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Vitamins and Mineral Electrolytes for Sports Performance

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Vitamins and Mineral Electrolytes for Sports Performance

  1. 1. ==== ====To truly achive ULTIMATE performance in ANY sport you desire, check this out...http://ow.ly/8nWrq==== ====Sodium is the most important mineral that is lost in sweat during prolonged exercise. Marathonrunners are particularly susceptible to hyponatremia, a deficiency of sodium. Other importantelectrolytes include magnesium, potassium and calcium. In addition to electrolytes, several keyvitamins that are important for energy metabolism, including vitamin B3, B5, B6, B12 and folicacid.Zinc and chromium are co-factors for the enzymes involved in energy production.Vitamin C and zinc are antioxidants that help reduce oxidative stress that occurs after strenuousactivity.Recent studies have shown an increase in plasma homocysteine in athletes after strong physicalactivity. Vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid help reduce homocysteine levels.Calcium, vitamin C and Aloe vera may also aid in recovery after strenuous physical activity.CalciumCalcium participates in muscle contraction and nerve transmission.Calcium is a component of bone, and is particularly important for female athletes. [1, 2]One study showed that one year of supplemental calcium intake prevents cortical but nottrabecular bone loss in young adult female distance runners. [1]Calcium levels rise and urinary excretion increases after intense exercise. [3, 4] This is due to aburst of osteoclastic (bone destruction) activity, which can be suppressed by calciumsupplementation. [2]MagnesiumMagnesium is central to muscle relaxation and nerve transmission. Magnesium also activatesenzymes involved in energy metabolism.A significant positive correlation was reported between plasma magnesium and aerobic capacity inmale university athletes [5]Plasma magnesium concentrations decrease during prolonged, intense exercise, which mayreflect redistribution from plasma to the working muscle. [6]
  2. 2. Magnesium deficiency can result in a significant reduction in exercise performance. [7]One study found that magnesium supplementation may benefit strength training. [8] Anotherdemonstrated improved swimming, cycling, and running times in triathletes. [9]SodiumExcessive sweating during prolonged exercise can result in an electrolyte imbalance, including adeficiency of sodium (hyponatremia). It is common in marathon runners, cyclists, and hikers.A recent New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) study found that 13 percent of Bostonmarathon runners studied had a serious imbalance of fluid and electrolytes. [10]Several studies have shown that sodium and other alkaline minerals may improve sportsperformance. [11-17]PotassiumPotassium is needed for electrical activity of nerve and muscle cells. Potassium deficiency(hypokalemia) results in muscle weakness, muscle pain, cramping, and fatigue.ZincZinc is required by enzymes that for energy metabolism. Zinc is a component of carbonicanhydrase, an acid base balance enzyme, and lactate dehydrogenase, a critical muscle enzyme.Zinc may reduce post-exercise free radical activity. [18]ChromiumChromium participates in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. It facilitates insulin action. Chromiummay have an anabolic effect on body composition.Preliminary research in animals suggests that chromium picolinate increases fat loss and leanmuscle tissue gain when used with a weight-training program. [19] However, several recentstudies have found little to no effect of chromium on body composition or strength.Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)Vitamin C may prevent the formation of exercise-induced free radicals. [20]Vitamin C to decrease the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to oxidationduring acute exercise [21, 22]Vitamin C supplementation may exert a protective effect against eccentric exercise-inducedmuscle damage. [23]
  3. 3. Vitamin C may improve recovery after strenuous endurance exercise [24, 25]B VitaminsA restricted intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C may lead to decreased endurance capacity withina few weeks. [26, 27]Vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid are needed to reduce homocysteine levels. Several studies haveshown an increase in plasma homocysteine in athletes after strong physical activity. [28-31]Ten male field-track athletes were exercised using a fixed workload treadmill test. Tests showed aconsistent low value in the total percentile of vitamins B1, B2, folate, and biotin. [32]Supplementation with vitamin B1, B6 and B12 was been found to improve target shooting inmarksmen in two different studies. [33]Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide)Vitamin B3 is a constituent of the coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) andnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are required for energy metabolism.Vitamin B5 (Pantothenate)Vitamin B5 is involved in the Krebs cycle of energy production and is essential in producing,transporting, and releasing energy from fats. Pantothenic acid also activates the adrenal glands.[34]One study showed that a mixture of propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10),nicotinamide (NAM), riboflavin and pantothenic acid improved motor performance of skeletal,cardiac and smooth muscle in rats. [35]Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)The metabolically active coenzyme form pyridoxal 5 phosphate (PLP) is required for protein andfat metabolism, and glycogen phosphorylase to release glucose from muscle glycogen (storedcarbohydrates).Vitamin B6 is needed to reduce homocysteine levels, which may become elevated after strenuouslevels.Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)Vitamin B12 is only available from meat, and is particularly needed by vegetarian athletes.Vitamin B12 is needed to reduce homocysteine levels, which may become elevated afterstrenuous levels.One studys findings suggested that vitamin B12 metabolism may be altered in ultra-endurance
  4. 4. runners. [36]Folic AcidFolic acid is needed to reduce homocysteine levels, which may become elevated after strenuouslevels.Aloe Vera leafAloe vera contains acemannan, a potent immune stimulant. [37]Aloe vera has been used for decades, both topically and internally, to enhance wound repair. [38]* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Theseproducts are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.References1.Winters-Stone, K.M. and C.M. Snow, One year of oral calcium supplementation maintainscortical bone density in young adult female distance runners. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2004.14(1): p. 7-17.2.Guillemant, J., et al., Acute effects of an oral calcium load on markers of bone metabolismduring endurance cycling exercise in male athletes. Calcif Tissue Int, 2004. 74(5): p. 407-14.3.Dressendorfer, R.H., et al., Mineral metabolism in male cyclists during high-intensity endurancetraining. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2002. 12(1): p. 63-72.4.Thorsen, K., et al., Effects of moderate endurance exercise on calcium, parathyroid hormone,and markers of bone metabolism in young women. Calcif Tissue Int, 1997. 60(1): p. 16-20.5.Lukaski, H.C., et al., Maximal oxygen consumption as related to magnesium, copper, and zincnutriture. Am J Clin Nutr, 1983. 37(3): p. 407-15.6.Clarkson, P.M., Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes. J Sports Sci,1991. 9 Spec No: p. 91-116.7.McDonald, R. and C.L. Keen, Iron, zinc and magnesium nutrition and athletic performance.Sports Med, 1988. 5(3): p. 171-84.8.Brilla, L.R. and T.F. Haley, Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans.J Am Coll Nutr, 1992. 11(3): p. 326-9.9.Golf, S.W., S. Bender, and J. Gruttner, On the significance of magnesium in extreme physicalstress. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, 1998. 12 Suppl 2: p. 197-202.10.Almond, C.S., et al., Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon. N Engl J Med,2005. 352(15): p. 1550-6.
  5. 5. 11.Linossier, M.T., et al., Effect of sodium citrate on performance and metabolism of humanskeletal muscle during supramaximal cycling exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1997.76(1): p. 48-54.12.Potteiger, J.A., et al., Sodium citrate ingestion enhances 30 km cycling performance. Int JSports Med, 1996. 17(1): p. 7-11.13.Hausswirth, C., et al., Sodium citrate ingestion and muscle performance in acute hypobarichypoxia. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1995. 71(4): p. 362-8.14.Cox, G. and D.G. Jenkins, The physiological and ventilatory responses to repeated 60 s sprintsfollowing sodium citrate ingestion. J Sports Sci, 1994. 12(5): p. 469-75.15.McNaughton, L. and R. Cedaro, Sodium citrate ingestion and its effects on maximal anaerobicexercise of different durations. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1992. 64(1): p. 36-41.16.Tiryaki, G.R. and H.A. Atterbom, The effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate on 600m running time of trained females. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1995. 35(3): p. 194-8.17.McNaughton, L.R., Sodium citrate and anaerobic performance: implications of dosage. Eur JAppl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1990. 61(5-6): p. 392-7.18.Singh, A., M.L. Failla, and P.A. Deuster, Exercise-induced changes in immune function: effectsof zinc supplementation. J Appl Physiol, 1994. 76(6): p. 2298-303.19.Lefavi, R.G., et al., Efficacy of chromium supplementation in athletes: emphasis on anabolism.Int J Sport Nutr, 1992. 2(2): p. 111-22.20.Ashton, T., et al., Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, exercise, and oxidative stress: anascorbic acid intervention study. J Appl Physiol, 1999. 87(6): p. 2032-6.21.Sanchez-Quesada, J.L., et al., LDL from aerobically-trained subjects shows higher resistanceto oxidative modification than LDL from sedentary subjects. Atherosclerosis, 1997. 132(2): p. 207-13.22.Sanchez-Quesada, J.L., et al., Ascorbic acid inhibits the increase in low-density lipoprotein(LDL) susceptibility to oxidation and the proportion of electronegative LDL induced by intenseaerobic exercise. Coron Artery Dis, 1998. 9(5): p. 249-55.23.Jakeman, P. and S. Maxwell, Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on muscle functionafter eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1993. 67(5): p. 426-30.24.Peters, E.M., et al., Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of postrace symptoms ofupper-respiratory-tract infection in ultramarathon runners. Am J Clin Nutr, 1993. 57(2): p. 170-4.25.Kaminski, M. and R. Boal, An effect of ascorbic acid on delayed-onset muscle soreness. Pain,1992. 50(3): p. 317-21.
  6. 6. 26.van der Beek, E.J., Vitamins and endurance training. Food for running or faddish claims?Sports Med, 1985. 2(3): p. 175-97.27.van der Beek, E.J., et al., Thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B6: impact of restricted intake onphysical performance in man. J Am Coll Nutr, 1994. 13(6): p. 629-40.28.Real, J.T., et al., Effects of marathon running on plasma total homocysteine concentrations.Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2005. 15(2): p. 134-9.29.Herrmann, M., et al., Comparison of the influence of volume-oriented training and high-intensityinterval training on serum homocysteine and its cofactors in young, healthy swimmers. Clin ChemLab Med, 2003. 41(11): p. 1525-31.30.Herrmann, M., et al., Homocysteine increases during endurance exercise. Clin Chem Lab Med,2003. 41(11): p. 1518-24.31.Konig, D., et al., Influence of training volume and acute physical exercise on the homocysteinelevels in endurance-trained men: interactions with plasma folate and vitamin B12. Ann Nutr Metab,2003. 47(3-4): p. 114-8.32.Anyanwu, E.C., J.E. Ehiri, and I. Kanu, Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant function after acontrolled optimum physical exercise among adolescents. Int J Adolesc Med Health, 2005. 17(1):p. 57-66.33.Bonke, D. and B. Nickel, Improvement of fine motoric movement control by elevated dosagesof vitamin B1, B6, and B12 in target shooting. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl, 1989. 30: p. 198-204.34.Fidanza, A., Therapeutic action of pantothenic acid. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl, 1983. 24: p.53-67.35.Vargiu, R., et al., Enhancement of muscular performance by a coformulation of propionyl-L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, nicotinamide, riboflavin and pantothenic acid in the rat. Physiol Behav,2002. 76(2): p. 257-63.36.Singh, A., et al., Dietary intakes and biochemical profiles of nutritional status ofultramarathoners. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1993. 25(3): p. 328-34.37.Yagi, A. and S. Takeo, [Anti-inflammatory constituents, aloesin and aloemannan in Aloespecies and effects of tanshinon VI in Salvia miltiorrhiza on heart]. Yakugaku Zasshi, 2003.123(7): p. 517-32.38.MacKay, D. and A.L. Miller, Nutritional support for wound healing. Altern Med Rev, 2003. 8(4):p. 359-77.About the author
  7. 7. Dr. Steriti is a graduate of Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, an accreditednaturopathic medical school that teaches both conventional diagnosis and alternative therapies,including clinical nutrition, botanical medicine and classical homeopathy. Dr. Steriti is a naturalhealth researcher and writer, and is located in Naples, Florida.Dr. Steritis web site is http://www.naturdoctor.comDr. Steriti offers natural health coaching and naturopathic consultations by phone. Call (239) 659-2684 today!LyteN Go [http://www.lytengo.com] is available from Lifexpand.com [http://www.lifexpand.com]Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Ronald_Steriti==== ====To truly achive ULTIMATE performance in ANY sport you desire, check this out...http://ow.ly/8nWrq==== ====

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