The lexical approach


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The lexical approach

  1. 1.  The Lexical Approach is a method of teaching foreign languages described by Michael Lewis in the 1990s.  An important part of learning a language consists of being able to understand and produce lexical phrases as chunks.  Students are thought to be able to perceive patterns of language (grammar) as well as have meaningful set uses of words at their disposal when they are taught in this way.
  2. 2.    Vocabulary is prized over grammar per se in this approach. The teaching of chunks and set phrases has become common in English as a second or foreign language. * The Lexical Approach can be summarized in a few words: language consists not of traditional grammar and vocabulary but often of multi-word prefabricated chunks. In the lexical approach, instruction focuses on fixed expressions that occur frequently in dialogues, which Lewis claims make up a larger part of discourse than unique phrases and sentences.
  3. 3.      List of the main principles of the approach: 1. The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid. 2. Collocation is used as an organizing principle. 3. Successful language is a wider concept than accurate language. 4. The Observe-Hypothesise-Experiment cycle replaces the Present-Practise-Produce Paradigm. 5. Most importantly, language consists of grammaticalised lexis–not lexicalised grammar. “Lexical approaches in language teaching brought to light a view of language in which lexis plays the central role”.
  4. 4. In the 1990s, Michael Lewis wrote two books outlining his language learning theory: The English Verb and The Lexical Approach. According to the Lexical Approach, students should learn 'chunks' of language, since language is made up of collocations, idioms, and fixed phrases. Collocations might be described as the words that are placed or found together in a predictable pattern. Examples range from two word combinations such as problem child to extended combinations such as He’s recovering from a major operation. These language patterns comprise much of speech and writing.
  5. 5. Collocations: are words that 'sound right' together, even though there is no grammatical reason they should be used together:    gin & tonic (but never tonic & gin) high probability (but good chance) completely useless (not entirely useless)
  6. 6. Idioms: are phrases that express something entirely different than what their literal meaning suggests:    to pull someone's leg to get cold feet to cut to the chase
  7. 7. Fixed phrases: are commonly-used expressions:    to close your eyes to get the impression larger than life
  8. 8. Many other lexical units also occur in language. For example:  Binomials: a binomial is a polynomial with two terms. For instance; clean and tidy  Trinomials: a trinomial is a polynomial consisting of three terms or monomials. For instance; cool, calm and collected
  9. 9. Simile: A figure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared, usually in a phrase introduced by like or as. "Good coffee is like friendship: rich and warm and strong." (slogan of Pan-American Coffee Bureau) Connectives: finally, therefore…. These play a central role in learning and in communication. Three important UK-based corpora are the COBUILD Bank of English Corpus, the Cambridge International Corpus, and the British National Corpus.
  10. 10. •Objectives •Syllabus •Learning activities DESINGING FOR LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING •The role of teacher •The role of learners •Materials
  11. 11. OBJECTIVES To understand and consolidate learning materials based on lexical rather than grammatical principles. * Comprehending the most common lexical words together with lexical patterns and accesses. *
  12. 12. SYLLABUS • The lexical syllabus not onlysubsumes a structural syllabus, it also indicate how the structures which make up syllabus should be exemplified (Willis, 1990). • A lexical syllabus provides a discussion of some of the major issues in language teaching methodology ( Willis, 1990). • Lexical syllabus target how text are used in classroom
  13. 13. LEARNING ACTIVITIES • Teachers’ aims : • Class time should be confined particular learning strategies dealing with unknown lexical items and structures. • Teachers can struggle for students’ consciousness and lexical patterns’ benefits. • Students should be relaxed for fear of causing confusion to the learners’ lexicon.
  14. 14. THE ROLE OF TEACHERS • Teacher talk is a major source of learners input • Organizing technological systems and creating environment to help effectively learners • Teachers’ methodology in classroom; • Task • Planning • Report THE ROLE OF LEARNERS The idea of the teacher as ‘knower’ = the idea of the learners as ‘discover’ Data analyst Providing participation with listening,noticing and reflecting.
  15. 15. MATERIALS AND TEACHING RESOURSES TYPE 1 • Course package computer • Concordancing TYPE 2 •Collection of vocabulary •Teaching activities TYPE 3 “printout version” of computer corpora Collections packaged in text format TYPE 4 Programs and attached data sets
  16. 16. Classroom procedures generally include followings: a) Attracting students’ attention to lexical collocations b) Increasing students’ retention
  17. 17.  Revising the course books to seek collocations , and practicing  Making use of activities developing the students’ realization to collocation
  18. 18.  Teaching individual collocations  Providing students awareness to collocations  Giving the knowledge of collocation and adding them to appropriate known words  Supporting students to keep a lexical notebook
  19. 19.  This approach’s characterization still remains incompletely  It is still only an opinion  Teachers should use more exercises for raising students’ mindfulness rather than explaining lengthily.
  20. 20. REFERENCES • • • • • • • Lewis, M. (1993). The lexical approach: The state of ELT and a way forward. Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications. Lewis, M. (1997). Implementing the lexical approach. Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications. Nation, I. S. .P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Richards, J. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching:Cambridge University Press. Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.