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Introduction to Agents and Multi-agent Systems (lecture slides)

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Online lecture at the School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK, as part of the 10th Europe Week from 3rd to 7th March 2014.

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Introduction to Agents and Multi-agent Systems (lecture slides)

  1. 1. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Introduction to Agents and Multi-agent systems Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 3rd – 7th March 2014
  2. 2. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 2 Two “intelligent” agents…
  3. 3. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1991-02-08/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) “Intelligent” travel agent #1 3
  4. 4. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1996-12-23/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) “Intelligent” travel agent #2 4
  5. 5. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 5 Another kind of “intelligent” agent
  6. 6. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: simple case "Stimulus-response„ search engine Customer: Agent: Specifies request with preferences [Fill out form] Specifies answer [Show matching offers] 6
  7. 7. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: more complex Customer: Agent: I want to go on vacation Wonderful! Do you like swimming? 7
  8. 8. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: more complex Customer: Agent: Yes, with good friends on a white beach. And I like sports. Wonderful! And in the evening? 8
  9. 9. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: more complex Customer: Agent: Good entertainment, exclusive bars, etc. Sounds fantastic. Is this what you are looking for? [Present an offer] 9
  10. 10. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: more complex Customer: Agent: Really fantastic but over my budget. I‘d prefer something less exclusive... Let's see… How about this? [Present a new offer] 10
  11. 11. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11 What would that agent need for the dialog?
  12. 12. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: more complex 12 Such a travel agent would need its knowledge to be dynamic:
  13. 13. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: more complex 13 Such a travel agent would need its knowledge to be dynamic:  Dialog history
  14. 14. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: more complex 14 Such a travel agent would need its knowledge to be dynamic:  Dialog history  (Hypothetical) model of the customer’s and own • desires, intentions • preferences, opinions
  15. 15. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Travel agent: more complex 15 Such a travel agent would need its knowledge to be dynamic:  Dialog history  (Hypothetical) model of the customer’s and own • desires, intentions • preferences, opinions  (Flexible) plan for • exploring the customer’s desires and intentions • profitable offers
  16. 16. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16 Agenda
  17. 17. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 17 Agenda  Where does the major content come from?  What is an agent? What is a multi-agent system?  Agent types  Agent properties  Design of intelligent agents  Implementing practical reasoning agents  Further reading, sources of inspiration, and more…
  18. 18. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18 ©
  19. 19. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems Michael Wooldridge 2nd Edition, 484 pp. John Wiley & Sons, May 2009 ISBN-13: 978-0470519462 With materials available at http://www.csc.liv.ac.uk/~mjw/pub s/imas/IMAS2e.html What I also use in my lectures at the HWR… 19
  20. 20. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig 3rd Edition, 1152 pp. Prentice Hall, December 2009 ISBN-13: 978-0136042594 With materials available at http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/ What I also use in my lectures at the HWR… 20 “The AI Bible”
  21. 21. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21 What is an agent?
  22. 22. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Agents, a definition 22 According to Michael Wooldridge: “An agent is a computer system that is capable of independent action on behalf of its user or owner (figuring out what needs to be done to satisfy design objectives, rather than constantly being told)”.
  23. 23. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Agents, a definition 23 According to Michael Wooldridge: “The main point about agents is they are autonomous: capable of acting independently, exhibiting control over their internal state. Thus: an agent is a computer system capable of autonomous action in some environment in order to meet its design objectives”.
  24. 24. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Agents, a definition 24 According to Russell and Norvig: “An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators”.
  25. 25. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25 Agents Agents communicate with the environment through Sensors and Actuators
  26. 26. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26 What is a multi-agent system?
  27. 27. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1998-08-29/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Agent in a group 27
  28. 28. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Multi-agent systems, a definition 28 According to Michael Wooldridge: “A multi-agent system is one that consists of a number of agents, which interact with one- another”.
  29. 29. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Multi-agent systems, a definition 29 According to Michael Wooldridge: “A multi-agent system is one that consists of a number of agents, which interact with one- another”.  In the most general case, agents will be acting on behalf of users with different goals and motivations  To successfully interact, they will require the ability to cooperate, coordinate, and negotiate with each other, much as people do
  30. 30. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30 Agent types
  31. 31. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Agent types Four basic types in order of increasing generality:  Simple reflex agents  Model-based reflex agents  Goal-based agents  Utility-based agents 31
  32. 32. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32 Simple reflex agents
  33. 33. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 33 Model-based reflex agents
  34. 34. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 34 Goal-based agents
  35. 35. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 35 Utility-based agents
  36. 36. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 36 Learning agents
  37. 37. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2004-04-19/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) A real state agent 37
  38. 38. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 38 Agent properties
  39. 39. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile A reactive system is one that maintains an ongoing interaction with its environment, and responds to changes that occur in it (in time for the response to be useful). 39
  40. 40. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile Pro-activeness = generating and attempting to achieve goals; not driven solely by events; taking the initiative; recognizing opportunities. 40
  41. 41. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile Social ability in agents is the ability to interact with other agents (and possibly humans) via some kind of agent-communication language, and perhaps cooperate with others. 41
  42. 42. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile An agent should strive to do the right thing, based on what it can perceive and the actions it can perform. The right action is the one that will cause the agent to be most successful. An agent will act in order to achieve its goals, and will not act in such a way as to prevent its goals being achieved – at least insofar as its beliefs permit 42
  43. 43. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile Agents do not have conflicting goals. Every agent will therefore always try to do what is asked of it. 43
  44. 44. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile Agents improve performance over time. They can learn. 44
  45. 45. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile An agent will not knowingly communicate false information 45
  46. 46. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile An agent is autonomous if its behaviour is determined by its own experience (with ability to learn and adapt) 46
  47. 47. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Intelligent agents are…  reactive  pro-active  social  rational  benevolent  adaptable  truthful  autonomous  mobile Mobility: the ability of an agent to move around an electronic network 47
  48. 48. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 48 Design of intelligent agents. Examples
  49. 49. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Settings 49 Performance measure Environment Sensors Actuators
  50. 50. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Settings 50 Performance measure Environment Sensors Actuators Designing an automated taxi driver: Safe, fast, legal, comfortable trip, maximize profits Roads, other traffic, pedestrians, customers Cameras, speedometer, GPS, engine sensors, keyboard, etc. Steering wheel, accelerator, brake, signals
  51. 51. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Settings 51 Performance measure Environment Sensors Actuators Designing a medical diagnosis system: Healthy patient, minimize costs, lawsuits Patient, hospital, staff Keyboard (entry of symptoms, findings, patient's answers) Screen display (questions, tests, diagnoses, treatments, referrals)
  52. 52. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Settings 52 Performance measure Environment Sensors Actuators Designing an interactive English tutor: Maximize student's score on test Set of students Keyboard Screen display (exercises, suggestions, corrections)
  53. 53. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 53 Active learning exercise: “How to implement reactive agents? Discuss it with your classmates!” Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  54. 54. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 54 Implementing deliberative agents. First steps.
  55. 55. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Agent Control Loop Version 1 while true observe the world; update internal world model; deliberate about what intention to achieve next; use means-ends reasoning to get a plan for the intention; execute the plan end while First pass
  56. 56. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield More formally…
  57. 57. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield With deliberation… […which can be further extended to consider practical reasoning agents…]
  58. 58. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2004-04-23/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) The real state agent (cont.) 58
  59. 59. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 59 Homework: “Search for real-world applications that use intelligent agents and describe their tasks and functioning!” Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  60. 60. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 60 Assessment Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  61. 61. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Question 61 (Taken from a public sample exam © Wooldridge) Briefly define and explain, with examples where appropriate, THREE properties you would expect an intelligent agent to exhibit! PLEASE ANSWER AT: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1K0RZur9bDtZs0R0k74GKn7Va34ALPYtXxXUFJH51_1k/viewform
  62. 62. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 62 Last active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  63. 63. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63 The content
  64. 64. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 64 References
  65. 65. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Others… 65
  66. 66. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Further reading and sites…  IFAAMAS – International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems http://ifaamas.org/  Journal Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems http://link.springer.com/journal/10458  13th International Conference on Autonomous Agents ans Multiagent Systems (AAMAS’14), Paris, France http://aamas2014.lip6.fr/ 66
  67. 67. D. Monett – Europe Week 2014, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67 Slides of the talk per request: dagmar@monettdiaz.com Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz monettdiaz @dmonett http://monettdiaz.com

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