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# Grade 7 (M1) Science Vocabulary Studyguide for 2nd sem

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### Grade 7 (M1) Science Vocabulary Studyguide for 2nd sem

1. 1. Chapter 5- Forces and Motion Examples of Vector Quantities:5.1 Scalar and Vector Quantities  Acceleration= the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.  Physical quantity= is a quantity that  Displacement= the length of the actual path can be measured. ex. (length) traveled by an object from one location to2 Kinds of Physical quantities: another.  Force= strength or energy exerted. 1. Scalar quantities= is a physical quantity  Momentum= a property of a moving body that has magnitude only. that the body has by virtue of its mass and 2. Vector quantities= is a physical quantity motion and that is equal to the product of that has both magnitude and direction. the bodys mass and velocity.  Velocity= the rate of change ofExamples of Scalar Quantities: displacement.  Area=any particular extent of space or  Torque= a turning or twisting force. surface. Pythagoras / Pythagorean Theorem= discovered by  Density= the quantity per unit volume, “Pythagoras” unit area, or unit length. Pythagorean Equation:  Energy= capacity to do work.  Length= a measured distance or dimension.  Mass= a large quantity, amount, or a2 + b2 = c2 number.  Speed= distance traveled per unit time.  Temperature= degree of hotness or Note: coldness measured on a definite scale.  Time= the point or period when c is the longest side of the triangle something occurs. a and b are the other two sides  Volume= the amount of a substance occupying a particular volume. 1
2. 2. Chapter 5- Forces and Motion Chapter 6- Heat5.2 Distance and Displacement 6.1 Heat as a form of Energy  Distance= the length of the actual path traveled by an object from one location to another.  Heat= is a form of energy and it make  Displacement= the length of the actual things hot. = its being measured in joules (J) path traveled by an object from one location  Energy= capacity to do work. to another.  Temperature= degree of hotness or5.3 Speed and Velocity coldness measured on a definite scale. Can Speed= distance traveled per unit time. be measured by thermometer. It’s unit of = the rate of change in distance. measurement is degree Celsius ( C) or Kelvin (K) Average Speed Equation: Average Speed= Total distance traveled Sources of Heat Energy: Total time taken  Sun / Nuclear reaction Velocity= the rate of change of  Rubbing or friction displacement.  Burning  Electricity Average Velocity Equation:  Bending metal Average Velocity= Total displacement  Chemical reaction Total time taken  Collision Uses of Hear in Daily life  Cook food  Dry clothes  Boil water  Produce steam to generate electricity  Dry food for preservation  Warm ourselves  Starts and moves engines 2
3. 3.  Heat Conductors= are materials that allow heat to pass through them easily such asDifferences between HEAT and TEMPERATURE iron and mercury  Heat Insulators= are materials that do not HEAT TEMPERATURE allow heat to pass through them easily, suchForm of energy Degree of hotness or as water and rubber. coldness of the bodyHeat can do work Temperature can’t do 6.4 Thermal Equilibrium and Effects of workMeasured in Joule (J) Measures in degree Heat Matter Celsius ( C)or Kelvin (K)Transfers from heat Increases when heated  Thermal Equilibrium= all temperatures ofarea to cold area and decreases when interest are unchanging in time and uniform cold in space.  Expansion= objects increase in their sizes6.2 Heat Flow when they are hot.  Contraction= objects decrease in their  Heat flow= the transfer of thermal sizes when they are cooled. energy from a hot area to a cool area.  Mercury= is a liquid metal that can expand and contract when there is a change inHeat is transferred by: temperature.  Bimetallic strips= are often used in fire  Conduction= the flow of heat energy alarm and thermostat. The bimetallic strip through solids like metal. bends when the temperature rises.  Convection= the flow of heat that occurs  Bimetallic thermometer= is used in when a warm water liquid or gas moves. electric ovens and car radiators. The strip is  Radiation= the process where heat energy wound in spiral. travels through an empty space or a  Rivets= are steel pin used to join pieces of vacuum. metal plate tightly.  Sea-breeze= is created when the surface of the land is heated sufficiently to start air rising. As air rises, it is replaced by air from the sea; you have now created a sea breeze  Land-breeze= is created when the land is cooler than the water such as at night and the surface winds have to be very light. 3
4. 4. Chapter 7- Atmosphere and Weather 7.2 What is Weather?7.1 Layers of the Earth’s Atmosphere Weather= refers to there present state of the atmosphere.  Atmosphere= the layer of air around the Coastal Weather earth. It’s made up of mixture of gases. Coastal weather can be observed in the coastal or oceanic regions.Five layers of the Atmosphere: Hot Weather Extreme hot weather can be seen in the 1. Troposphere= the layer closest to the equatorial regions of the earth. ground. 10km in height, contains 75% of Cold Weather atmospheric gases and weather occurs here Cold weather can be observed in the polar climate zones. since this layer contains most of the water Mountain Weather vapor. The weather in the mountainous regions is 2. Stratosphere= 50 km in height. No cloud known as the mountain weather here but the air is still so most planes fly in Meteorology= is the study of the entire this layer. Contains ozone layer atmosphere including the weather. ozone layer=absorbs ultraviolet Meteorologist= studies the causes of radiation from the sun. UV can weather conditions and forecasts the cause sunburn and skin cancer weather. He/she also studies atmosphere 3. Mesosphere= 80km in height. The air is and atmosphere of other planets. very cold and thin and most meteorites are Weather forecast= is a prediction about the being slowed down and burned in this layer. weather that will be experienced a short 4. Thermosphere= 80 km and 700km above period of time in the future. the earth. Space shuttles fly in this area and Aurora lights found here. 7.3 Factors of Weather 5. Exosphere= the furthest layer from the Factors affecting weather: earth. The atmosphere merges into the The Water Cycle space and satellites are being stationed in Air Masses this layer. Jet Stream Weather Fronts Air temperature Wind Humidity Dew Point 4
5. 5. 7.4 Monsoons, Tropical Cyclones and ThunderstormsAir pressure (atmospheric pressure) =theweight of the air above the given point. Monsoons= a term from early Arabs called “MAUSIN”: the season of winds. TheBarometer= the instrument use in seasonal shifting of winds in the ocean andmeasuring air pressure. surrounding regions.Hygrometer= instrument use in measuring Low pressure= is a region where thehumidity. atmospheric pressure at sea level is lowerWater cycle= also known as the than that of surrounding locations.hydrological cycle or H2O cycle, describes High pressure= is a region where thethe continuous movement of water on, atmospheric pressure at the surface of theabove and below the surface of the Earth. planet is greater than its surroundingAir masses= is a volume of air defined by environment.its temperature and water vapor content. Tropical Cylones (tropical storm,Jet stream= are fast flowing, narrow air typhoon or hurricane)= a type of lowcurrents found in the atmospheres of some pressure systems which generally forms inplanets, including Earth. the tropics.Weather fronts= is a boundary separating Tropical storm= is an organized system oftwo masses of air of different densities, and strong thunderstorms with a defined surfaceis the principal cause of meteorological circulation and maximum sustained windsphenomena. between 34 knots (39 mph) and 64 knotsAir temperature= It is a measure of how (74 mph).hot or cold the air is. Typhoon= is a mature Tropical Cyclone thatWind= is the flow of gases on a large scale. develops in the northwestern part of theHumidity= the amount of water vapor in Pacific Ocean between 180° and 100°Ethe air. Hurricane= is an intense, rotating oceanicRelative humidity= the amount of water weather system that possesses maximumthat is currently in the air compared to how sustained winds exceeding 119 km/hr (74much the air can hold at a specific mph). It forms and intensifies over tropicaltemperature. oceanic regions.Dew point= the temperature that water Thunderstorms (T-Storms)= is a form ofcondenses out of the air. This is how fog, weather characterized by the presence ofclouds and dew are created. lightning and its attendant thunder. 5
6. 6. WEATHER7.6 Interpreting Weather Forecasts and A weather symbol is plotted if at the time ofTheir Importance observation, there is either precipitation occurring or a condition causing reduced visibility. Weather forecasting= is the science of Below is a list of the most common weather symbols: predicting the state of the atmosphere for a future time location. Station Model= shows the weather condition at a specific location using symbols. Weather map= has lines that indicate the atmospheric pressure and temperature. Isobar= is drawn to connect points of equal atmospheric pressure. Sample Station Plot 6
7. 7. PRESSURE TREND The pressure trend has two components, a number and symbol, to indicate how the sea-level pressureWIND has changed during the past three hours. TheWind is plotted in increments of 5 knots (kts), with number provides the 3-hour change in tenths ofthe outer end of the symbol pointing toward the millibars, while the symbol provides a graphicdirection from which the wind is blowing. The wind illustration of how this change occurred. Below arespeed is determined by adding up the total of flags, the meanings of the pressure trend symbols:lines, and half-lines, each of which have thefollowing individual values: 7
8. 8. Chapter 8- Global IssuesSKY COVER 8.1 Global WarmingThe amount that the circle at the center of the station plot isfilled in reflects the approximate amount that the sky is Global warming= is the rise in the averagecovered with clouds. Below are the common cloud cover temperature of Earths atmosphere anddepictions: oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Greenhouse effect =is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions Greenhouse gas (GHG)= is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. 8.2 Ozone Depletion Ozone= is a molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms. 8
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