Leveraging the Potential of Mobile Learning


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Keynote Presentation for Faculty Development Day at PCCC given on May 15, 2014. Discusses the potential of mobile learning in the context of higher education. Links to resources are provided.

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  • Talk about myself and SHU here; describe the mobile computing program and its goals, how we support faculty, give context to the presentation
  • Early idea of mobile learning and ubiquitous computing, in 1998 moving from desktops to laptops and how this would transform classroom learning. Laptops to tablet PCs, Nokia Phone project to Windows 8 tablets
  • But there were challenges to introducing this technology in the classroom – instead of daydreaming (old fashioned not paying attention in class) students started instant messaging, faculty requested a “kill switch” for the internet in the classroom, other solutions were put in place such as browser lockdown software or just not being allowed to bring the computer to the classroom. Even today, this still remains a challenge, how to we introduce technology into a formal setting without disruption to the traditional classroom environment? Even if you do allow laptops in the classroom how do you control for the “cone”?
  • Learning by means of wireless technological devices that can be pocketed and utlizied whereever the learner’s device is able to received unbroken transmission signals, learning supported by mobile devices such as cellular phones, portable computers, and personal audio players and any sort of learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies. Today’s definition has narrowed to specify handheld devices only. Laptops and netbooks are technically not included – they are not handheld
    Mobile learning goes beyond distance learning – it untethers learners from their desks, from their dwellings, from buildings altogether. Learning can occur anywhere and, in a sense, has become truly ubiquitous. It can occur “wherever people, individually or collectively, have problems to solve or knowledge to share. Portions of life once considered inaccessible to learning due to lack of network connectivity are now potential learning opportunities for the mobile learner. Sounds a lot like self directed learning…
  • http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERS1302/Eig1302.pdf (Infographic)
  • Students hold high expectations for anytime, anywhere access to course materials and for levering the use of their personal digital devices inside and outside of the classroom
    Undergrads own two or three Internet-capable devices and ownership of smartphones and tablets jumped the most (among all devices) from 2012-2013
    Laptops are still cited as the most used and most important device for academics, but more students are beginning to use smartphones and tables for academic purposes
    In-class use of smartphones and tablets is not yet common; students say they are often prevented or discouraged from using these devices while in class
    Mobile-device access to institutionally produced services, applications and web sites I up, though performance ratings are waning a bit compared to 2012
  • Although many students own mobile devices, ownership is not universal. Multiple devices are available to and owned by students, which can complicate issues such as the design of training and provision of support.
  • Students with the most devices tend to be male (34%) rather than female (25%), tend to be older (41%) rather than younger (23%) and white (32%) rather than nonwhite (<26%). Also found that the more devoices students own, the more likely they are to agree that technology prepares them for future academic and employment oursuits, to feel prepared to use technology, and to activley engage in courses that use technology. Student who own more technology are also more inclined to see its value for use in academics.
  • Using lecture capture tools, more robustly using the CMS, and integrating students’ personal computing/mobile devices into the learning environment are all on students’ wish list for additional action by their instructors. Students expect to have access to course materials inside and outside class, and they want opportunities to inetgrate their digital device resources during class.
  • The survey results suggest that the type of device makes a difference for academic use. The findings are consistent with the findings of the ECAR study in that tablets emerge as a potentially powerful mobile device in academia. Although tablet ownership was only 37 percent — and much lower than for smaller mobile devices — we found that owning a tablet seems to be beneficial for college learners. Of those who owned tablets, 82 percent used them for academic purposes (as opposed to 58 percent for small mobile devices), and academic use was universal regardless of demographic factors. Tablets emerge as powerful learning devices because they are small and portable (and thus easy to bring to campus), while the screen size lets students retrieve and compose information more easily than small mobile devices. Given these findings, students — particularly younger and undergraduate students — need more access to tablets.
  • Few students reported that smartphones were either encouraged or required for use as learning tools during class. Smartphones have the most restrictions for in-class use, and by students’ own admission these devices can distract them from class activities as easily as they can enhance their learning experience. About half of respondents (49%) said they want their instructors to integrate the use of smartphones into class more. Even more students wanted tablets (51%) and laptops (61%) integrated into class.
  • Take course notes, use the calendar for scheduling tasks or setting alerts about upcoming assignments. Want to use the calculator function, dictionary, thesaurus, and a translation device, willing to use them as clickers for polling, quizzes and communication with others in class. Also want to search using Google. Concerns were battery life, connectivity and device usability.
  • Smartphones allow you to access information 2 ways, through apps or the web browser.
  • Top 5 mobile-enabled services are safety alerts, primary web presence, LMS, campus map and campus events. Largest changes in mobile enablement since 2011-2013 have been the deployment of a primary web presence, the LMS, faculty information, access to grades, and library services. What is missing here is (with the exception of the LMS) is engagement with learning, using mobile devices to foster T&L in a meaningful way.
    Seton Hall students will have access to SHUMobile, an app that provides campus news feeds and maps. The app will be customized for new batch of incoming Seton Hall students with a Freshman Experience component that will have social media integration and direct communication channels with freshman peers. The idea is to connect incoming freshman before they come on campus in the Fall. In the application, freshman can connect with other classmates, peer advisers and roommates, as they first meet at Freshman orientation in the early Summer.
  • As devices become more personal, so does learning. Mobile learning is personalized, learner-centered, situated, collaborative, ubiquitous and contextual.
    There are over 65,ooo educational apps on itunes
    Mobile learning often takes place outside a formal learning environment, and it tends to become personalized via users' personal mobile devices. As a result, one major challenge for mobile research is capturing data on user demographics and usage of specific mobile devices. Moreover, previous studies focused mainly on investigating student motivations, perceptions, and attitudes toward mobile learning,14 but few focused on mobile learning practices and strategies.
  • http://www.blackboard.com/Platforms/Mobile/Products/Mobile-Learn/Features.aspx
  • Content is portable and engages multiple senses
    Multimedia periodic table or three dimensional brain (Heart App is an example)
    https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/anatomy-4d/id555741707 – Anatomy 4D (Free App)
  • Horizon report 2011 – What makes electronic books a potentially transformative technology is the new kinds of reading experiences that they make possible
    In 2012 the AT&T Learning Studio, NMC member Abilene Christian University (ACU) produced an annual report for corporate and on-campus audiences.
  • Stop thinking about these powerful devices as only consumption devices but use them as production devices. Not just alternative modes of delivery. Research shows that successful learning needs to be active and engaging, connect to the students’ prior knowledge, and simulate real-world experiences.
    1. incorporate authentic materials
    2. audio storytelling; interviews, news sound bytes, podcasts, radio commercials, radio contents, radio shows
    3. Storytelling with images;
    BeFunky - http://www.befunky.com/ (both iOs and android)
    PhotoFunia - http://photofunia.com/
    ImageChef - http://www.imagechef.com/
    Muzy – creative blogs, http://muzy.com/app/photobox
    Buncee (buncee bits is on available in iTunes, just makes cards)
    ThingLink https://www.thinglink.com – both iOS and Android apps, create hotspots on images**
    http://www.pixton.com/ (makes comics)**
  • We should be asking our students to capture raw material from the real world and engage with it based on the concepts we are teaching them. Go into the community and take pictures of architectural influences (tweet or instagram), go out and collect primary data, and immediately show, as well as discuss, the dynamically growing study results with the recently queried participant. The activity of capturing “raw” digital material can lead to further learning or assessment activities where students might develop multimedia projects.
  • http://superpod.ml.duke.edu/walkabout/cwa2012/
    The Coastal Walkabout project is a joint project of Murdoch University, Duke University and BlueCloud Spatial. The initial aims of the project were to test the utility of cost-effective social media-driven citizen science technologies in both the urban and remote parts of Western Australia. The Coastal Walkabout Project was designed to test the utility of freely available smartphone and social media applications as tools for collecting data on the presence of coastal marine species and threats, and to empower local people to collect, share and analyze these data with a growing set of mapping tools being developed by BlueCloud Spatial
  • GPS Enabled devices facilitate applications and interactions that incorporate the learner’s location.
    http://clevelandhistorical.org/ Cleveland historical is an interactive and GPS-enabled app, providing historical information on specific sites within the city in the form of images, audio, and video clips. Curated by the Center for Public History and Digital Humanities with stories contributed from community members, teachers, professors and students
  • http://www.historypin.com/
    Explore the Historypin map - the Historypin map has 1000s of images and stories pinned to it and the app allows you to browse this by date and location, using your location to find the nearest content, or exploring remotely.
    Explore the streets - holding your phone up to the street, the app uses your camera view to display nearby images. By selecting the image, it can be overlaid onto the modern view to create an historical comparison, which you can toggle or fade between.
    Read stories and recollections - all stories shared can be accessed through the app.
    Capture a modern moment of history - images taken with the app are immediately pinned to the Historypin map, with any titles and stories you add. Images can also be added from your phone’s albums.
    Digitise an old photo - take photos of old pictures as an easy alternative to scanning them, then add photo details and pin them directly to the Historypin map.
    Take modern equivalents of old classics - when exploring historic content, you can snap exact contemporary replicas
    Browse Collections from anywhere - you can explore selected Collections from Historypin.com
    Shake history up - a simple shake of the app brings up a random piece of content from anywhere in the world
  • Students value their privacy, and using technology to connect with them has its limits. Students are extremely sensitive to the boundaries between their personal and academic lives. Students prefer to keep their social and academic lives separate, and they maintain those boundaries in their use of technology.
    NMC Horizon Report 2014 – Fast Trends: Driving changes in higher education over the next one – two years. Growing ubiquity of social media. Users are prolific creators of content and they upload photographs, audio, and video to the cloud by the billions. Producing, commenting and classifying these media have become just as important as the more passive tasks of searching, reading, watching and listening. As social networks flourish, educators are using them as professional communities of practice, as learning communities, and as a platform to share interesting stories about topics students are studying in class. Understanding how social media can be leveraged for social learning is a key skill for teachers, and teacher training programs are increasingly being expected to include this skill.
    Study conducted by Univ of Mass Dartmouth – faculty cited the inclusion of video and blogs as among the most common applications of social media for instruction. Babson Research Group and Pearson revealed that 70.3% of faculty sue social media in their personal lives which mirrors that of the general population, and 55% use these networks specifically in professional contexts.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WPVWDkF7U8#t=19 (2009)
  • Enza Antenos-Conforti - Montclair
  • Teachers can connect to their students on a wider level as well as on a personal level.
    Interactions can be taken beyond the classroom as Twitter is omnipresent in our smartphones and laptops.
    Twitter allows for customization of learning depending on the student i.e. differentiating learning for different students.
    Twitter can be used to quickly connect to multimedia resources (e.g. YouTube or Vine) and turn education into edutainment.
    Twitter gives new opportunities to connect to other learning communities and new educational content.
    The very nature of Twitter – brief and to-the-point makes for rapid broadcast of learning.
  • @RealTimeWWII is a ‘live tweeting’ Twitter account started by Alwyn Collinson, a history graduate. He tweets events as they happened during WWII. This is an interesting project to bring history to life, and as you can see it’s difficult to argue with its impact because the account now has nearly 300,000 followers. In five years, he probably would become some sort of an expert on WWII and its historical impact. Bringing historical events or figures to life could be a class project that will not only teach students about research but also give them valuable lessons in critical thinking. The American President, John Quincy Adams is also a subject of an interesting live tweeting project by the Massachusetts Historical Society.
  • students collaboratively developed Pinterest boards related to the course theme and then presented their
    work to the class. Students were provided with clear guidelines for developing their boards, including the numbers of pins
    and repins they were permitted, the minimum number of pins per board, and providing context for the pins they created.
    Students were expected to not only to use the Internet and other resources for their pins but also to regularly check the
    other students’ boards for ideas and inspiration.
    Most literature classes focus on the word rather than the image. Pinterest can give you a way to change that dynamic. With its emphasis on the visual and material culture, this online community allows students to individually and collaboratively produce course content, while exploring overlapping themes in the texts. This session will demonstrate the ways Pinterest can be used for student projects that can deepen the learning experience by bringing a multimedia dimension to the study of literature, as well as a way to enrich community development in a course. Students engaged with the readings and the literary period in new and creative ways. Assessment results of two iterations of this project will also be shared.
  • http://www.edutopia.org/blog/augmented-reality-new-dimensions-learning-drew-minock
  • http://www.cnn.com/2014/02/10/living/google-glass-in-schools/
  • It is also important to determine which devices are most helpful for academic use; mobile technologies afford new opportunities for learning, but their use does not guarantee that effective learning will take place. Also, because student performance is usually assessed by finished products, it is difficult to ascertain if using technology contributes to or limits students' engagement and learning. Finally, technology use is further influenced by the modality of courses in which it is used. Understanding students' mobile practices more deeply can guide informed instructor development in the future.
  • Effective use of mobile technologies requires that students exhibit digital literacy skills such as being able to access, manage, and evaluate digital resources.8 Further, students might be informally using many different applications for academic purposes, making it difficult to determine what they use and how.
    Research has shown that having a clearer understanding of students' mobile practices encourages the university to implement more student-centered support and services.9 Technical training and skill development emerge as important factors, and students perceive both as more important than the technology itself.10
  • Leveraging the Potential of Mobile Learning

    1. 1. LEVERAGING THE POTENTIAL OF MOBILE LEARNING Danielle Mirliss, Ed.D. Associate Director Teaching, Learning and Technology Center Seton Hall University Danielle.Mirliss@shu.edu Twitter @dmirliss
    3. 3. Seton Hall University • Diocesan Catholic University • Main campus located in suburban NJ, 15 miles from NYC • Law School located in Newark, NJ • Approx. 4,500 full time undergraduate students • Approx. 450 full time faculty
    4. 4. Mobile Computing @ Seton Hall University • 1996 University strategic plan set goal “to provide a technologically advanced learning environment for our students and faculty.” • 1998 Mobile Computing Program became mandatory for all FT Freshmen • Mobile Computing Program “is an innovative academic program that has three interrelated components: (1) access (2) services (3) curricular integration • Funded by technology fees
    5. 5. Mobile Campus Milestones
    6. 6. Results of Mobile Computing • In 1998 SHU drew largest incoming Freshmen class with highest average SAT; in the past decade SHU has grown from 900 to 1200 average incoming class, in accordance with 1996 strategic plan • SHU undertook long-term study of the impact of technology on teaching and learning at SHU; results show that the Mobile Computing Program has had a significant positive impact on active learning, student collaboration, communication with instructor, and other indicators of effective teaching • A significant number of faculty / academic departments have undertaken the integration of technology into the curriculum in ways intended to improve student learning or reduce instructional costs
    7. 7. PEW Internet & American Life Project • Mobile Device Ownership by College Students • 88% own cell phones • 81% own digital cameras • 63% own MP3 players • 55% own video cameras • 55% own laptop computers • 27% own PDA or Blackberry (Data from January 2008)
    8. 8. SHU Mobile Strategy Assumptions: • Evolving and developing definition of “mobile” • Device non-specific • Carrier agnostic Goals and Objectives: • Extend rich technological environment & services • Present new and innovative teaching/learning solutions • Agile communications & engagement
    9. 9. Mobile Integration • 2008 – Kindle Pilot • 2009 – Nokia Pilots • 2010 – iPad pilot, SMHS • 2011 – CEHS iPad Pilot • 2011 – Droid tablet pilot • 2012 – CEHS iPad Cart • 2012 – Nokia Phones Given to Freshman • 2012 – Windows 8 Tablets
    10. 10. SHU Windows 8 Tablet Initiative https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_PJHVWeDFI#t=166
    12. 12. Mobile Learning “The exploitation of ubiquitous handheld technologies, together with wireless and mobile phone networks, to facilitate, support, enhance and extend the reach of teaching and learning. Learners involved may or may not be mobile. Learning can take place in any location, and at any time…”
    13. 13. ECAR Research • EDUCAUSE Center or Analysis and Research (ECAR) • Study of Undergraduate Students and IT, 2013 • Undergraduate Students • 113,035 respondents (1,600,043 invited) • 251 implementation sites • 47 States represented • 14 countries represented Infographic of Study Results http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERS1302/Eig1302.pdf
    14. 14. UFC Survey (2012) Exploring Students' Mobile Learning Practices in Higher Education, 2013
    15. 15. APP EXPLOSION
    16. 16. Mobile App vs Browser
    17. 17. Focus of Higher Education Efforts • Safety Alerts • Primary Web Presence • LMS • Campus Map • Campus Events • Faculty Information • Access to Grades • Library Services
    18. 18. Freshman Experience App
    19. 19. Personalized Learning
    20. 20. Popular Apps
    21. 21. Bb Learn Customizable – students can rename, hide Reorder, color-code courses, favorite blog posts, folders and announcements Read and contribute to blog posts Access grades, announcements and Course content Interact on blogs and upload media Reflect in their course journals Dropbox integration Take mobile tests View class roster
    22. 22. Clickers • Top Hat Student Response System • Poll Everywhere
    23. 23. Multimedia Experiences Visible Body 3D Periodic Table
    24. 24. Engaging Textbooks What makes electronic books a potentially transformative technology is the new kinds of reading experiences that they make possible (Horizon Report, 2011) -Inkling
    25. 25. Production Devices http://digitalstorytelling.coe.uh.edu/index.cfm?id=44&cid=44 http://www.pixton.com/ https://www.thinglink.com http://www.slideshare.net/ShellTerrell/digital-storytelling-with-mobile-devices
    26. 26. Voices @ The Hall Students utilized the Nokia N97s to record freshman reflections on their experiences and conduct interviews, similar to those of the national StoryCorps Project. Students included these audio/video clips in their Freshman ePortfolios and a local website called Voices @ the Hall (2010) http://storycorps.org/
    27. 27. Additional SHU Stories Using Mobile Technology in the Classroom think-write-blog
    28. 28. World as Classroom • Nokia Data Gathering at Seton Hall – Center for Mobile Research and Innovation
    29. 29. Coastal Walkabout Project http://superpod.ml.duke.edu/walkabout/cwa2012/
    30. 30. Cleveland Historical http://clevelandhistorical.org/
    31. 31. History Pin App There are three main ways to use Historypin, by Exploring it or by Adding to it or Curating stuff on it. Topics to Explore
    32. 32. Social Media
    33. 33. Facebook • Ask for information: Instead of trusting Wikipedia, ask the crowd on Facebook • Take on a classroom cause: Using the Causes application on Facebook, students can take on projects that benefit the greater good. • Practice foreign language with native speakers: Use Facebook to connect your classroom with speakers around the world, and get a chance to improve their foreign language skills • Teaching 21st century skills: Use Facebook to create a lesson on using social media tools for collaboration, news, networking, and more.
    34. 34. Twitter • Use of hashtags promotes topic/class discussion • Use hashtags to research topics (ex. #TED or #History) • Follow authors, exchange micro-reviews of their work, start a Twitter book club, create 140-character poetry (twihaiku) or even Twitter fiction • Twitter Walls are web apps which allow you to project a Twitter conversation around a hashtag, these can be projected on a screen • Role-play • Create a class newspaper - http://paper.li/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=32ptr5d2rw8&list=PL8C6CA189C8E1AEE4
    35. 35. @RealTimeWWII
    36. 36. Visualizing American Literature “Most literature classes focus on the word rather than the image. Pinterest can give you a way to change that dynamic. With its emphasis on the visual and material culture, this online community allows students to individually and collaboratively produce course content, while exploring overlapping themes in the texts.” http://www.pinterest.com/mcbalkun/
    37. 37. NEXT WAVE
    38. 38. Augmented Reality Augmented Reality allows users to unlock or create layers of digital information on top of the physical world that can be viewed through an Android or iOS device. -Elements 4D Blocks -Aurasma - allows users to engage in and create Augmented Reality experiences of their own - Homework Mini-Lessons - Faculty Photo Wall - Book Reviews - Lab safety -Layar – Interactive Books -More Examples (videos) More Apps
    39. 39. Wearable Technology Google Glass is a small device tacked onto a pair of glasses -lets you record what you’re seeing -view a heads-up display of information -has a touch pad on the right side of the glasses, one of the ways you control your pair of Glass(es) -other way to control Glass is by verbal commands like “OK Glass” etc -GhostRunner -Fieldtrip
    40. 40. Glass Classes • Glass Journalism (USC) • Students will create apps for Google Glass that help enhance both storytelling and story consumption on the platform • Social Media (Syracuse University) • Students created Glass Apps • Health Innovation with Google Glass (Northeastern University) • Students develop ideas showing how Glass can be used to improve personal healthcare • Ideas include an app that identifies when the Glass wearer is stressed and offers advice to combat it, an app to help caregivers organize patient info and an app about healthy habits • Apps will be developed in the Spring
    42. 42. More Research is Needed • Which devices are most helpful for academic use? • Does technology contribute or limit students' engagement and learning? • Need better understanding of students’ mobile practices to guide informed instructor development in the future.
    43. 43. Digital Literacy Skills • Digital Natives vs Digital Naives • Students need technical training and they prefer that it is embedded in the curriculum • Digital literacy must be incorporated into faculty development and teacher preparation (Horizon Report, 2014).
    44. 44. Thank You! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODmfmUWqlSA