Community Colleges and the Promise of Educational OpportunityTHE DIVERTED DREAM
OBJECTIVES To explore the changes of community college  over five decades. To relate the development of community  colle...
THE TAKEOFF PERIOD G. I. Bill of 1944 Higher Education for American Democracy    1946   Truman Commission     “Commiss...
THE TAKEOFF PERIOD   Truman Commission     Change the name to Community College     Make the college part of the commun...
THE TAKEOFF PERIOD   Cold War – fear of loosing pace with Soviet Union    This slowed the pace for vocational education i...
COMPARISON OF FOUR COLLEGES BYOCCUPATION OF STUDENT’S FATHER 1958
 Sputnik – 1957 growing concerns about U.S.  strength in competition “…made the concept  of [technical] training acceptab...
ENROLLMENT IN TWO YEAR INSTITUTIONS1950-1970
1960’S What was going on at the universities? Discrepancy between minorities and class
DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL STUDIES   Support       Federal government – financial aid          Higher Education Act of 1...
EARLY 1970’S   Over supply of college graduates for the    workforce     Recession  1969-1971     Vietnam war was endin...
SOCIAL CLASS PRESSURES Nixon comments of terminal degrees for  Blacks – vocational education Non-traditional students we...
SEPARATION OF CLASS
1978 – COLLEGE STUDENTS ENROLLED
THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DREAM Change of the student composition Late 1970’s the dream of vocational  education is prese...
http://money.usnews.com/money/careers/articl                         es/2010/12/06/the-50-best-careers-of-2011TOP CAREERS ...
SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES   Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College                    http://www.witc.edu/     Energy Effi...
SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES   Chippewa Valley Technical College                    http://www.cvtc.edu/     Agriscience Tech...
SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES   Western Technical College                 http://www.westerntc.edu/     Air Conditioning, Heat...
SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES   Southeast Technical College               http://www.southeastmn.edu/     Computerized (CNC) P...
SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES   Northeast Iowa Community College                     http://www.nicc.edu/     Animal Science  ...
COMMUNITY COLLEGES 1946-1985   Five basic changes:     Name  change from Junior College to Community      College with a...
CONCLUSION   The diverted dream of community colleges    allows individuals an avenue to create    an occupation,        ...
REFERENCESAmerican Council on Education (1967). The American freshman: National norms. Washington, D.    C.: American Coun...
REFERENCES CONTINUEDMonk-Turner, E. (1983). Sex differences in type of first college entered and occupational status    ch...
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The diverted dream part ii

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This is a presentation about the development of community and technical college education from the 1940's to present day.

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  • Your presentation was a very comprehensive take on the book: The Diverted Dream.

    I find the topic of education absolutely intriguing however I chose not to present the same book with much depth or breadth. Why? Two reasons:

    1) The topic is too multidimensional to condense into a handful of slides.
    2) Due to the educational elitist mindset of the United States the subject of “community college” isn’t as provocative as an Ivy League institution. (That’s why I attempted to increase the subject’s allure with a picture of a huge middle finger)

    It was fun analyzing both of our presentations together.
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  • CBS – page 113 Pages 109-115
  • Page 100
  • The diverted dream part ii

    1. 1. Community Colleges and the Promise of Educational OpportunityTHE DIVERTED DREAM
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES To explore the changes of community college over five decades. To relate the development of community college growth with economical, business and environmental changes taking place in higher education. Examine college programs to the needs of society and the community.
    3. 3. THE TAKEOFF PERIOD G. I. Bill of 1944 Higher Education for American Democracy 1946 Truman Commission  “Commission does not subscribe to the belief that higher education should be confined to an intellectual elite …” (U.S. President’s Commission 1948)  “…free and universal access to education, in terms of the interest, ability, and need of the student, must be a major goal in American education” (U.S. President’s Commission 1948)
    4. 4. THE TAKEOFF PERIOD Truman Commission  Change the name to Community College  Make the college part of the community  Extending educational opportunities more vocational  Growth – supported expansion of facilities  Between 1938-1953 increased from 258-388 (Fields 1962, p.42)  New York – leader of all of the states  Wisconsin was leader in the Midwest, one of the three states which was an extension of the state universities  Minnesota – coordinated systems to match student demand to labor market
    5. 5. THE TAKEOFF PERIOD Cold War – fear of loosing pace with Soviet Union This slowed the pace for vocational education in community colleges – wanted to protect American Education 1950 - mid 1960 expansion of job opportunities outpaced the increase in college graduates – “golden age” for college graduates Studies indicated that transfer students did as well at the universities as those who entered as freshman but now community colleges were predominately lower middle-class and working-class
    6. 6. COMPARISON OF FOUR COLLEGES BYOCCUPATION OF STUDENT’S FATHER 1958
    7. 7.  Sputnik – 1957 growing concerns about U.S. strength in competition “…made the concept of [technical] training acceptable (Brick 1964, p. 130) Rapid Growth  VocationalEducation Act of 1963  Was it democratization effect or diversion effect
    8. 8. ENROLLMENT IN TWO YEAR INSTITUTIONS1950-1970
    9. 9. 1960’S What was going on at the universities? Discrepancy between minorities and class
    10. 10. DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL STUDIES Support  Federal government – financial aid  Higher Education Act of 1965 – develop cooperative arrangement with business and pubic employers  Vocational Education Act – amendment 1968  Adult Basic Education Program of 1966  Allied Health Professions Act of 1966  Federal funding increased from $7.4 million to $31.4 million  Kellogg Foundation $29 million from 1958-1978  Sloan Foundation, Aerospace Foundation, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Science Foundation, Carnegie Commission  1969-1973 thirty-seven major corporations joined advertising "upgrade your image”
    11. 11. EARLY 1970’S Over supply of college graduates for the workforce  Recession 1969-1971  Vietnam war was ending  “Higher Education: Who Needs It” – media 1972  Decrease in wages – underemployment in labor market – who wasn’t getting the jobs  Technical education was the way to go - media
    12. 12. SOCIAL CLASS PRESSURES Nixon comments of terminal degrees for Blacks – vocational education Non-traditional students were attending – part time students increase due to economics “Secure well-paid, if sometimes unglamorous, jobs” – close to socioeconomic background Classification in community colleges – if too intellectual were “uppity”, “brown nosing” if planning on transferring
    13. 13. SEPARATION OF CLASS
    14. 14. 1978 – COLLEGE STUDENTS ENROLLED
    15. 15. THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DREAM Change of the student composition Late 1970’s the dream of vocational education is present Increased enrollment Does vocational education really meet the needs of the community?
    16. 16. http://money.usnews.com/money/careers/articl es/2010/12/06/the-50-best-careers-of-2011TOP CAREERS IN 2011 Accountant  Dental hygienist Sales manager  Clinical lab technician Commercial Pilot  Massage therapist Film and video editor  Physical therapy Heating, air conditioning assistant and refrigeration  Radiologic technologist Interpreter/translator  Nurse Computer support  Court reporter specialist  Environmental science Gaming manager technician  Police 16
    17. 17. SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College http://www.witc.edu/  Energy Efficiency Technician  Architectural Commercial Design  Automated Packaging Systems Technician  Marine Repair Technician  Telecommunication Technologie
    18. 18. SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES Chippewa Valley Technical College http://www.cvtc.edu/  Agriscience Technician  Electrical Power Distribution  Renal Dialysis Technician  Farm Business & Production Management
    19. 19. SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES Western Technical College http://www.westerntc.edu/  Air Conditioning, Heat, & Refrigeration Technology  Farm Business & Production Management  Bio-Medical Electronics  Respiratory Therapist
    20. 20. SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES Southeast Technical College http://www.southeastmn.edu/  Computerized (CNC) Precision Machining Technology  Nanotechnology  Violin Repair Program  Jewelry Manufacturing and Repair
    21. 21. SPECIALTIES AT COLLEGES Northeast Iowa Community College http://www.nicc.edu/  Animal Science  Wind Turbine Repair Technician  Viticulture Technology  Gas Utility Construction and Service  John Deer Ag Tech
    22. 22. COMMUNITY COLLEGES 1946-1985 Five basic changes:  Name change from Junior College to Community College with a predominately vocational emphasis  Increase of popularity due to low cost and convenience  Outside sponsorship to make vocational education a success  Changing market for college student  Changing perception of community or vocational education
    23. 23. CONCLUSION The diverted dream of community colleges allows individuals an avenue to create an occupation, a dream, a skill, a life.So I ask, is it really a diverted dream or is it part of the American Dream.
    24. 24. REFERENCESAmerican Council on Education (1967). The American freshman: National norms. Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education , Annual Report. In S. Brint & J. Karabel(1989). The diverted dream: community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985 (p. 90). NY: Oxford University Press.Austin, A.W. (1983). Strengthening transfer programs. In S. Brint & J. Karabel (1989). The diverted dream: community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985 (p. 128). NY: Oxford University Press. (Reprinted from G. B. Vaughan and Associate, Issues for community college leaders in a new era (pp. 122-138). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass)Brick, M. (1964) Forum and focus for the community college movement. NY: Bureau of Publication, Teachers College, Columbia University.Brint, S. & Karabel, J. (1989). The diverted dream: community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985. NY: Oxford University PressClark, B. (1960). The open door college: A case study. New York: McGraw-Hill. In S. Brint & J. Karabel (1989). The diverted dream: community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985 (p. 74). NY: Oxford University Press.Chippewa Valley Technical College (2011, March 28). Re: Program information. Retrieved from http://www.cvtc.edu/Fields, R. (1962). The community college movement. NY: McGraw-HillHigher Education Act of 1965. In S. Brint & J. Karabel(1989). The diverted dream: community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985. NY: Oxford University Press.
    25. 25. REFERENCES CONTINUEDMonk-Turner, E. (1983). Sex differences in type of first college entered and occupational status changes over time. Social Science Journal, 22 ,89-97. In S. Brint & J. Karabel(1989). The diverted dream: community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985 (p. 123). NY: Oxford University Press.Northeast Iowa Community College (2011, March 28). Re: Program information. Retrieved from http://www.nicc.edu/Southeast Technical College (2011, March 28). Re: Program information. Retrieved from http://www.southeastmn.edu/Western Technical College (2011, March 28). Re: Program information. Retrieved from http://www.westerntc.edu/Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College (2011, March 28). Re: Program information. Retrieved from http://www.witc.edu/United States Bureau of the Census (1975). Histroical statistics of the United States: Colonial times to 1970. Wahington, D. C.: U.S. Government Pronting Office, Bicentennial ed., parts 1 and 2. In S. Brint & J. Karabel(1989). The diverted dream: community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985 (p. 84). NY: Oxford University Press.United States President’s Commission on Higher Education (1948). Higher education for American democracy. NY: Harper Brothers.U.S. News (2010, December 6). The 50 best careers of 2011. Retrieved from http://money.usnews.com/money/careers/articles/2010/12/06/the-50-best-careers-of-2011

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