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The Ontology-based Business Architecture Engineering Framework

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Business architecture became a well-known tool for business transformations. According to a recent study by Forrester, 50 percent of the companies polled claimed to have an active business architecture initiative, whereas 20 percent were planning to engage in business architecture work in the near future. However, despite the high interest in BA, there is not yet a common understanding of the main concepts. There is a lack for the business architecture framework which provides a complete metamodel, suggests methodology for business architecture development and enables tool support for it. The ORGMaster framework is designed to solve this problem using the ontology as a core of the metamodel. This paper describes the ORG-Master framework, its implementation and dissemination.

the presentation was given within the SOMET 2011 conference: http://www.somet.soft.iwate-pu.ac.jp/somet_11/
see the text in proceedings here: http://www.booksonline.iospress.nl/Content/View.aspx?piid=21454

Kudryavtsev, D., & Grigoriev, L. (2011). The ontology-based business architecture engineering framework. In proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques (SOMET), September 28-30, 2011, Saint-Petersburg, Russia. P. 233-252.

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The Ontology-based Business Architecture Engineering Framework

  1. 1. Ontology-based business architecture engineering framework Dmitry Kudryavtsev, Lev Grigoriev 20 11
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Business architecture overview </li></ul><ul><li>Currently available frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology-based approach </li></ul><ul><li>ORG-Master architecture framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology-based metamodel, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business architecture development method, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool-support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination of the ORG-Master framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Technologies, market situation and company’s external environment change rapidly; </li></ul><ul><li>Business transformations enable companies to be agile and responsive to cope with these changes; </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation process requires adequate methods and tools to be effective and manageable; </li></ul><ul><li>Existing solution - enterprise architecture (EA) management method and tools (Business architecture is a substantial part of EA). </li></ul>
  4. 4. TOGAF , Architecture Content Framework
  5. 5. Business Architecture (BA) definition “ Business Architecture (BA) is a formal blueprint of governance structures, business semantics and value streams across the extended enterprise. Business Architecture articulates the structure of an enterprise in terms of its: - capabilities, - business processes, - governance structure, and - business information. The business capability is “what” the organization does, The business processes , are “how” the organization executes its capabilities. In articulating the governance and information , the business architecture considers all external actors to an enterprise (including its customers, suppliers, and regulators), to ensure that flow in and out of the enterprise are captured. Business Architecture Working Group. Available at: http://www.omgwiki.org/bawg/doku.php ,
  6. 6. Available BA frameworks Component Business Model ARIS BMM DEMO
  7. 7. Evaluation criteria for the available BA frameworks
  8. 8. Comparison of the currently available Business Architecture frameworks* (1/2) * Extended and adapted from Glissmann S., Sanz J., Business Architectures for the Design of Enterprise Service Systems, Handbook of Service Science, P.P. Maglio, C.A. Kieliszewski, and J.C. Spohrer, eds., Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010, pp. 251-282
  9. 9. Comparison of the currently available Business Architecture frameworks (2/2)
  10. 10. Problem <ul><li>There is a lack for the framework, which: </li></ul><ul><li>Covers all the domains of BA (completeness of metamodel) AND, </li></ul><ul><li>Provides methodology and procedure for BA development AND </li></ul><ul><li>Provides tool support for metamodel and methodology. </li></ul>?
  11. 11. The transition towards the ontology-based BA modeling Enterprise modeling languages (EML) EML 1 EML 2 EML n EML i Diagrammatic notation 1 Diagrammatic notation i Diagrammatic notation 2 Diagrammatic notation n Enterprise ontology Ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization (Gruber, 1993)
  12. 12. Components of the ORG-Master architecture framework Ontology-based enterprise model {specialized and populated ontology} Output views / documents and diagrams Processing Input views / documents and diagrams Import Model level Meta-model level Creation and Acquisition Formalization Distribution Use Customization method Specifications of views (documents and diagrams) Methodology for enterprise model creation and use Enterprise Ontology Knowledge Process Metamodel
  13. 13. Main domains of the ORG-Master enterprise ontology
  14. 14. Fragment of the ORG-Master enterprise ontology Activities Result-oriented activities Homogeneous activities Elementary activities Regular activity Unique activity Value-added chain System of activities Functional (sub) system Process Version of the process Goal-oriented program Project Functional domain Function Action Task By type By area Managerial activities Value creating activities Support activities
  15. 15. Enterprise views and view specifications Based on the IEEE Std 1471-2000: IEEE Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software-Intensive Systems, IEEE, New York. View specification (short / full)
  16. 16. Knowledge Process Creation and Acquisition Formalization Distribution Use Knowledge acquisition forms Analytical reports Structured Administrative documents Y Query answering Internal Representation Structured Administrative documents Х Local knowledge acquisition organizational models From knowledge acquisition forms to document-oriented views Ontology-based enterprise model
  17. 17. Knowledge Process Creation and Acquisition Formalization Distribution Use Text X Tables Y Text Y Graphics Y Internal Representation Tables X Graphics X Pseudo-Graphics From knowledge acquisition forms to document-oriented views Ontology-based enterprise model
  18. 18. The ORG-Master BA engineering method (overview) Goal Operations Structure Principles and rules Products and Services, Value chain, Functional systems, Processes, Activities Vision and mission, Concepts and Policies, Strategy and critical success factors (CSF), Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Actors, Roles structure, Organization structure, Responsibilities, Authority
  19. 19. The ORG-Master BA engineering method (details) Develop business concepts Describe value added chain Develop strategy Identify and classify functional systems and business-processes Define interaction of business processes Define KPI system Business process redesign Design organizational structure Strategy maps and critical success factors Needs Markets Customers Value added chain Owners of FS , subsystems and processes Purposes of FS , subsystems and processes Functional systems (FS) and subsystems, processes Business-process network Actors KPI system Redesigned business processes Organizational structure (with attributes: goals, measures, FS, processes) Mission, Vision, Concept s and policies
  20. 20. More details Identify and classify functional systems and business-processes Corporate system Kudryavtsev, D., & Grigoriev, L. (2011). Systemic approach towards enterprise functional decomposition. The proceedings of the Workshop “Convergence of Business Architecture, Business Process Architecture, Enterprise Architecture and Service Oriented Architecture” within the 13-th IEEE Conference on Commerce and Enterprise Computing (CEC), September 5-7, 2011, Luxemborg. P . 310-317. Business system Business- lines Functional systems Functional subsystem
  21. 21. The BA engineering tool Ontology-based enterprise model editor Ontology-based enterprise model Reporting and query module Documents Diagrams ORG-MASTER ® Modeling process wizard Integration wizard Diagram editor Query results Semi - structured data OWL
  22. 22. ORLAN (ORganizational LANguage) <ul><li>This language allows to structure, represent and query enterprise model. </li></ul><ul><li>ORLAN :: = <TYPES, CL, MX, InferPR, D, TASKS, SPEC >, where: </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES – types descriptions, which specify the classes, relationships and properties of enterprise ontology, together with their taxonomies, </li></ul><ul><li>CL – classifier, the representation format for entities, hierarhical relationships between them and values for the properties of entities (including ontological types). Hierarchy is the main feature of classifies and the main relationship types are “part-of ”, “class-subclass”, “be subordinated to” etc. </li></ul><ul><li>MX – matrix (or table), the representation format for relationships between entities from classifiers. Example relationship types are “perform”, “help achieve” etc. </li></ul><ul><li>InferMX – inference matrix, allows to infer implicit knowledge via transitive property of relationships in several matrixes, </li></ul><ul><li>D – modeling domains (activities, norms, information resources, etc), </li></ul><ul><li>TASKS – enterprise engineering method specification, </li></ul><ul><li>SPEC – views specifications. </li></ul>
  23. 23. ORLAN: Types
  24. 24. ORLAN: Classifier (CL) for instance-level editing
  25. 25. ORLAN: Matrix (MX) for instance-level editing
  26. 26. ORLAN-OWL mapping
  27. 27. ORG-Master role in CPM & BPM systems Modeling ORG-MASTER ® Execution e.g. TIME-MASTER ® Monitoring e.g. Е- MASTER ® BPA (Business Process Analysis) BAM (Business Activity Monitoring) Business Process Management (BPM) Process Engine Strategy Monitoring Project Management ( internal projects ) Strategy Modeling Corporate performance management (CPM) Strategic goals & measures Development projects Operational goals and measures Processes
  28. 28. Implementation experience <ul><li>BUSINESS ENGINEERING GROUP SPb (implements the framework) </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational design, strategic management, business process improvement and re-engineering, enterprise architecture management, quality management </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>ORG-MASTER® line of software products for organizational design and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>GOV-MASTER ® software for public organizations design and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars and Trainings </li></ul><ul><li>Business engineering School, School of business analysts, Business ideology school </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Models and methods of organizational design, enterprise engineering and modeling </li></ul><ul><li>History: management consulting, enterprise modeling software and trainings since 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Customers: large and medium-sized CIS business and public organizations </li></ul>
  29. 29. Implementation experience: business entities
  30. 30. Implementation example <ul><li>Ilim Group, Koryazhma Branch </li></ul>Problem: Equipment reliability drop Breakdowns happened often   unplanned equipment downtime increased
  31. 31. Implementation example <ul><li>Solution - maintenance system reengineering project: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop maintenance system concept, strategy and measures; </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign organizational structure, </li></ul><ul><li>Identify maintenance processes and raise their maturity, </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize the key maintenance processes; </li></ul><ul><li>Information system improvement; </li></ul><ul><li>Formalize and enhance key maintenance operations; </li></ul><ul><li>Develop organizational documentation. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Implementation example <ul><li>All of the above was done using electronic ontology-based BA model. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals, measures, business process, organizational structure, roles, operations and other entities were entered into the model and related to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The organizational documentation was then generated from the model. </li></ul><ul><li>The ontology included about 60 concepts and some 100 types of the relationships . </li></ul><ul><li>The instance base included more than 10000 elements . </li></ul><ul><li>Project deliverables (organizational documentation / views): </li></ul><ul><li>36 process regulations , </li></ul><ul><li>12 functional system standards , </li></ul><ul><li>more than 400 job descriptions , </li></ul><ul><li>more than 200 employee performance scorecards, </li></ul><ul><li>35 operation instructions. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Implementation example <ul><li>Overall effects of the maintenance system reengineering project: </li></ul><ul><li>40 percent decrease in the unplanned equipment downtime; </li></ul><ul><li>Increased manageability and performance; </li></ul><ul><li>Repair times reduced; </li></ul><ul><li>Increased equipment reliability. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Implementation in government agencies <ul><li>The GOV-Master is a version of the ORG-Master, which complies with the federal, regional and local authorities modeling methodology developed by the authors of this research. </li></ul><ul><li>The three aspects of GOV-Master framework (a version of ORG-Master) implementation include administrative regulations, structure and function optimization, performance management. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10 administrative regulations have been developed for the Federal Migration Agency, Federal Registration Agency, Federal Agency for Physical Culture and Sport, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of regulatory documents (views) generated from the ontology-based model include: </li></ul><ul><li>Government Agency Activity Regulation; </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Regulations; </li></ul><ul><li>List of administrative processes supported by a government agency and their delegation to its subdivisions; </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic descriptions of administrative processes in two formats (one is similar to EPC, another is extended IDEF0); </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of subdivision functions. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Dissemination of the ORG-Master framework <ul><li>Business Engineering School is our flagship training instrument (Since 2003). The 16th Business Engineering School took place in May, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>ORG-Master framework is also included in the curricula of several institutes and universities in Saint-Petersburg and Moscow. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 200 corporate seminars and tutorials on the management methods based on business engineering have taken place since 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Grigoriev L. (eds), Gorelik S., Kudryavtsev D., Koryshev I., Kislova V., Makarevich M., Kamenskaya M., Yakubovskaya T., Zablotskiy A., Panfilov M.. Musical score of management: the technology for engineering of effective companies. - М : Alpina Publishers (2010) 692 p. (in Russian) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry-oriented publications… e.g. the series of articles (about 10) in the Methods of Quality Management journal , one of the leading TQM journals in Russia. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Conclusions <ul><li>Business architecture (BA) became a popular tool for business transformations. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a lack for the business architecture framework which provides an integrated metamodel, methodology and tool support for BA development. </li></ul><ul><li>The ORG-Master architecture framework provides: </li></ul><ul><li>the metamodel components (enterprise ontology, view specifications), </li></ul><ul><li>the methodology (BA development method, typical project tasks specifications, reference models and classifications) and </li></ul><ul><li>ORG-Master tool. </li></ul>
  37. 37. The END Questions? 20 11 [email_address] , [email_address] http://www.bigc.ru/ http://www.spbstu.ru/

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