul><li>Gradual build up in the resources of Personnel, Materials and Equipments </li></ul><ul><li>A relatively Long duration of Plateau, when resources are used at a high rate </li></ul><ul><li>Run down, when control may be simplified and resources may be released. </li></ul>PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT
  10. 10. Project Life Cycle Phases PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT The project management process Conception Feasibility Implementation Operation Termination Authorization Hand over Shutdown Milestones Life cycle Plan Control
  11. 11. Project Life Cycle Phases PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT Operation after handover/ Clean-up phase 4 % Implementation Phase 85 % 7 % 4 % Conception Phase Feasibility Phase Level of Effort
  12. 12. Manpower Deployment PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT Numbers Project Manpower Transition of Project to Operation Phase Operation Manpower, Industry dependent
  13. 13. Basic Requirements of Project Execution <ul><li>Innovation to overcome problems as they arise. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience to make sound, efficient decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Response to changing situations; </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Control of expenditure and progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership for showing V ision, I nvolving people and P ersistence in approach (V-I-P) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation culture supporting the above </li></ul>PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT
  14. 14. Project Organization <ul><li>Requires flexibility for catering to uniqueness of any project. </li></ul><ul><li>It facilitates integration of company efforts to achieve project goals and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of org. structure relates directly to the authority delegated to the project manager. </li></ul><ul><li>It can range from very little to almost Total control over all project activities and resources. </li></ul>PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT
  16. 16. Functional Format PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT <ul><li>Project Manager is only a co-ordinator; he monitors, analyses progress and reports </li></ul><ul><li>Has less authority over specific specialisations. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires considerable interpersonal skill, technical competence and support from top, to get the job done. </li></ul>Contracts Engineering Construction Finance HR Top Management Project Mgmt Project A Project B Project C Project D
  17. 17. Project Format PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT <ul><li>Project Manager has full authority, even of functional policies and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Team is multidisciplinary and moves from one to next as each is completed. </li></ul><ul><li>PM is full accountable, capable of controlling the cost, often burdened with administrative details. </li></ul>Construction Contracts Engineering Finance Personnel Project A Contracts Engineering Construction Finance Personnel Project B TOP MGMT. HR Finance Construction Contracts Engg
  18. 18. Matrix Format PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPT <ul><li>Authority is shared between Function and project; characterized by a multiple command system. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimises project managers involvement in administrative controls. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts and friction often arises out of ambiguous authority relationship; Concerns are hardly shared </li></ul>CONTRACTS ‘ A ’ Proj. Mgr .’ B ’ ENGINEERING HEAD ENGINEERING’ A ’ ENGIEERING’ B ’ CONTRACTS ‘B’ TOP MANAGEMENT Proj Mgr ‘ A ’ CONTRACTS HEAD
  19. 19. Manpower Deployment PEOPLE DIMENSIONS Phase I <ul><li>Phase I </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by unskilled -less skilled job at Project Site and high end planning job. </li></ul><ul><li>Low end jobs be sourced from local, preferably thru third party and from PAPs </li></ul><ul><li>High end manpower at Site be sourced from other project sites, if it is a repetitive job or recruited on contract if one project of kind </li></ul>Numbers Time
  20. 20. Manpower Deployment HR DIMENSIONS <ul><li>Phase II </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively higher skilled work force along with unskilled job at Project Site and high-end planning /execution job. </li></ul><ul><li>As a part of R&R scheme, locals can be facilitated to take up appropriate jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>More of High end manpower at Site be progressively sourced from other project sites, if it is a repetitive job or recruited on contract as part of planning. </li></ul>Numbers Time Phase II
  21. 21. Manpower Deployment HR DIMENSIONS <ul><li>Phase III </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual ebbing of addition of work force though absolute number is increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the key activities are coming to an end; these local manpower can be redeployed in other areas. In large multi unit projects, workforce can be send else where or contracted employees can be relieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal employees, wherever possible, be prepared to take up assignment in Operation phase. </li></ul>Numbers Time Phase III
  22. 22. Manpower Deployment HR DIMENSIONS <ul><li>Phase IV </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of workforce from almost all front and frenzied start of operation phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Redeployment of project manpower as operation manpower wherever permitting </li></ul><ul><li>Low-semi skilled jobs in operation phase be given to locals as part of original planning </li></ul><ul><li>Key officials from project phase can be assigned other project responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment of Operation phase manpower </li></ul>Numbers Time Phase IV
  23. 23. Manpower Deployment HR DIMENSIONS <ul><li>Phase V </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by presence of skeletal project manpower </li></ul><ul><li>Industry /organisation specific manpower being stabilised for the operation phase </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing people with matching skill set for operation phase; </li></ul>Numbers Time Phase V
  24. 24. Managing Ambiguity <ul><li>Formal organisation structure reflects Responsibility where as real power within follows lines of Communications . </li></ul><ul><li>Project Managers need to be Leader, Facilitators and Mentors. </li></ul><ul><li>Competency matrix for Project Manager to reflect all these factors </li></ul>PEOPLE DIMENSIONS
  25. 25. Knowledge Management <ul><li>Employees move from one function to other – one project to other, results in temporary / permanent loss of knowledge/expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate knowledge sharing culture </li></ul><ul><li>Need for formal knowledge Management Structure and methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency arrangement </li></ul>PEOPLE DIMENSIONS
  26. 26. Values <ul><li>To succeed, involve your people fully </li></ul><ul><li>Value your people, they will value your priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Any short-cut [ Safety], cut short timely completion goals, morale and escalates ultimate costs. </li></ul><ul><li>External customers are as important as Internal customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Value system shows ….Always </li></ul>PEOPLE DIMENSIONS
  27. 27. Quality <ul><li>Quality is Cost, Delivery (Schedule), Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Quality for Customers is rather Free, </li></ul><ul><li>Quality pays </li></ul>PEOPLE DIMENSIONS
  28. 28. Continuing Education <ul><li>Requires investment and dedication . </li></ul><ul><li>In the long run, it pays. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to identify obsolete technology, methods, equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>It need to be matched with right responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Training keeps people motivated as it shows management is interested in upliftment of employee’s employability. </li></ul>PEOPLE DIMENSIONS
  29. 29. Skill / Competencies <ul><li>Acquisition Vs Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing Vs In-house capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Dependant on </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time in hand? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of Business? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kind of growth anticipated / planned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology deployment plan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward-backward integration? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One time project or otherwise? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key strength / Core competencies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>PEOPLE DIMENSIONS
  30. 30. Accountability and Authority <ul><li>Authority  Decisions  Results </li></ul><ul><li>Some may not take decisions! </li></ul><ul><li>Some may not concerned about results! </li></ul><ul><li>Contractual responsibility – thru Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Moral responsibility- thru inspiration/motivation </li></ul>PEOPLE DIMENSIONS
  31. 31. <ul><li>HR Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owner’s HR philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of organisation / business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local issues </li></ul></ul>KEY HR ISSUES
  32. 32. <ul><li>Competency on Soft Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Going soft on soft skills will be hard on hardware ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership, Communication, Team working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing conflicts (with customers, colleagues, team members) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective meetings and effective briefing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with difficult employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using rewards and punishment effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building commitment among team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display of sense of accountability and ownership </li></ul></ul>KEY HR ISSUES
  33. 33. <ul><li>Competency on Soft Skills contd.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding with higher functionaries of parent organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Cultural issues / Cross cultural issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating in a political environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Religion / language barrier understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking abilities and dealing with local administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling inter-contractor’s Issues </li></ul></ul>KEY PEOPLE ISSUES Effective communication across various interfaces
  34. 34. <ul><li>Competency on Hard Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical competency for Engineering project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous change with project time line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding / foreseeing problems in execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopting new technical skills /methods especially embracing IT </li></ul></ul>KEY PEOPLE ISSUES
  35. 35. Olympic Gold Medal Winners in High Jump 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Scissors Western Roll Straddle Fosbury Flop Source: Pascale 2.36 (most recent) Meters
  36. 36. You can’t do today’s job with yesterday’s concept/methods and be in business tomorrow.
  37. 37. KEY HR ISSUES Competency Matrix for Project Manager Weightage Core Competency 25 Project planning, scheduling, risk mgmt, tech. Awareness, Decision making, team working Business Competency 15 Business awareness, Strategy, core values, Quality commitment Personal Competencies 20 Initiative, strategic thinking, self confidence, concern for credibility, adaptability, flexibility Inter-personal competencies 20 Commitment adherence, conflict resolution, Negotiation, Knowledge sharing General management competency 25 Motivating others, communication skills, CRM Team building, team competencies ICICI Infotech Ltd, Mumbai
  38. 38. <ul><li>Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Burn out of Employee –Taking responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Local PAPs standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>R&R activity vs charity </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Local politics and administration </li></ul>KEY HR ISSUES
  39. 39. <ul><li>Motivation for Contract Employees at Simhadri </li></ul><ul><li>Job opportunity in power stations </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous education schemes for wards of PAPs </li></ul><ul><li>Self reliant schemes for PAPs </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity towards own employees need for entertainment etc </li></ul><ul><li>Success with Taken over Stations </li></ul><ul><li>Merits of being Multi unit utility </li></ul>NTPC STORIES
  40. 40. SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS OF PROJECT ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Uncertainties and high risks </li></ul><ul><li>Varying requirements of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Highly interdependent activities </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity of players </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary in nature </li></ul><ul><li>High social impact (for mega infrastructural projects) </li></ul>
  41. 41. ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER <ul><li>As a Politician </li></ul><ul><li>As a HR Manager </li></ul><ul><li>As a Change Agent </li></ul>
  42. 42. PROJECT MANAGER - AS A HR MANAGER <ul><li>“ If you don’t have the right top team, </li></ul><ul><li>You won’t have right tiers below them.” </li></ul>
  43. 43. ……… .AS HR MANAGER <ul><li>Key Attributes of Team Members </li></ul><ul><li>Positive attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Team players – respect for others </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible and adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic – hard working for long hours </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable with change and uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>High learnability </li></ul><ul><li>Functional/technical expertise </li></ul>
  44. 44. … .........AS HR MANAGER <ul><li>Selecting the senior team is critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value Match </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychometric tests </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. ……… . AS HR MANAGER <ul><li>Dealing with conflicts and frustration </li></ul>
  46. 46. PROJECT MANAGER AS POLITICIAN <ul><li>Relationships are key to project success </li></ul><ul><li>Contituency includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers and sub-contractors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project affected people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local administration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political instincts are important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To anticipate uncertainties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To deal with resulting risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking is critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides information about resource availability, potential problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solicits support of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides quick access to help </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. PROJECT MANAGER AS CHANGE AGENT <ul><li>Awareness – “once is not enough” </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for change </li></ul><ul><li>Learning/experimenting </li></ul><ul><li>Using/Implementing </li></ul>
  48. 48. ……… AS HR MANAGER <ul><li>Creating an enabling environment </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating and inspiring </li></ul><ul><li>Caring and developing </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul>
  49. 49. PROJECT LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Creating a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing it freely with partners, employees, investors, suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a culture that reflects vision </li></ul><ul><li>Setting clear goals, track progress </li></ul><ul><li>Leading through stages recognizing changes in role and competencies in different stages </li></ul><ul><li>Being a role model </li></ul><ul><li>Diffentiating “urgent” and “important” </li></ul>
  50. 50. PERSONAL ISSUES <ul><li>A very personal journey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Win” can lift you spirits to great heights </li></ul><ul><li>More to life than “projects” </li></ul><ul><li>True success requires balancing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong commitment to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equally strong commitment to personal life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work-Life balance of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal/family comforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment, get-togethers </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>“ Not everything is within our control” </li></ul><ul><li>Should keep us humble when we achieve success </li></ul><ul><li>Should help us maintain our sanity when we don’t </li></ul>
  52. 52. PROJECT MODE IN EMERGING ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Developing new products </li></ul><ul><li>Improving efficiency and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening competitive position in national and world markets </li></ul><ul><li>…… .. You name it…… </li></ul>
  53. 53. Thank You